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Jong Ku Park 31 Articles
Factors Influencing Utilization of Medical Care Among Osteoarthritis Patients in Korea: Using 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey Data.
Min Young Kim, Jong Ku Park, Sang Baek Koh, Chun Bae Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(6):513-522.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.6.513
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  • 53 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to define the association between the medical utilization of osteoarthritis patient and its related factors. METHODS: We used the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data and we enrolled 2833 participants who were forty or older and who were diagnosed as having osteoarthritis by a doctor within 1 year and who had suffered from osteoarthritis for more than 3 months. The Andersen behavioral model was used as the analytic framework, and the variables were categorized into predisposing, enabling, and need factors. To determine the influence of each variable on the medical utilization of osteoarthritis patient, we applied hierarchical logistic regression analysis with two stages: the first stage included the predisposing and enabling factors and the second stage included the need factors. RESULTS: On the hierarchical logistic analysis, the variables of personal income, the type of medical security, the duration of arthritis related symptoms within 1 month, the subjective health status and the duration of osteoarthritis showed a statistically significant difference between whether the medical utilization in men patients. And the variables of age, limitation activity due to osteoarthritis, arthritis related symptoms within 1 month, and the subjective health status had a statistically significant difference between whether the medical utilization in women patients. CONCLUSIONS: The patients who tend to receive less care are those suffer less from symptoms of osteoarthritis, those who are within the initial phase, or those with a low-level severity of osteoarthritis. It is necessary to encourage patients to receive the treatment in the initial phase.
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  • Associations Between Fat Mass, Lean Mass, and Knee Osteoarthritis: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V)
    Seong Rae Kim, Kyung-Hyun Choi, Go-Un Jung, Doosup Shin, Kyuwoong Kim, Sang Min Park
    Calcified Tissue International.2016; 99(6): 598.     CrossRef
  • Convergence analysis of determinants affecting on geographic variations in the prevalence of arthritis in Korean women using data mining
    Yoo-Mi Kim, Sung-Hong Kang
    Journal of Digital Convergence.2015; 13(5): 277.     CrossRef
  • The relative importance of perceived doctor’s attitude on the decision to consult for symptomatic osteoarthritis: a choice-based conjoint analysis study
    Domenica Coxon, Martin Frisher, Clare Jinks, Kelvin Jordan, Zoe Paskins, George Peat
    BMJ Open.2015; 5(10): e009625.     CrossRef
  • Complementary and alternative medicine use of women with breast cancer: Self-help CAM attracts other women than guided CAM therapies
    Deborah N.N. Lo-Fo-Wong, Adelita V. Ranchor, Hanneke C.J.M. de Haes, Mirjam A.G. Sprangers, Inge Henselmans
    Patient Education and Counseling.2012; 89(3): 529.     CrossRef
Health-related Quality of Life Assessment by the EuroQol-5D in Some Rural Adults.
Mi Ah Han, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Myung Geun Kang, Jong Ku Park, Ki Soon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(3):173-180.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.3.173
  • 5,857 View
  • 70 Download
  • 36 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purposes of this study were to examine the health-related quality of life(HRQoL) and to identify its related factors for a group of rural adults. METHODS: The study subjects were 1,901 adults who were aged 40-70 years and who were living in Naju City, Jeollanamdo. The sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behavior, health status and global self-rated health were collected for statistical analysis. The healthrelated quality of life was measured by the Euroqol EQ-5D instrument. The differences on the EQ-5D index between the groups were assessed with t-test, ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the mean value of the EQ-5D index was 0.884+/-0.140 and this score was significantly different according to the socioeconomic characteristics, the healthrelated behavior, the health status and the global self-rated health. According to the results from the hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the HRQoL was significantly reduced for females, older subjects, and other subjects with no spouse and the subjects with osteoporosis, obesity, mental distress or poorer global self-rated health. CONCLUSIONS: The HRQoL for rural adults was related to the socioeconomic characteristics, the health status and the global self-rated health. A better understanding of the factors related to the HRQoL would help to improve the rural adults' quality of life.
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    Suyeong Bae, Monique R. Pappadis, Sanghun Nam, Ickpyo Hong
    Journal of Aging and Physical Activity.2022; 30(5): 770.     CrossRef
  • High prevalence and low awareness of hyperuricemia in hypertensive patients among adults aged 50–79 years in Southwest China
    Yang Zhang, Feng-Qin Nie, Xiao-Bo Huang, Weiwei Tang, Rong Hu, Wen-Qiang Zhang, Jian-Xiong Liu, Rong-Hua Xu, Ya Liu, Dong Wei, Tzung-Dau Wang, Xu Fan
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Dietary Habits, Stress, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults
    A Lum Han
    Nutrients.2020; 12(6): 1555.     CrossRef
  • Number of remaining teeth and health-related quality of life: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012
    Hyo-Eun Park, Hye Young Song, Kyungdo Han, Kyung-Hwan Cho, Yang-Hyun Kim
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Latent Class Analysis for Health-Related Quality of Life in the Middle-Aged Male in South Korea
    Youngsuk Cho, Dong Moon Yeum
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2019; 49(1): 104.     CrossRef
  • High prevalence of obesity-related hypertension among adults aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China
    Yang Zhang, Li-Sha Hou, Wei-Wei Tang, Fan Xu, Rong-Hua Xu, Xin Liu, Ya Liu, Jian-Xiong Liu, Yan-Jing Yi, Tai-Shang Hu, Rong Hu, Tzung-Dau Wang, Xiao-Bo Huang
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Study on the Physical Activities, Mental Health, and Health-Related Quality of Life of Osteoarthritis Patients
    Deok-Ju Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2019; 10(6): 368.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of Levels of Health-related Quality of Life and Its Related Factors of Traditional Market Merchants
    Keung-Mi Shin, Young-Sil Bae
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2019; 30(4): 437.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of Health-related Quality of Life among Spouses of Older Adults with Dementia in the Community-dwelling
    Hye-Young Jang, Song Yi Han
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2019; 30(4): 518.     CrossRef
  • Health Related Quality of Life Assessment by the EQ-5D of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishery Workers
    Woun-Jong Choi, Kyeong-Su Kim, Hyeon-Gyeong Lee, Hyo-Cher Kim, Hye-seon Chae, Kyung-Suk Lee, Dong-Phil Choi
    The Korean Journal of Community Living Science.2018; 29(3): 399.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of health‐related quality of life between patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease and patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
    Suk Jeong Lee, Heesook Son
    Japan Journal of Nursing Science.2016; 13(1): 166.     CrossRef
  • The relationship of quality of health-related life with the status of oral health in adults
    Ye Hwang Kim, Jung Hwa Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health.2016; 40(3): 165.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Oral Function on the Quality of Life of Korean Adults by Age Group
