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Jung Han Park 37 Articles
Health Indicators Related to Disease, Death, and Reproduction
Jeoungbin Choi, Moran Ki, Ho Jang Kwon, Boyoung Park, Sanghyuk Bae, Chang-Mo Oh, Byung Chul Chun, Gyung-Jae Oh, Young Hoon Lee, Tae-Yong Lee, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Jung Han Park, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(1):14-20.   Published online January 23, 2019
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
One of the primary goals of epidemiology is to quantify various aspects of a population’s health, illness, and death status and the determinants (or risk factors) thereof by calculating health indicators that measure the magnitudes of various conditions. There has been some confusion regarding health indicators, with discrepancies in usage among organizations such as the World Health Organization the, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the CDC of other countries, and the usage of the relevant terminology may vary across papers. Therefore, in this review, we would like to propose appropriate terminological definitions for health indicators based on the most commonly used meanings and/or the terms used by official agencies, in order to bring clarity to this area of confusion. We have used appropriate examples to make each health indicator easy for the reader to understand. We have included practical exercises for some health indicators to help readers understand the underlying concepts.
Korean summary
본 논문에서는 질병과 사망, 출생 관련 지표들의 개념과 종류를 설명하고, 특히 연구자들이 흔히 혼동하여 사용하는 지표들에 대한 적절한 정의를 제시하였다. 또한 지표들의 예시를 부록으로 수록하여 독자들이 지표의 개념을 보다 쉽게 습득하도록 돕고자 하였다.


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Changes in the Distribution of Maternal Age and Parity and Increasing Trends in the Low Birth Weight Rate in Korea Between 1995 and 2005
Jisuk Bae, Jung Han Park, Yoo Keun Park, Jong-Yeon Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Soon-Woo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(3):111-117.   Published online May 17, 2010
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AbstractAbstract PDF

This study measured the impact of shifts in maternal age and parity on the increase in the low birth weight (LBW) rate in Korea.


We obtained raw data for all 6 397 945 live births registered at the Korea National Statistical Office between 1995 and 2005. We calculated the proportion of increment in the LBW rate due to changes in the distribution of maternal age and parity (AP-dis) and the proportion due to changes in the age- and parity-specific LBW rate (AP-spe).


The LBW rate increased from 3.02% in 1995 to 4.28% in 2005. The multiple birth rate increased from 1.32% to 2.19% during the same period. Of the 1.26% points increment in the LBW rate, 0.64% points occurred among singleton births and 0.62% points occurred among multiple births. Changes in the AP-dis accounted for 50% of the increase in the LBW rate among singleton births, but did not contribute to the increase in the LBW rate among multiple births. The remainder of the total increment in the LBW rate was explained by the increase in the AP-spe.


This study demonstrated that shifts in maternal age and parity among singleton births and increased multiple births were important contributors to the increment in the LBW rate. This study also revealed that the increase in the AP-spe was an equally important contributor as the shifts in maternal age and parity to the increment in the LBW rate among singleton births and was a major contributor among multiple births.



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Estimation of Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents in a Community by Design-based Analysis.
Soon Woo Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Sang Won Lee, Jung Han Park, Yeon Oh Yun, Won Kee Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(4):317-324.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to estimate the unbiased smoking prevalence and its standard errors among adolescents in a large city in Korea, by designbased analysis. METHODS: All the students in Daegu city were stratified by grade, gender and region, and then schools as primary sampling units (PSU) were selected by probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. One or two classes were sampled randomly from each grade, from 5th grade in elementary schools to the 3rd grade in high schools. The students anonymously completed a standardized selfadministered questionnaire from October to December 2004. The total number of respondents was 8,480 in the final analysis, excluding the third graders in the general high schools because of incomplete sampling. The sampling weight was calculated for each student after poststratification adjustment, with adjustment being made for the missing cases. The data were analyzed with Stata 8.0 with consideration of PSU, weighting and the strata variables. RESULTS: The smoking prevalence (%) and standard errors for male students from the fifth grade in elementary schools to the second grade in high schools were 0.93[0.47, 1.83[ 0.74, 3.16[1.00, 5.12[1.02, 10.86[1.13, 15.63[2.44 and 17.96[2.67, and those for the female students were 0.28[ 0.28, 1.17[0.73, 3.13[0.60, 1.45[0.58, 3.94[0.92, 8.75 [1.86 and 10.04[1.70, sequentially. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence from this study was much higher than those from the other conventional studies conducted in Korea. The point estimates and standard errors from the design-based analysis were different from those of the model-based analysis. These findings suggest the importance of design-based analysis to estimate unbiased prevalence and standard errors in complex survey data and this method is recommended to apply to future surveys for determining the smoking prevalence for specific population.