    Eun-Ju Lee, Myung-Gwan Kim
    The Korean Journal of Health Service Management.2016; 10(2): 99.     CrossRef
  • Quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus compared with non-diabetic subjects in Korea: The 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Hwan Ho Shin, Mi Ah Han, Jong Park, So Yeon Ryu, Seong Woo Choi, Seon Mi Park, Hyo Ju Kim
    Journal of agricultural medicine and community health.2015; 40(1): 21.     CrossRef
  • A study on the OHIP-14 of some local women impact on the EQ-5D for review
    Ye Hwang Kim, Jung Hwa Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health.2015; 39(3): 180.     CrossRef
  • Health-related quality of life assessment according to socio-demographic characteristics and health behavior among Gyeonggi-do citizens: focused on gender difference
    Sun-Hee Joung, YeogSeon Hong, AeRee Sohn
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2015; 32(3): 33.     CrossRef
  • Quality of Nutrient Adequacy and Health-related Quality of life of the Rural Elderly
    Mee Sook Lee
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2015; 20(6): 423.     CrossRef
  • Association between the number of existing permanent teeth and health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5 Dimension) among adults: findings from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2012
    Hye-Sun Shin, Hyun-Duck Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health.2015; 39(4): 303.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Regular and Temporary Employment on Health-related Quality of Life
    Shin-Young Sohn
    The Korean Journal of Health Service Management.2015; 9(4): 171.     CrossRef
  • A spatially filtered multilevel model to account for spatial dependency: application to self-rated health status in South Korea
    Yoo Park, Youngho Kim
    International Journal of Health Geographics.2014; 13(1): 6.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Staged Education Program for Hypertension, Diabetes Patients in a Community (Assessment of Quality of Life Using EQ-5D)
    Jung Jeung Lee, Hye Jin Lee, Eun Jin Park
    Journal of agricultural medicine and community health.2014; 39(1): 37.     CrossRef
  • The Relationship Between the Social Network of Community-living Elders and Their Health-related Quality of Life in Korean Province
    Jun Tae Lim, Jong-Heon Park, Jin-Seok Lee, Juhwan Oh, Yoon Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2013; 46(1): 28.     CrossRef
  • Psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-5L in the general population of South Korea
    Tae Hyup Kim, Min-Woo Jo, Sang-il Lee, Seon Ha Kim, Son Mi Chung
    Quality of Life Research.2013; 22(8): 2245.     CrossRef
  • Levels of Health-related Quality of Life (EQ-5D) and Its Related Factors among Vulnerable Elders Receiving Home Visiting Health Care Services in Some Rural Areas
    Jong Im Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2013; 24(1): 99.     CrossRef
  • The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Quality of Life in Korean Adult Women
    Hyung-Su Park, Jong Park
    The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences.2013; 8(4): 639.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between Low Back Pain and Health-Related Quality of Life among Some Elderly
    Kyeong-Ae Oh, Jong Park, Dae-Jung Jeon, Mi-Ah Han, Seong-Woo Choi
    Journal of agricultural medicine and community health.2012; 37(3): 156.     CrossRef
  • Health-Related Factors Influencing the Quality of Life of Rural Elderly Subjects - Activities of Daily Living, Cognitive Functions, Prevalence of Chronic Diseases and Nutritional Assessment
    Mee Sook Lee
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2012; 17(6): 772.     CrossRef
  • Factors Affecting the Mental Health related Quality of Life in Adults across the Lifespan
    Mi Kyeong Kang, Myung-Sook Kim, Moonhee Gang, Kyongok Oh, Jong Sun Kwon, Sun-Hyun Lee
    The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing.2012; 15(2): 73.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Depression on Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults
    Hyo Jeong Song, Mi Ah Han, Hyung Chang Kang, Kyung Suk Park, Kwang Sung Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Jina Kang, Eun Ok Park, Mi Yeul Hyun, Chul Soo Kim
    International Neurourology Journal.2012; 16(3): 132.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the quality of life of adults and elderly
    Eun-Gyeong Lee
    Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene.2012; 12(5): 1029.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Ishige okamurae Extract Supplement on Blood Glucose and Antioxidant Systems in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Yeon-Ju Kang, Hak-Ju Kim, Ji-Sook Han
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2011; 40(12): 1726.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Tele-care Case Management Services for Medical Aid Beneficiaries
    Yang Heui Ahn, Eui Sook Kim, Il Sun Ko
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2010; 21(3): 351.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of a Tai Chi Exercise Program for Patients with Arthritis in Rural Areas
    Aeyoung So, Kyung-Sook Lee, Jung Sook Choi, Eun Hee Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2010; 21(1): 118.     CrossRef
  • The Decline of Health-Related Quality of Life Associated with Some Diseases in Korean Adults
    Seol-Ryoung Kil, Sang-Il Lee, Sung-Cheol Yun, Hyung-Mi An, Min-Woo Jo
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2008; 41(6): 434.     CrossRef
  • Measuring Health Related Quality of Life of General Adult Population in One Metropolitan City using EQ-5D

    Korean Journal of Health Policy and Administration.2008; 18(3): 18.     CrossRef
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Correlates of Self-rated Fatigue in Korean Employees.
Sei Jin Chang, Sang Baek Koh, Myung Gun Kang, Sook Jung Hyun, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Jun Ho Park, Seong Ah Kim, Dong Mug Kang, Seong Sil Chang, Kyung Jae Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Mina Ha, Jong Min Woo, Jung Jin Cho, Hyeong Su Kim, Jung Sun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(1):71-81.
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OBJECTIVE
To elucidate the correlates of self-rated fatigue in Korean employees. METHODS: The data for 10, 176 (men, 7, 984; women, 2, 192; mean age, 34.2; SD: 8.8) employees recruited from a nationwide sample were examined. A structured questionnaire was used to measure the participants' fatigue, sociodemographics (sex, age, education, and marital status), job-related characteristics (work duration, grade at work, work hours, shiftwork, employment type, and magnitude of workplace), and health-related habits (smoking, drinking, coffee intake, and exercise). Two types of measurement for fatigue were used to evaluate the magnitude of fatigue: self-rated question and a standardized measurement tool (Multidimensional Fatigue Scale: MFS). RESULTS: According to the self-rated fatigue, 32% of employees reported that they felt fatigue for the past two weeks, and 9.6% of males and 8.7% of females had experienced excessive fatigue (6 months or more). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that fatigue measured by MFS was more common in women, younger, college or more graduated, single, and employees who do not regularly exercise. Fatigue was also associated with long work hours, and the size of the workplace (< 1, 000 employees). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that fatigue has been considered as a common complaint, and that it is affected by job-related factors like work hours and the workplace size as well as sociodemographics or health-related behaviors. Further research is needed to clarify the effects of fatigue on adverse health outcomes, work performance, work disability, sick absence and medical utilization, and to examine the relationship of job characteristics (e.g.: work demand, decision latitude) to fatigue.
Summary
Epidemiology of Psychosocial Distress in Korean Employees.