Factors Associated with Perceived Peer Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents.
Soon Woo Park, Sang Won Lee, Jong Yeon Kim, Jung Han Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(3):249-254.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to examine the factors related to the perceived peer smoking prevalence for adolescents. METHODS: A self-administrated questionnaire was administered to 352 students in a technical high school in Kangwon Province in May, 2002. The questions included in the questionnaire were concerned with the estimated number of smokers among ten students of the same grade in their school, the sociodemographic characteristics, the smoking-related behaviors and attitudes, and the smoking-related environments. All the students had their expiratory carbon monoxide level measured with EC50 Micro-Smokerlyzer? to verify their smoking status. Multiple regression analysis was applied for data analysis using Windows SPSS 11.5. RESULTS: The former and current smokers overestimated the peer smoking prevalence. Multiple regression analysis for estimating the peer smoking prevalence for the male showed that the perceived smoking prevalence was higher in the female students than in the male students, higher in those students whose mothers had a higher educational level, who had smoked more frequently, who had more best friends smoking, and who had a higher actual smoking rate of the class. For estimating the peer smoking prevalence for the female, the perceived smoking prevalence was higher in the female students than in the male students, higher in those who smoked more frequently, whose five best friends smoked, who had higher actual smoking rate of the class, and who had smoking siblings. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a higher perceived peer smoking rate is related with their own smoking history and smoking frequency, the smoking related environment, and gender. Smoking prevention and smoking cessation programs need to focus on correcting the falsely perceived smoking prevalence.
Preventive Medicine in Times of a Rapid Epidemiologic Transition in Korea.
Jung Han Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(1):2-6.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Ever since the foundation of the Korean Society for Preventive Medicine in 1947, members of the Society had made a remarkable contribution to the public health development and national health promotion. They had played key roles in establishing national health system, improving environmental hygiene, controlling infectious and chronic diseases, promoting family planning, improving industrial and environmental health, and developing health service management. However, the Society had less actively responded to the changes in health service needs of the population that were caused by a rapid epidemiologic transition in last a few decades. Early detection and treatment of chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular diseases and risk reduction by the life style modification are major approaches to the contemporary national health problems and they are the core contents of preventive medicine. The author proposed to develop the clinical preventive medicine specialist who will have additional training in clinical medicine for health screening and life style modification to the current preventive medicine training program and thus will be able to provide comprehensive preventive medical services. Another area that the Society may take the initiative is training preventive medicine specialist in the disaster, including bioterrorism, preparedness and management. The Society should be more active in proposing health policy and health service program and also participate collectively in a large scale health research project of the government. These approaches may not only contribute more effectively to the national health promotion but also improve the identity of the Society.
Non-Fatal Injuries among Preschool Children in Daegu and Kyungpook.
Soon Woo Park, Youn Jeong Heo, Sang Won Lee, Jung Han Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(3):274-281.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was performed to investigate the injury rates and risk factors for preschool children in Daegu city and Kyungpook province. METHOD : A questionnaire survey about medically attended injuries during the preschool period was performed in nine primary schools located in Daegu city, Pohang city and Goryung County. The overall injury rate was estimated using person-year. The causes and patterns of the injuries, and their risk factors were examined. RESULT : A total of 469 medically attended injuries were reported in 330 of the 959 study subjects during the preschool period. The overall annual injury rate was 7.5 per 100 children. The injury rate increased sharply during the period from infant (2.4) to 1 year of age (7.5), and the peak injury rate (9.2) was reported for 5 year olds. The most common causes of injuries were falling (36.0%), followed by being struck by an object (23.7%), and traffic accidents (14.1%). Among the traffic accidents, 72.8% occurred while playing on the road, riding a bicycle or roller-skating. A proportional hazard model showed that males (hazard ratio=1.49, p< 0.001 compared with female) and the mother's higher education level (hazard ratio of college or higher= 1.51, p=0.013; high school=1.32, p=0.085 compared with those of middle school or lower) were significant risk factors of childhood injury. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggested that efforts for children's safety should be made, especially from the toddler stage, and in male children. To develop a more specific childhood injury prevention program, a surveillance system for injuries should be established. Further study of the relationship between mother's occupation and injury rates is also needed.