Sei Jin Chang, Sang Baek Koh, Myung Gun Kang, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Sook Jung Hyun, Jun Ho Park, Seong Ah Kim, Dong Mug Kang, Seong Sil Chang, Kyung Jae Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Mina Ha, Jong Min Woo, Jung Jin Cho, Hyeong Su Kim, Jung Sun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(1):25-37.
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OBJECTIVE
To estimate the magnitude of psychosocial distress and examine eligible factors associated with the development of psychosocial distress in Korean employees, using a nationwide sample. METHODS: A total of 6, 977 workers were recruited from 245 companies. A structured questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, job characteristics, social support at work, personality traits (locus of control, type A behavior pattern), self-esteem, and psychosocial distress. RESULTS: The results showed that 23 % of workers were categorized as high stress, 73% as moderate, and 5% as normal. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that psychosocial distress was more common in younger workers, both male and female. Regular exercise was negatively associated with increase of psychosocial distress. In job characteristics, as expected, low decision latitude, high job insecurity, and low social support at work were related to high psychosocial distress. Personality traits such as locus of control and type A behavior pattern, and self-esteem were more powerful predictors of psychosocial distress than general characteristics, health-related behavior, and job characteristics. There were some gender differences. While men who are less educated and single (unmarried, divorced, and separated) experienced higher levels of psychosocial distress than those who are educated and married, women who feel high job demand experienced higher levels of psychosocial distress than those who feel low job demand. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of the high stress group was higher than expected, and psychosocial factors like social support and personality characteristics (e. g. locus of control, type A behavior pattern and self-esteem) were more significant factors for psychosocial distress than other variables. This finding suggests that some psychosocial factors, especially inadequate social support, low self-esteem and lack of internal locus of control for the development of psychosocial distress, will also operate as an intervention strategy in the worksite stress reduction program. It is strongly required that worksite stress reduction programs should be established in at both occupational and level as well as in individual levels.
Summary
Assessment on Quality Improvement of the Abstracts of the Original Research Articles in the Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Chun Bae Kim, Jun Ho Park, Hwa Soon Lee, Jong Ku Park, Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):179-186.
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OBJECTIVES
To compare the quality improvement of the abstracts of original articles, according to the revised manuscript format, of the Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine (Korean J Pre Med) was adopted in 1999. METHODS: A total 63 abstracts for 1997, and 49 for 2001, were selected as the original articles from the Kor J Pre Med. This study was carried out by the separate-sample pretest-posttest design. The quality of the abstracts was measured by a checklist of Narine' evaluation criteria, and the other information related to the articles were also surveyed by e-mail and fax or telephone using a self-made questionnaire. From the response rate, a total of 62 abstracts for 1997 and 49 for 2001 were finally analyzed. RESULTS: The mean number of words in an abstract decreased from 285 in 1997, to 250 by 2001. The mean number of key words per abstract decreased from 3.9 in 1997, to 3.6 by 2001. The mean number of inappropriate usage of key words per abstract, by the MeSH standard, decreased from 1.9 in 1997, to 0.4 by 2001. Also, the overall mean score of abstract quality increased from 0.54 in 1997 to 0.61 by 2001. The range of scores for the abstract quality was better in 2001 (0.40~0.77) than in 1997 (0.20~0.81). From the multiple regression analyses of the 1997 and 2001 databases, the intervention of the manuscript format's revision, and the number of English words to the quality score of the abstract, were the only statistically significant factors. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the quality of abstracts in the Kor J Pre Med has improved since the revised manuscript format was adopted in 1999. The Korean Society for Preventive Medicine will continuously recommend proposals for more informative abstracts in their journal, and will evaluate the abstracts' content with quality criteria. Future studies should address these issues, and compare the quality of abstracts between different international and domestic journals.
Summary
The Exposure Status and Biomarkers of Bisphenol A in Shipyard Workers.
Sang Baek Koh, Cheong Sik Kim, Jun Ho Park, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Heon Kim, Soung Hoon Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):93-100.
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  • 39 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Because shipyard workers are involved with various manufacturing process, they are exposed to many kinds of hazardous materials. Welders especially, are exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA) during the welding and flame cutting of coated steel. This study was conducted to assess the exposure status of the endocrine disruptor based on the job-exposure matrix. The effects of the genetic polymorphism of xenobiotic enzyme metabolisms involved in the metabolism of BPA on the levels of urinary metabolite were investigated. METHODS: The study population was recruited from a shipyard company in the K province. A total of 84 shipbuilding workers 47 and 37 in the exposed and control groups, respectively, were recruited for this study. The questionnaire variables included, age, sex, use of personal protective equipment, smoking, drinking and work duration. The urinary metabolite was collected in the afternoon and correction made for the urinary creatinine concentration. The of the CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and UGT1A6 genotypes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods with the DNA extracted from venous blood. RESULTS: The urinary BPA level in the welders group was significantly higher than in the control group (p< 0.05). The urinary BPA concentration with the wild type UGT1A6 was higher than the other UGT1A6 genotypes, but with no statistical significant. From themultiple regression analysis of the urinary BPA, the regression coefficient for job grade was statistically significant (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The grade of exposure to BPA affected the urinary BPA concentration was statistically significant. However, the genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotics enzyme metabolism were not statistically significant. Further investigation of the genetic polymorphisms with a larger sample size is needed.
Summary
The Impact of New Work Organizational System on Job Strain, and Psychosocial Distress.
Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang, Byeong Hwan Sun, Dong Muk Kang, Mia Son, Jong Ku Park, Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(1):71-76.
  • 15,765 View
  • 27 Download
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OBJECTIVES
New organizational work systems, and their impact on the mental health of employees, are considered to beone of the most important topics in the area of industrial health. This study was conducted to compare job characteristics (job demand and decision latitude) levels, and psychosocial distress of workers in acompany introducing to new organizational work systems, to those of workers managed by traditional work systems. METHODS: A study sample of 627 shipbuilding workers (446the new work organizational system and 181the traditional system) were recruited for this study. A structured-questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, job characteristics (work demand, decision latitude), and psychosocial distress. RESULTS: The decision latitude was not significantly higher in the new work system compared to the traditional system. However, the job demand was significantly higher in the new work system than in the traditional system. The psychosocial distress was higher within the new work system than the traditional system, but no significant relationships were found. The proportion of increased strain was significantly greater with the new system than the traditional system. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that increases in the decision latitude did not sufficiently compensate for higher job strain or increased work intensity. If the increase in the decision latitude was temporary, with the typical job demand remaining high, such work can be still be considered to have a job strain. Future research should consider psychosocial distress and fatigue as important problems caused by new work organizational systems, and should be performed to assess their impact through out industry.
Summary
The Effect of Social Support on Chronic Stress and Immune System in Male Manufacturing Workers.
Sei Jin Chang, Sang Baek Koh, Jong Ku Park, Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):287-294.
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OBJECTIVES
To examine whether cumulative chronic stress influences the immune status, and to verify the effect of social support on the relationship between these two dimensions in male manufacturing workers. METHODS: A total of 39 workers were recruited for this study. A structured-questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, job characteristics (work demand and decision latitude), psychosocial distress, and social support. The serum levels of CD4 and CD8 were measured as immune markers, and were collected between 8:00 and 10:00am in order to standardize the markers. Nonparametric statistics were used to estimate the differences between job characteristics and the immune markers. RESUJLTS: General characteristics, and health-related behaviors, were not associated with CD4, CD8 or CD4/CD8. No relationships were found between job characteristics and the mean levels of immune reactivity. These results were consistent, even after controlling for social support. Social support failed to modify the relationship toward work demand, decision latitude or psychosocial distress to CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8. CONCLUSION: Cumulative chronic life stress might not influence the immune status, and the effects of social support on the immune function under chronic stress, may not play a crucial role in modifying the relationships. This implication supports that the effect of stress on the immune function may be determined by the characteristics of that stress. Further research should effectively considers the type, magnitude and timing of a stress event, and modifiable factors, such as personality traits, coping style, and hormone excretion levels, on the alteration of immune status.
Summary
A Meta-analysis of the Association between Blood Lead and Blood Pressure.
Sang Baek Koh, Chun Bae Kim, Chung Mo Nam, Hong Ryul Choi, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Ho Sung Jee
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):262-268.
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OBJECTIVES
To integrate the results of studies which assess an association between blood lead and blood pressure. METHODS: We surveyed the existing literature using a MEDLINE search with blood lead and blood pressure as key words, including reports published from January 1980 to December 2000. The criteria for quality evaluation were as follows: 1) the study subjects must have been workers exposed to lead, and 2) both blood pressure and blood lead must have been measured and presented with sufficient details so as to estimate or calculate the size of the association as a continuous variable. Among the 129 articles retrieved, 13 studies were selected for quantitative meta-analysis. Before the integration of each regression coefficient for the association between blood pressure and blood lead, a homogeneity test was conducted. RESULTS: As the homogeneity of studies was rejected in a fixed effect model, we used the results in a random effect model. Our quantitative meta-analysis yielded weighted regression coefficients of blood lead associated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure results of 0.0047 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.0061, 0.0155) and 0.0004 (95% CI: -0.0031, 0.0039), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The published evidence suggested that there may be a weak positive association between blood lead and blood pressure, but the association is not significant.
Summary
Risk Factors for Cerebrovascular Disorders in Koreans.
Jong Ku Park, Ki Soon Kim, Chun Bae Kim, Tae Yong Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Kang Sook Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh, So Yeon Ryu, Kee Ho Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):157-165.
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OBJECTIVES
To identify the risk factors of cerebrovascular disorders(CVD) in Koreans using a nested case-control study. METHODS: The cohort consisted of beneficiaries who had taken health examinations of the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC cohort: 115,600 persons) in 1990 and 1992 consecutively. Four hundred and twenty five (425) cases were selected following the validation of diagnosis among 2,026 reported CVD (I60-I68) inpatients during the year from 1993 to 1997. Controls were matched (1:1) with age and gender of the cases among inpatients without CVD during the same period. The source of data in this study were the files of the 1990 health examinations and the 1992 health questionnaires, as well as an additional telephone survey undertaken from March to November 1999. RESULTS: In a bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for total CVD were hyperglycemia and hypertension. Unrespectively, the odds ratio of ex-smoker was significantly lower than that of those who had never smoked. The risk factors for ischemic CVD also were hyperglycemia and hypertension. However, only blood pressure was found to be a risk factor for hemorrhagic CVD. Hypercholesterolemia was not a risk factor for total CVD, ischemic CVD, and hemorrhagic CVD. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the most important risk factor for CVD (including subtype) in Koreans was hypertension.
Summary
A Nested Case Control Study on Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean.
Ki Soon Kim, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Jong Ku Park, Chun Bae Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Tae Yong Lee, Kang Sook Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):149-156.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To elucidate risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males. METHODS: A nested case control study was conducted among a Korea Medical Insurance Cooperation(KMIC) cohort composed of 108,802 males. The cases included 246 male patients who were admitted to hospital due to coronary heart diseases from 1993 to 1997 (I20-25 by ICD) and whose diagnosis was confirmed by the protocol by WHO MONICA Project(1994). The control group was composed of 483 patients selected by frequency matching considering age and resident area from an inpatient care group without coronary heart disease during the same period. For study cases and the controls, the results of a health check-up in 1990 and a questionnaire on life style in 1992 were received through the KMIC. Some additional information was collected by telephone interviews during October 1999. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio(OR) of coronary heart diseases among past smokers and current smokers as compared to non-smokers were 1.94(95% CI : 1.14-3.31) and 2.20(95% CI : 1.35-3.59), respectively. The OR among persons who drank 4 cups or more of caffeinated beverages such as coffee or tea daily as compared to persons who drank one cup for 2-3 days was 2.56(95% CI : 1.07-6.12). The OR among persons with high normal BP and stage 3 hypertension against normotension were 2.51(95% CI : 1.44-4.37) and 5.08(95% CI : 2.38-10.84). The OR among persons whose blood cholesterol were 240 mg/dL or more against lower than 200mg/dL was 2.24(95% CI : 1.43-3.49). CONCLUSION: Smoking, drinking of excessive caffeinated beverages, hypertension and high blood cholesterol were proven to be significant risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males.
Summary
Factors Related to Self-Perceived Health of Young Adults.
Kee Ho Park, Woohyun Cho, Il Suh, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(4):415-425.
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OBJECTIVES
To determine which factors are related to young adults perception of their health. Two research questions were asked. Which aspects of health does self-perceived health as a index of general health reflect? Why do two individuals with the same level of general health have different health perceptions? METHODS: The sampling frame comprised college or graduate school students, aged 20 to 29, who were members of A, one of the 4 biggest internet communication services. The questionnaires were sent to study samples(n= 1,000) and answered by E-mail. Response rate was 37.0%. RESULTS: Firstly, physical health ranked highest and self-perceived health ranked lowest. Secondly, health, anxiety, depression, and self-perceived health showed significant differences between the sexes, with women showing a higher health status in these categories except for self-perceived health. Thirdly, the two factors significantly related to self-perceived health were physical health and self-esteem, as determined by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The factors significantly related to self-perceived health were physical health and self-esteem. Further studies of the health characteristics of young adults are needed.
Summary
The Accuracy of ICD codes for Cerebrovascular Diseases in Medical Insurance Claims.
Jong Ku Park, Ki Soon Kim, Chun Bae Kim, Tae Yong Lee, Kang Sook Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Sunhee Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh, Kwang Wook Koh, So Yeon Ryu, Kee Ho Park, Woonje Park, Seungjun Wang, Hwasoon Lee, Yoomi Chae, Hyensook Hong, Jin Sook Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):76-82.