Smoking Behaviors and Its Relationships with Other Health Behaviors among Medical Students.
Soon Woo Park, Jung Han Park, Sang Won Lee, Hyun Sul Lim, Jong Tae Lee, Yune Sik Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(3):238-245.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to examine the smoking behaviors and the relationship between smoking and other health behaviors among medical students. METHODS: A self-administrated questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1, 775 students from four medical schools between April and May 2003. Due to the small number of female smokers, the characteristics of smoking behaviors were analyzed only for males. RESULTS: A total of 1, 367 students (920 males and 447 females) completed the questionnaires, with an overall response rate of 77.7%. The smoking rates for males and females were 31.5, and 2.2%, respectively. Among the male smokers, 70.7% smoked daily, and 39.0% smoked one pack or more per day. Male students on medical course were more likely to smoke daily, and one pack or more per day, than those on premedical course. Male daily smokers desired to quit smoking less than occasional smokers, and 65.0% of male daily smokers were not ready to quit compared with 37.8% of the occasional smokers. Among the male daily smokers, 29.6% were severely nicotine dependent. The most common reason for not to quit smoking among male smokers was 'no alternative stress coping method' (44.4%), followed by 'lack of will power' (25.4%), and 'no need to quit' (19.4%). Compared with male non-smokers, male smokers were more likely to drink alcohol more often and in larger amounts, take coffee more often, eat breakfast less regularly, and be overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that many male medical students were serious smokers, especially those on medical course. It is necessary to install a smoking prevention program for pre-medical students, provide effective smoking cessation methods for smokers, teach positive stress coping methods, and make the school environment suitable for coping with stress.
Annual Visit Days, Prescription Days and Medical Expenses of Hypertensive Patients.
Bu Dol Lim, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Jeong Soo Im, Soon Woo Park, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):340-350.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To evaluate the annual visit days, the annual prescription days and the medical costs of hypertensive patients. METHODS: The medical insurance records of 40,267 incident patients with the diagnostic code of hypertension from September 1998 through August 1999 in Daegu city were reviewed. RESUJLTS: The proportion of the most proper medical care pattern group (Group VIII) who visited for 6-15 days with 240 prescription days or more a year was only 6.2%. The proper care group (Group IX) who visited for more than 16 days with 240 prescription days or more a year was 9.3%. The overall proper care group (Group VIII+IX) was therefore 15.5%. The proportion of the insufficient care group (Group I,IV) in both the number of visiting days and prescription days was 57.4%. The mean prescription day of the most proper group (Group VIII) was 29 days; the mean annual medical expenses, 453,587won; the mean annual amount paid by patients, 218,013won; and mean medical expenses per prescription day, 1,483won. The proportion of the overall proper care group (Group VIII+IX) was significantly higher in adults aged 50-59, those who were enrolled in industrial workers health insurance as well as government employees and private school teachers health insurance, and those who made a higher contribution per month (p<0.01). According to the type of medical facilities, the proportion of the most proper medical care pattern group was highest in the general hospitals (9.3%) but the overall proper care group was higher in the public health centers (22.1%) and private clinics (17.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The management system of hypertension should be reinforced urgently. Therefore, it is necessary to develop guidelines including the number of visiting days per year and prescription days per visit day, and make the system provide medical facilities to more properly care for hypertensive patients.
Decision-making process and satisfaction of pregnant women for delivery method.