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OBJECTIVES
We attempted to assess the accuracy of ICD codes for cerebrovascular diseases in medical insurance claims (ICMIC) and to investigate the reasons for error. This study was designed as a preliminary study to establish a nationwide surveillance system. METHODS: A total of 626 patients with medical insurance claims who indicated a diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases during the period from 1993 to 1997 was selected from the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation cohort (KMIC cohort: 115,600 persons). The KMIC cohort was 10% of those insured who had taken health examinations in 1990 and 1992 consecutively. The registered medical record administrators were trained in the survey technique and gathered data from March to May 1999. The definition of cerebrovascular diseases in this study included cases which met one of two criteria (Minnesota, WHO) or 'definite stroke' in CT/MRI finding. We questioned the medical record administrators to explain the error if the final diagnoses were not coded as stroke. RESULTS: The accuracy rate of the ICMIC was 83.0% (425 cases). Medical records were not available for 8.2% (51 cases) due to the closing of hospitals, the absence of a computer system or omission of medical record, etc. Sixty-three cases (10.0%) were classified as impossible to interpret due to insufficient records in 'major clinical symptoms' or 'neurological deficits'. The most common reason was 'to meet review criteria of medical insurance benefits (52.9%)'. The department where errors in the ICMIC occurred most frequently was the department for medical insurance claims in the hospital. CONCLUSION: The accuracy rate of the ICMIC was 83.0%.
Summary
Meta-analysis on the Blood Lipids as Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Diseases in Koreans.
So Yeon Ryu, Ki Soon Kim, Yang ok Kim, Jong Park, Jong Ku Park, Chun Bae Kim, Sun Ha Jee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):491-493.
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OBJECTIVES
To determine the relations between seven blood lipids such as total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), HDL-cholesterol(HDL), LDL-cholesterol(LDL), apolipoprotein A-1(Apo A1), apolipoprotein B(Apo B) and lipoprotein(a)(Lp(A)) and the coronary heart diseases(CHD), the quantitative techniques of meta-analysis were applied to studies of blood lipids and CHD in Koreans. METHODS: We searched the Korean and the English literature published from 1980 to August, 1997 by manual search and bibliography review. Information on sample size, study design, participant characteristics(gender, age) and blood lipid levels were abstracted by reviewers using inclusion criteria. Estimates of the effect sizes of blood lipid levels on CHD in Koreans and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effect models. RESULTS: We identified 16 case-control studies to apply meta-analysis. The overall effect sizes for CHD were 20.3(95% CI : 14.23-26.22) in TC, 24.8(95% CI : 12.6-36.86) in TG, 15.16(95% CI : 3.99 - 26.33) in LDL, -3.48(95% CI : -5.79 - -1.17) in HDL, -9.78(95% CI : -16.98 - -2.58) in Apo-a1, 17.88(95% CI : 9.72 - 26.05) in Apo B and 18.95(95% CI : 17.88 - 20.02) in Lp(a). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that seven blood lipids were significantly associated with CHD in Koreans. Well-designed and prospective studies between blood lipids and CHD in Koreans should be performed.
Summary
What Factors Affect Mortality over the Age of 40?.
Jong Ku Park, Sang Baek Koh, Chun Bae Kim, Myung Guen Kang, Kee Ho Park, Seung Jun Wang, Sei Jin Chang, Soon Ae Sin
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):383-394.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to identify the factors influencing the mortality of Koreans over the age of 40 by a nested case-control study. METHODS: The cohort consisted of the beneficiaries of Korea Medical Insurance Corporation for Government Employees & Private School Teachers and Staff(KMIC) who received health examinations of KMIC in 1992 and 1993 retrospectively. At that time, they were more than 40 years old. The cases were 19,258 cohort members who had died until December 31, 1997. The controls were 19,258 cohort members who were alive until December 31, 1997. Controls were matched with age and sex distribution of the cases. The data used in this study were the funeral expenses requesting files, and the files of health examinations and health questionnaires gathered in 1992 and 1993. To assess the putative risk factors of death, student t-test, chi-square test, multiple logistic regression analysis were used. RESULTS: In multiple logistic regression analysis, independent risk factors of death were as follows; systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, AST, urine glucose, urine protein, alcohol drinking(frequency), cigarette smoking and perceived health status, intake of restoratives and blood transfusion showed positive associations with death; coffee consumption showed negative associations with death; and body mass index and serum total cholesterol showed J-shaped association with death. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding the direction of association, the result of analysis on the data restricted to '96-'97 was same as that of '93-'97. But in some variables such as obesity, serum cholesterol, the odds ratios of death in the data of '96-'97 were higer than those of '93-'94, which suggested that the data of '93-'94 was bearing effect-cause relationship. We concluded that it suggested further researches using long-term follow-up data to be needed in this area.
Summary
Trends of Preventive Medicine Research according to The Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine and Qualitative Meta-analysis on Articles of Lead Poisoning.
Chun Bae Kim, Jung Ae Rhee, Jong Ku Park, Seok Joon Sohn
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(2):113-122.
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to describe the trends of original research in the Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine, and to evaluate the quality of original articles about lead poisoning. METHOD: The data for the analysis of trends in preventive medicine research was taken from a total of 829 original articles published in the Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine from 1968 to 1997. The qualitative meta-analysis was measured against a checklist of evaluation criteria, which were divided into 10 categories, with 46 articles on lead poisoning. The evaluation process was performed independently by two evaluators. RESULTS: The number of articles per 100 members over the study period increased by almost 4 pieces in the early 1980s, and by more than 9 pieces in the mid-1990s. In the major classifications of subjects, environmental and industrial health, epidemiology and health statistics, and health policy and management published 370 pieces (44.6%), 137 pieces (16.5%), 322 pieces (38.9%) respectively. In the order of the number of articles, five themes about health significance, including metal exposure (73 pieces), diseases associated with exposure to organic solvents (45 pieces), air pollution (36 pieces), maternal and child health (32 pieces), and occupational health (30 pieces) received consistent attention throughout the years 1968-1997. The overall mean score of article quality about lead poisoning was 37.8 out of 50. Of the articles any information on the purpose and hypothesis described well. Of those the originality of the subjects, the form of articles (including tables and figures), and the number of inappropriate words of abstracts showed very low score. For multiple regression analyses, the number of joint research institutes and the acceptance of research grants about the article quality were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The number of original research reports in the Korean J Prev Med has recently increased and their subjects have diversified. Of the basis of this study, the articles need improvement in the areas of abstracts, tables and illustrations (figures), etc. The Korean Society for Preventive Medicine will revise contribution regulations for manuscripts submitted to the Korean J Prev Med. Future studies should address these issues and perform the quantitative mata-analysis about the specific subjects including the quality of articles.
Summary
Quality Assessment of the Abstracts of the Original Articles (1997) in the Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Jong Ku Park, Chun Bae Kim, Desmond Hannibal
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(1):72-79.
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of abstracts of original articles. METHODS: This subjects selected total 63 abstracts of the original articles of the Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine in 1997. The quality of abstracts was measured against a checklist of evaluation criteria, which were divided into eight categories and the numbers of inappropriate words (including grammar) according to criterion-based survey. A score for each abstract was obtained by dividing the number of criteria presented by the number applicable. The overall mean score was also determined. RESULTS: The overall mean score of abstract quality was 0.55 out of 1. Of the abstracts subject selection 83% didn't include specific technical descriptors. Of those that gave conclusions 92% didn't address study limitations and 78% made no recommendations for future study. The overall mean number of inappropriate usage of words (including grammar) per abstract was 14.1. The overall mean number of English words was 283. In the multiple regression analyses, the research career of the first author and the number of English words to the number of inappropriate usage of words were statistically significant. Also, in the secondary regression model, the number of English words to the quality score of abstract was only statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the abstracts provided some information pertaining to each evaluation criterion. However, they did not provide sufficient details to enhance the reader's understanding of the article. On the basis of the study the abstracts need improvement in its description of the reported subject selection, statements of limitations and recommendations, etc. The Korean Society for Preventive Medicine will recommend a proposal for more informative abstracts in Korean J Prev Med and will take into consideration the introduction of foreign review of abstracts. Future studies should address these issues and compare the quality of abstracts between different journals and their time of publication.
Summary
The Difference in Attitude toward Medical Care between Patients and Physicians.
Myung Geun Kang, Jong Ku Park, Han Joong Kim, Myong Sei Sohn, Dal Rae Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(3):516-539.
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The objective of this study is to identify the difference in attitude toward medical care between patients who visited a university hospital or an oriental medical hospital of oriental medical college, and physicians who engaged in the same hospitals. The subjects of this study were 397 cases who agreed to respond the prepared questionnaire, including 288 patients(146 university hospital utilizers and 142 utilizers for an oriental medical hospital) and 109 physicians(76 physicians and 33 oriental medical doctors). The attitude toward medical care was measured by the structured questionnaire developed for this study, which had high validity and reliability according to factor analysis, item discriminant validity, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. On the criteria of mean value of care and cure score, the attitude toward medical care was classified into 4 groups encompassing a group with dependent attitude on medical care, a group with skeptical attitude toward it, a group with cure-oriented attitude, and a group with care- preferred attitude. The results of chi-square test, discriminant analysis, and logistic regression analysis were as follows; patients who visited a university hospital, patients who visited an oriental hospital, physicians, and oriental medical doctors included in the group with dependent attitude, the group with cure-oriented attitude, the group with skeptical attitude, and the group with care-preferred attitude, retrospectively. Among the subdomains of care and cure domains, which classified in reference to the result of factor analysis on pilot study, those that patients ranked more importantly than physicians were 'the importance of medical equipment for diagnosis and treatment', 'authority of physician, 'aggressiveness of treatment', 'information giving', 'personal interest' in the case of western medicine. In the case of oriental medicine, those were 'the importance of equipment for diagnosis and treatment', 'aggressiveness of treatment', 'amenities and accessibility', 'coordination of medical staff'. Both physicans and patients put the subdomain, 'physicians' medical knowledge and skillfulness' on the highest rank. The differences in ranking the important attributes of medical care between patients and physicians were apparent in the area of an 'importance of medical equipment for diagnosis and treatment' and so on. It meant that patient had over-expectation on medical care and suggested that the policy on demand side such as the development and dissemination of an evidence-based recommendation protocol for health care consumers might be important in Korea. In addition, regarding the attitude of physicians, during the medical education and training it may be necessary to emphasize the aspect of 'care' of medical care rather than 'cure'. In planning on heath care delivery system, it should be considered that there is a difference in the attitude toward medical care between western medicine and oriental medicine as well as between health care providers and consumers. We expect that more valid measurement tool be developed in this area, which may be major limitation of this study and that this kind of research be expanded into the non-academic settings.
Summary
A Meta-analysis on the Risk Factors of Cerebrovascular Disorders in Koreans.
Jong Ku Park, Myung Keun Kang, Chun Bae Kim, Ki Soon Kim, Sun Ha Jee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(1):27-48.
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This study was conducted to integrate the results of studies which evaluated or identified the risk factors of CVD(cerebrovascular disorders) for Koreans. We retrieved the literature published in Korean by manual search and the English literature by Medline database to identify studies on the relationship between reported risk factors and CVD conducted for the Korean from 1980 to August, 1997. Hypertension and total serum cholestrol were selected as subjects of quantitative meta-analysis as risk factors of CVD in Koreans. The overall effect sizes of the risk of CVD due to hypertension and total serum cholesterol were calculated by common odds ratio(OR) and average standardized mean difference, retrospectively. Before the integration of each effect sizes into common effect sizes, the heterogeneity tests were conducted. Also, sensitivity tests were conducted for the estimated common effect sizes. Regarding hypertension and CVD, a total of 9 epidemiologic studies were identified with a total of 2,271 cases of CVD. The overall OR of hypertension associated CVD was 4.10(95% confidence interval[CI] 3.56 to 4.71). The OR of hypertension associated with hemorrhagic CVD and ischemic CVD were 6.56(95% CI : 4.92 to 8.80) and 3.28(95% CI : 2.77 to 3.90), retrospectively. The OR of hypertension in relation to hemorrhagic CVD was significantly higher than that of hypertension in relation to overall CVD or ischemic CVD. Regarding serum total cholesterol and ischemic CVD, total 9 epidemiologic studies were identified with a total of 843 cases of ischemic CVD. Average mean difference as an effect size was 0.76, which was judged an important value according to Cohen's criteria. Our data suggested that hypertension was an important risk factor of overall CVD and its subtypes, and that the total serum cholesterol was associated with ischemic CVD in Koreans. For the lack of reliable prospective studies, however, we concluded that further research designed longitudinally would be required in this area.
Summary
Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Psychosicial Distress and Occupational Risks.
Bong Suk Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Jong Ku Park, Sang Baek Ko, Myung Guen Kang, Sang Yul Ko
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(3):540-554.
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The effects of cigarette smoking on the psychosocial distress, the absenteeism, the occupational injuries, and on the prevalence for the accidents were assessed in 795 male workers who had been employed since March 1994. The results show that the prevalence of current smokers were higher in young men, lower educational level, lower income, single men(unmarried or divorced), alcohol drinkers, and blue collar workers. In the bivariate analyses, the workers with the high job demand and low work control were more likely to smoke, although the relationship was not strong. Those who reported lower satisfaction on his job tended to smoke more. Mean scores of psychosocial well-being Index(PWI) were higher in current smokers than nonsmokers. For the hierarchical multiple regression analyses, interaction terms between cigarette smoking and job stressors(job demand and work control) were not significant. For smokers, the odds ratios for the occupational injuries, and the accidents were 1.40(95% confidence interval 0.77-2.57) and 1.96 (95% confidence interval 0.75-5.09), respectively. The mean absent day were 4.13 for smokers, 3.65 for nonsmokers, although the differences were not statistically significant. It seems that cigarette smoking had not caused any crucial effects on the psychosocial well-being status and the occupational risks. Some considerations for the further research on the relationship of cigarette smoking on the mental health status and the occupational risks were also discussed.