Hae Ri Jun, Jung Han Park, Soon Woo Park, Chang Kyu Huh, Soon Gu Hwang
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):751-769.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to assess the attitude of pregnant women toward delivery method, understanding of the reason for determining her own delivery method, participation in decision-making process and satisfaction with delivery method after labor. Study subjects were 693 pregnant women who had visited obstetric clinic for prenatal care in the last month of pregnancy in one general hospital and one obstetrics-gynecology specialty hospital in Taegu city from February 1 to March 31 in 1998. A questionnaire was administered before and after labor and a telephone interview was done one month after labor. Proportion of women who had health education and/or counselling about delivery method during prenatal care was 24.0% and this proportion was higher for women who had previous c-section(35.5%) than others. Women thought vaginal delivery is better than c-section for both maternal and baby's health regardless of previous delivery method. About 90% of primipara and multiparous women who had previous vaginal delivery wanted vaginal delivery for the index birth, while 85.6% of multiparous women who had previous c-section wanted repeat c-section. Reasons for choosing c-section in pregnant women who preferred vaginal delivery before labor were recommendation of doctors(81.9%), recommendation of husband(0.8%), agreement between doctor and pregnant woman(4.7%), and mother's demand(12.6%). Reasons for choosing vaginal delivery were mother's demand(30.6%) and no indication for c-section(67.2%). Reasons for choosing c-section in pregnant women who preferred c-section before labor were recommendation of doctors(76.2%), mother's demand(20.0%), recommendation of husband(1.3%), and agreement between doctor and pregnant woman(2.5%). Of the pregnant women who had c-section, by doctor's recommendation, the proportion of women who had heard detailed explanation about reason for c-section by doctor was 55.1%. Mother's statement about the reason for c-section was consistent with the medical record in 75.9%. However, over 5% points disparities were shown between mother's statement and medical record in cases of the repeat c-section and mother's demand. In primipara and multiparous women who had previous vaginal delivery, the delivery method for index birth had statistically significant association with the preference of delivery method before labor(p<0.05). All of the women who had previous c-section had delivered the index baby by c-section. Among mothers who had delivered the index baby vaginally, 84.9% of them were satisfied with their delivery method immediately after labor and 85.1% at 1 month after labor. However, mothers who had c-section stated that they are satisfied with c-section in 44.6% immediately after labor and 42.0% at 1 month after labor. Preferred delivery method for the next birth had statistically significant association with delivery method for the index birth both immediately after labor and in 1 month after labor. The proportion of mothers who prefer vaginal delivery for the next birth increased with the degree of satisfaction with the vaginal delivery for the index birth but the proportion of mothers who prefer c-section for the next birth was high and they did not change significantly with the degree of satisfaction with the c-section for the index birth. These results suggest that the current high technology-based, physician-centered prenatal and partritional cares need to be reoriented to the basic preventive and promotive technology-based, and mother-fetus-centered care. It is also suggested that active involvement of pregnant woman in decision-making process for the delivery method will increase the rate of vaginal birth after c-section and decrease c-section rate and improve the degree of maternal satisfaction after delivery.
A Survey on Physical Complaints Related with Farmers' Syndrome of Vinylhouse and Non-vinylhouse Farmers.
Ju Young Lee, Jung Han Park, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(2):258-273.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To compare the physical complaints of vinylhouse farmers with those of non-vinylhouse farmers, a personal interviews on 250 and 142 vinylhouse farmers were conducted in Sungjoo county in Kyungpook province selected by a random sampling from July 5 to July 10, 1993. Blood pressure of the subjects was also measured. Vinylhouse farmers had a higher average age, larger family size, shorter experience of farming, more working hours per day and working days per year and higher annual income than non-vinylhouse farmers. The frequency of preticide spray of the vinylhouse farmer was 3.4times on the average in June 1993 as compared with 2.0 times of non-vinylhouse farmers, and 16.7 times for the vinylhouse farmers during the last one year while it was 8.3 times for the non-vinylhouse farmers in the same period. While 39.6% of vinylhouse farmers experienced pesticide intoxication symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, itching, and skin irritation, etc. during the month of June, 25.4% of non-vinylhouse farmers experienced such symptoms. The most frequent symptoms among eight symptoms that constitute the farmers' syndrome were lumbago, numbness of hand or foot shoulder pain and dizziness regardless of sex and type of farming. Prevalence of the farmers' syndrome in male and female among vinylhouse farmers were 22.1%, 43.4%, respectively, and the prevalence in non-vinylhouse farmers was 23.2% for male and 50.7%for female. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of farmers' syndrome between vinylhouse and non-vinylhouse farmers. However, The prevalence on female was about 2 times higher than that of male When the effects of other factors were adjusted by multiple logistic regression for farmers' syndrome, the prevalence in female was 3.0 times higher than that of male. The prevalence of farmers' syndrome was increased as the age of farmers increased on both vinylhouse and non-vinylhouse farmers, and adjusted odds ratio of farmers' syndrome increased by 3% as the age increased by 1 year Adjusted odds ratio of Farmers' syndrome in farmers who experienced pesticide intoxication during the month of June was 3.7times higher than that of farmers who did not have such experience. While the prevalence of hypertension in male and female non-vinylhouse farmers were 22.4%, 13.7%, respectively, the prevalence in vinylhouse farmers were 13.5% for male and 12.0% for female. However, there was no association between farmers' syndrome and hypertension. It was found in this study that the vinylhouse farmers are at a high risk of pesticide intoxication, which is associated with the common physical complaints. To reduce such risk it is necessary to develop farming methods which do not require the pesticide of may use less pesticide, a safer method of pesticide spraying, and the protective equipments which can be worn at a high temperature and have a better protective effect. Also education of farmers for the correct methods of ventilation after pesticide spraying in the vinylhouse and wearing the protective equipments may be considered as a supportive method. Since inappropriate posture at work and intensive labor may cause farmers' syndrome, it is recommended to develop farming tools which reduce physical burden and take a rest and exercise periodically during work. It is necessary to strengthen the hypertension management program of the Kyungpook province, because the prevalence of hypertension was as high as about 15%.
Factors related to poor school performance of elementary school children.
Jung Han Park, Gui Yeon Kim, Kyu Sook Her, Ju Young Lee, Doo Hie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(4):628-649.
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This study was conducted to investigate the factors related to the poor school performance of the elementary school children. Two schools in Taegu, one in the affluent area and the other in the poor area, were selected and a total of 175 children whose school performance was within low 10 percentile(poor performers) and 97 children whose school performance were within high 5 percentile(good performers) in each class of 2nd, 4th and 6th grades were tested for the physical health, behavioral problem and family background. Each child had gone through a battery of tests including visual and hearing acuity, anthropometry(body weight, height, head circumference), intelligence(Kodae Stanford-Binet test), test anxiety(TAI-K), neurologic examination by a developmental pediatrician and heavy metal content(Pb, Cd, Zn) in hair by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A questionnaire was administered to the mothers for prenatal and perinatal courses of the child, family environment, child's developmental history, and child's behavioral and learning problems. Another questionnaire was administered to the teachers of the children for the child's family background, arithmatic and language abilities and behavioral problem. The poor school performance had a significant correlation with male gender, high birth order, broken home, low educational and occupational levels of parents, visual problem, high test anxiety score, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD), poor physical growth(weight, height, head circumference) and low I.Q. score. The factors that had a significant correlation with the poor school performance in multiple logistic regression analysis were child's birth order(odds ratio=2.06), male gender(odds ratio=5.91), broken home(odds ratio=9.29), test anxiety score(odds ratio=1.07), ADHD(odds ratio=9.67), I.Q. score(odds ratio=0.85) and height less than Korean standard mean-1 S. D.(odds ratio=11.12). The heavy metal contents in hair did not show any significant correlation with poor school performance. However the lead and cadmium contents were high in males than in females. The lead content was negatively correlated with child's grade(p<0.05) and zinc was positively correlated with grade(p<0.05). Among the factors that showed a significant correlation with the poor school performance, high birth order, short stature and ADHD may be modified by a good family planning, good feeding practice for infant and child, and early detection and treatment of ADHD. Also, teacher and parents should restrain themselves from inducing excessive test anxiety by forcing the child to study and over-expecting beyond the child's intellectual capability.
Prenatal care utilization pattern and its determinants in rural Korea.
Jang Rak Kim, Jung Han Park, Jae Kyong Lee, Sang Hong Seo, Joon Yong Bang
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(4):599-613.
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To study the pattern of prenatal care utilization and its determinants in rural Korea, 976 mothers(65.5%) out of 1,489 living mothers in Chinyang, Sachon and Hapchon Counties in Kyongsangnam Province who had delivered a baby between July 1, 1990 and June 30, 1991 were interviewed by the Myon health workers from January 3 through February 15, 1992. The Andersen's behavioral model for health service utilization was applied to develop the frames for analysis. The dependent variable was a number of prenatal care visits. And the independent variables included in the model were the variables pertaining to the predisposing, enabling, medical need and other components. The proportion of mother who had ever received the prenatal care service for the index pregnancy was 97.3%. However, the proportion of mothers who had made more than 10 visits was only 20.6%, which indicated that majority of mothers had paid far less visits than recommended 10~12 visits for each normal pregnancy. The low utilization of prenatal care services(none or less than 4 visits) was related to mother's low educational level, the high birth order, beneficiary of the medical aid, the absence of clinic in the community, no diagnosed disease of mother during pregnancy, and mothers engaged in farming. Inequity of access seemed to exist because social structure variables and the variables of enabling component were important predictors. And there seemed to be high mutability in equalizing the distribution of prenatal care services because the variables of enabling component such as type of medical security and whether there was a clinic or not in the community were substantially important.