Summary
Reliability and Validity on Measurement Instrument for Health Status Assessment in Occupational Workers.
Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang, Myung Guen Kang, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(2):251-266.
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In order to test scaling assumption, and to assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the Short Form 36(SF-36) health survey questionnaire, we conducted a survey. Samples were 296 workers who had been employed in small sized companies. All scale passed for item internal consistency(100% sucess rate) and item discriminant validity(100% success rate). Reliability coefficients were ranged from a low of 0.51 to a high of 0.85. For 87.5% of the total workers, inconsistent responses were not observed. Only 3.0% of the total workers failed two or more checks. Factor analysis was performed using principal axis factor method and quartimax rotation. In this survey, the SF-36 retained available psychometric properties even when used in a generally healthy worker group. But further study with some consideration to develope health status measurement is expected ; first, the definition of health status should be rationalized. Second, the measurement of outcome is an important consideration in evaluations of quality of care. But ambiguities hinder understanding of this important topic. Third, internal consistency should be interpreted with caution as an indication reliability because it ignores potentially important sources of variation that can occur over time.
Summary
Association between Job characteristics and Psychosocial Distress of Industrial Workers.
Sei Jin Chang, Bong Suk Cha, Sang Baek Koh, Myung Geun Kang, Sang Ryul Koh, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(1):129-144.
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This study was carried out to assess the relationship between job characteristics(job strain) and psychosocial distress, and to find out the effect of social support on psychosocial distress. The study design was cross-sectional, and included 1,211 industrial workers in middle-sized city. A self-administered questionnaire measured job characteristics(jod demand, job control), and social support(coworker support, supervisor support) at work. Psychosocial distress was measured using PWI(Psychosocial Well-being Index), a 45-item self-administered instrument. Among the 1,211 respondents, the prevalence of psychosocial distress was 24.8%. High job strain (high job demand + low job control) was present in 8% of the subjects. The crude odds ratio of high job strain was 4.76 (95% CI : 2.60-8.74), and those of active group and passive group were 3.81(95% CI : 1.82-3.95) and 2.64(95% CI : 1.77-3.94), respectively. The odds ratios of each group adjusted for sex, age, support, and religion were still significant. Our results supported the association between job strain and psychosocial distress. Social support at work, although significantly associated with psychosocial distress, did not modify the association between job strain and psychosocial distress.
Summary
The Case-Control Study on the Risk Factors of Cerebrovascular Diseases and Coronary heart Diseases.
Jong Ku Park, Hun Joo Kim, Keum Soo Park, Sung Su Lee, Sei Jin Chang, Kye Chul Shin, Sang Ok Kwon, Sang Baek Ko, Eun kyoung Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(3):639-656.
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Cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease are the first and the fourth common causes of death among adults in Korea. Reported risk factors of one of these diseases may prevent other diseases. Therefore, we tried to compare and discriminate the risk factors of these diseases. We recruited four case groups and four control groups among the inpatients who were admitted to Wonju Christian Hospital from March, 1994 to November, 1995. Four control groups were matched with each of four case groups by age and sex. The number of patients in each of four case and control groups were 106 and 168 for acute myocardial infarction(AMI), 84 and 133 for subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH), 102 and 148 for intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), and 91 and 182 for ischemic stroke(IS) respectively. Factors whose levels were significantly higher in AMI and IS than in responding control group(RCG) were education, economic status, and triglyceride. Factors whose levels were significantly lower in hemorrhagic stroke than in RCG were age of menarch, and prothrombin time. The factor whose level was higher in AMI than in RCG was uric acid. The factor whose level was higher in AMI, ICH, and SAH than in RCG was blood sugar. Factors whose levels were significantly higher in all the case groups than in RCG were earlobe crease, Quetelet index, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and total cholesterol. The list of risk factors were somewhat different among the four diseases, though none of the risk factors to the one disease except prothrombin time acted as a preventive factor to the other diseases. The percent of grouped cases correctly classified was higher in the discrimination of ischemic diseases(AMI and IS) from hemorrhagic diseases(SAH and ICH) than in the discrimination of cerebrovascular disease from AMI. The factors concerned in the discrimination of ischemic diseases from hemorrhagic diseases were prothrombin time, earlobe crease, gender, age uric aci, education, albumin, hemoglobin, the history of taking steroid, total cholesterol, and hematocrit according to the selection order through forward selection.
Summary
Twelve-year Study on Body Mass Index Changes of Obese Adolescents.
Yun Ju Kang, Il Suh, Chang Ho Hong, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):665-676.
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The purpose of this study is to observe the longitudinal changes in BMI (Body Mass Index) of obese and non-obese 3rd. grade high school students in Seoul for 12 years and to see the trends of overt weight gain in obese adolescents. The results are as follows; 1. The average annual increasing rates of body mass indices in male students were 1.14kg/m2 in obese group and 0.59 in non-obese group. In female students, the average annual increasing rates of body mass indices were 0.93kg/m2 in obese group and 0.53kg/m2 in non-obese group. 2. The change rate of BMI for 12 years was significantly higher in obese group than non-obese group. 3. Puberty had less influence on the change rate of BMI in obese group compared to non-obese group. 4. In obese group, 71.8% of the variance in BMI at 17 can be predicted by BMI at 16 years in male students. In female students 44.4% can be predicted by BMI at age 16. 5. Among the 17-year-old obese students, 58.8% of the males and 56.2% of females were found not to have been obese at 7 years of age. 6. Among the 17-year-old obese students, those who were obese at 7 years of age were found to have higher BMI at later ages than those who were in the non-obese group. Obese adolescents were more likely to be obese in their childhood than non-obese group. There was no optimal age for the significant weight gain and the increasing rate of BMI was constantly higher in obese group than in non-obese group. Due to the fact that child obesity in early age contributes to obesity in adolescence, close observation is advised on the other hand, a large proportion of obese adolescents can be preventable by early interventions, because about 50% of obese adolescents were not obese in early elementary school age.
Summary
Social support and phychosocial distress among white-collar workers.
Bong Suk Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):429-447.
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The effects and roles of social support and stressors (stressful life events and chronic strains) on psychosocial distress were examined in a model with data from a sample of the white-collar workers (N = 416) in Korea. The findings of this study present that mean levels of psychosocial distress were higher' in the female, youth, unmarried and divorced, and low economic status (monthly income). The analysis also shows that, as expected, stressful life and chronic strains as stressors are positively related to occurrence of psychosocial distress, and social support is negatively related to psychosocial distress. Further, the contribution of social support to predicting psychosocial distress is greater in magnitude than that of stressful events, chronic strains, and sociodemographic variables. There is no evidence that social support buffers the impacts of stressors on psychosocial distress, rather social support takes a role of main or direct effects on psychosocial distress. Therefore, the strength of the social support is an important and meaningful strategy to prevent from stress and mental, physical illness.
Summary
Effects of Multiple Exposures to Pesticides on Plasma Cholinesterase Activity and p-nitrophenol Excretion in Rats.
Bong Suk Cha, Jung Gyun Park, Jong Ku Park, Sei Jin Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):180-188.
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The effects of multiple exposures to pesticides on plasma cholinesterase(ChE) activities and urinary p-nitrophenol excretion were evaluated in rats. Rats were received single dose i.p. with LD50/100(mg/kg) of organophosphorous(OP), organophosphorous-organochroline(OP-OC), organophosphorous-carbamate(OP-CAB), organophosphorous-organoarsenate(OP-OA) pesticides for 4 consecutive days. In repeated administration of pesticides, plasma ChE activities were decreased, but urinary p-nitrophenol were increased after the first injection and then decreased gradually. The recovery rates of ChE activities and p-nitrophenol excretion at 48 hours after the fourth infection were delayed in comparison with the baseline value of 24 hours before the first injection. Statistical significances were found between OP and other groups except OP-OA group after the second injection in plasma ChE activities, but in urinary p-nitrophenol excretion there was statistical significance only between OP and OP-CAB.
Summary
The Economic Losses of Smoking.
Jong Ku Park, Kyu Sik Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(4):528-541.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to identify and measure the economic costs and benefits due to smoking in Korea. Cigarette smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition to the health risks of smoking, there are important economic consequences. A complete assessment of the economics of smoking requires evaluation of various health, economic, and intangible parameters, including benefits as well as costs of both the production and consumption of tobacco. In this article we focus on costs resulting from the health effects of smoking (expenditures for medical care and the value of productive output lost to morbidity, and premature mortality among smokers), since economic benefits from tobacco industry is offset by expenditures for purchasing tobacco. Two distinct methodologies will be applied to measure the economic costs of smoking cigarette, the human capital and willingness-to-pay approaches. This article used the former method. In 1985, total economic losses due to smoking was estimated as 505.7 billion won, which was composed of morbidity losses 64.9 billion won, mortality losses 429.1 billion won and indirect costs 11.7 billion won.
Summary
Research on work stress and mental health status of the industrial workers.
Bong Suk Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Myung Keyn Lee, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(1):90-101.
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Recently concerns on work stress and mental health status of industrial workers were increased. The purpose of this study was to investigate the work stress measured by PSI (psychiatric symptom index) according to socio-demographic variables. The study population was consisted with two types of group; manual and clerical workers. The, major findings of this study were as follows; Mean scores of psychiatric symptom in manual workers were higher in female, youth, educated, unmarried and divorced, noisy condition, that in clerical workers was higher in aged. Mean scores of psychiatric symptom were highly affected by degree of work autonomy, self-esteem, and self-efficacy in both groups. The higher the work autonomy, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, the lower the mean scores of work stress it showed. Psychiatric symptom index was explained with the work autonomy, self-esteem, self-efficacy through multiple stepwise regression. The annual admission rates were high in highly ranked groups on each psychiatric symptom dimension.
Summary
Work Stress and Mental Health of the Industrial Workers.
Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Myung Keyn Lee, Sei Jin Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):365-373.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Information on work stress and mental health status of industrial workers was required for optimum staffing and health care management. This study dealt with the relationship between mental health status examined by PSI(psychiatric symptom index) and socio-demographic variables. Especially this study attempted to find relevant determinants of the stress and mental health through multiple stepwise regression analysis based on data obtained from 687 occupational workers. The findings of this study were as follows; Mean scores of symptom dimension were higher in youth, female, more educated, unmarried and divorced, and workers in the noisy condition and short duration in job. And it showed high scores in long duration in job for anxiety; college educated for anger; unmarried for cognitive disturbance. The factors affecting the mean scores of psychiatric symptom index were varied according to the types of symptom; age, sex and duration in job for anxiety; age, sex, living with parent, education and marital status for anger; sex and marital status for depression; noisy condition and sex for cognitive disorder.
Summary
Mental Health Status among Users of Medical Facilities in Mining Area.
Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(2):233-243.
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Our study was designed to identify the difference in the mental health status among hospitalized patients due to occupational diseases and accidents and pre-employment physical examinees, and to identify the relationship between mental health status and socio-demographic variables, and to provide information useful to non-psychiatric clinicians in caring of such patients. Samples were comprised of 189 pneumoconiotic patients, 132 industrial accident-induced patients and 122 pre-employment physical examinees who were interviewed with 90-item symptom cheklist(SCL-90). The following results were obtained: 1) Mean scores of symptom dimension on socio-demographic subgroup showed higher tendencies in older aged, male, lower educated, miner, married, mining residence, and pnemoconiotic patients. 2) Mean scores of total samples on all symptom dimensions were as follows in the order of their magnitudes; Depression, Somatization, Obsessive-compulsive, Anxiety, Psychoticism, Interpersonal sensitivity, Phobic-anxiety, Hostility, and Paranoid ideation. 3) The highest mean scores on each socio-demographic subgroup were as follows; Depression in younger aged and Somatization in older aged; Depression in male Somatization in female; Somatization in lower educated and depression in higher educated; Somatization in miners and depression in non-miners; Somatization in married and Depression in unmarried; Depression in all kind of residences; Somatization in patients and Depression in pre-employment physical examinees(normal). 4) In consequence of stepwise multiple regression, the important socio-demographic variables were age, occupation, diagnostic classification, and residence. Age was the most important variables in Somatization, Depression, Obsessive-compulsive, Anxiety, Phobic ideation, and Psychoticism. Occupation was the most important one in Interpersonal sensitivity and Hostility and also had significant relationships with all symptom dimensions.
Summary
Study on the Determinants of Utilization of Family Health Worker in Rural Korea.
Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1979;12(1):38-42.
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The objectives of this study were to identify the determinants of the 1. Home visiting activities by FHWs, 2. Utilization of village Family Health Workers (FHWs) among housewives in, 3. Attitudes towards FHWs the Kang Wha Community, 4. Knowledge about FHW's activities among housewives in the KangWha Community Health Project area. This study was analyzed by using path analysis. Exogenous variables were 1. Distance between the housewives' houses and that of their local FHW, 2. Duration of work each FHW as FHW in her village, 3. Number of preschool children in the households. Endogenous variables were 1. Home visiting frequency to each household by FHW, 2. Knowledge abort FHW's activities, 3. Attitude towards FHWs by the housewives, 4. Utilization of FHW by the housewives. The results were as follows : The shorter the distnace between client's and FHW's house, the higher the number of preschool children in the household, and the longer their duration of work of FHW as FHW, the higher is the number of her household visits in a given time span. The more frequently the FHW visits a household and the higher the knowledge about FHW's activities in the household, the more positive is the attitude of the housewives to the FHW and the more frequently she visits and utilizes the FHW on her own initiative.
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health