The Effect of VDT Work on Vision and Eye Symptoms among Workers in a TV Manufacturing Plant.
Kuck Hyeun Woo, Jung Han Park, Gwang Seo Choi, Young Yeon Jung, Jong Hyeob Lee, Gu Wung Han
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(3):247-268.
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of VDT work on eyes and vision among workers in a TV manufacturing plant. The study subjects consisted of 264 screen workers and 74 non-screen workers who were less than 40 years old male and had no history of opthalmic diseases such as corneal opacities, trauma, keratitis, etc and whose visual acuity on pre-employment health examination by Han's test chart was 1.0 or above. The screen workers were divided into two groups by actual time for screen work in a day; Group 1, 60 workers, lesser than 4 hours a day and group 11, 204 workers, more than 4 hours a day. From July to October 1992 a questionnaire was administered to all the study subjects for the general charateristics and subjective eye symptoms after which the opthalmologic tests such as visual acuity, spherical equivalent, lacrimal function, ocular pressure, slit lamp test, fundoscopy were conducted by one opthalmologist. The proportion of workers whose present visual acuity was decreased more than 0. 15 in comparison with that on the pre-employment health examination by Han's test chart was 20.6% in Group Ii, 15.0% in Group I and 14.9% in non-screen workers. However, the differences in proportion were not statistically significant. The proportion of workers with decreased visual acuity was not associated with the age, working duration, use of magnifying glass and type of shift work (independent variables) in all of the three groups. However, screen workers working under poor illumination had a higher proportion of persons with decreased visual acuity than those working under adequate illumination (P<0.05). The proportion of workers whose near vision was decreased was 27.5% in Group II, 18.3% in Group I, and 28.4% in non-screen workers and these differences in proportion were not statistically significant. Changes of near vision were not associated with 4 independent variables in all of the three groups. Six out of sever-subjective eye symptoms except tearing were more common in Group I than in non-screen workers and more common in Group II than in Group I (P<0.01). Mean of the total scores for seven subjective symptoms of each worker (2 points for always, 1 point for sometimes, 0 point for never) was not significantly different between workers with decreased visual acuity and workers with no vision change. However, mean of the total scores for Group II was higher than those for the Group I and non-screen workers (P < 0. 01). Total eye symptom scores were significantly correlated with the grade of screen work, use of magnifying glass, and type of shift work. There was no independent variable which was correlated with the difference in visual acuity between the pre-employment health examination and the present state, the difference between far and near visions, lacrimal function, ocular pressure, and spherical equivalent. Multiple linear regression analysis for the subjective eye symptom scores revealed a positive linear relationship with actual time for screen work and shift work(P<0.01). In this study it was not observed that the VDT work decreased visual acuity but it induces subjective eye symptoms such as eye fatigue, blurred vision, ocular discomfort, etc. Maintenance of adequate illumination in the, work place and control of excessive VDT work are recommended to prevent such eye symptoms.
Adequacy of Medical Manpower and Medical Fee for Newborn Nursery Care.
Jung Han Park, Soo Yong Kim, Sin Kam
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(4):531-548.
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To assess the adequacy of medical manpower and medical fee for the newborn nursery care, the author visited 20 out of 24 hospitals with the pediatric training program in Youngnam area between July 29 and August 14, 1991. Total number of newborn, both normal and sick, admission and discharge in 1--30 June 1991 was obtained from the logbook of nursery. Head nurse and staff pediatrician of the nursery were interviewed to get the current staffing for the nursery and their subjective opinion on the adequacy of nursery manpower and the difficulties in recruiting manpower. Average medical fee charged for the maternity and normal newborn nursery care was obtained from the division of self-audit of medical insurance claim of each hospital. Average minimum requirement of nursing care time for one normal newborn per day was 179.5 (+/-58.6) minutes; 2023(+/-50.7) minutes for the university hospitals and 164.2(+/-60.5) minutes for the general hospitals. The ratio of minimum requirement of nursing care time and available nursing time was 1.42 on the average. Taking the additional requirement of nursing care for the sick newborns into consideration, the ratio was 2.06. The numbers of R. N. and A. N. in the nurserys of study hospitals were 31%, and 17%, respectively, of the nursing manpower for the nursery recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. These findings indicate that the nursing manpower in newborn nursery is in severe shortage. Ninety percent of the head nurses and 85% of the staff pediatrician stated that the newborn nursery is short of R.N. and 75% of them said that the nurse's aide is also short. Major reason for not recruiting R.N. was the financial constraint of hospital. For the recruitment of nurse's aide, short supply was the second most important reason next to the financial constraint. However, limit of quarter in T.O. was the major reason for the national university hospitals. Average total medical fee for the maternity and newborn nursery cares of a normal vaginal delivery who stayed two nights and three days at hospital was 219,430Won. Out of the total medical fee, 20,323Won(9.3%) was for the newborn nursery care. In case of C-section delivery six nights and seven days, who stayed otal medical fee was 732,578Won and out of the total fee 76,937Won (12.0%) was for the newborn care. Cost for a newborn care per day by cost accounting was 16,141Won for the tertiary care hospitals and 14,576Won for the all other hopitals. The ratio of cost and the fee schedule of the medical insurance for a newborn care per day was 5.0 for the tertiary care hospitals and 4.9 for the all other hospitals. Considering the current wage level of the medical personnel, capital investment for the hospital facilities and equipments, and the cost for hospital maintenance, it is hard to expect adequate quality care in the newborn nursery under the current medical insurance fee schedule.
Assessment of safety of playground equipments in elementary schools in Taegu.
Jung Han Park, Soon Gil Yun
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(3):414-427.
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To assess the safety of playground equipments in the elementary schools of Taegu, a site visit was made to 117 elementary schools out of 119 schools between 1st and 30th April 1991. Safety criteria were developed on the bases of Massachusetts' Playground Safety Check List, standard height of Korean children of 6-12 years old, and source book for designing playground equipments. There were eleven different kinds of playground equipments installed in 117 schools but the number of equipments was about 50-60% of the minimum requirement set by the Ministry of Education except chin-up bar. Among the installed equipments, 47.3% of swings, 16.6% of parallel bars, 20.0% of monkey bars, and 16.0% of slides were broken down. None of the swings, slides, seesaws, monkey bars, and sandboxes met the safety criteria to the full but 59.0 of chin-up bars, 31.4% of parallel bars, and 13.5% of stumps met the criteria fully. The proportions of equipments that were dangerous for children to play on were 26.4% for slides, 20.0% for monkey bars, 11.6% for seesaws, 10.4% for parallel bars, 9.85 for sandboxes, 7.4% for swings and stumps, and 3.9% for chin-up bars. The rests were either in need of repair of broken down. It was revealed by this survey that the playground equipments were too short in number to meet the minimum requirement, designs and size were not standardized, and many of the equipments were involved with the risk of child accidents. Therefore, a safety standard for the playground equipments should be developed and the existing equipments should be repaired immediately.
A survey on child battering among elementary school children and related factors in urban and rural areas.
Kae Soon Jeon, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(2):232-242.
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To determine the incidence rate of child battering and related factors, a questionnaire survey was conducted on 1,255 children in 4th and 5th grades of two elementary schools (one in the upper economic class area with 519 students and the other in the lower economic class area with 504 students) in Taegu and two schools in rural areas of Kyungpook province (120 and 112 students, respectively) from 1st May to 10th May 1990. Total number of children who were battered during one-month period (1-30 April 1990) prior to the survey was 918 (73.1%)> Among the battered children 87 (6.9%) were severely battered (twice or more in a month by kicking or more severe method) and 831 children (66.2%) were moderately battered (all other battering than severe battering). The percentage of battered children and degree of battering were not significantly different between two schools in Taegu and between urban and rural areas. Common reasons for battering were disobediance (61.9%), making troubles (34.9%), and poor school performance (33.3%). However, 16.1% of severely battered children responded that the perpetrators battered them to wreak their anger and 5.7% of them did not know the reason why they were battered. A majority of the battered children (65%) regretted their fault after being battered but 20.7% of the severely battered children wanted to run away and 9.2% of them had an urge to commit suicide. While most of the physical injuries due to battering were minor as bruise (52.7%) but some of them were severe, e.g., bone fracture (2.5%), skin laceration (1.5%), and loss of consciousness (0.2%). The common psycho-behavioral complaints of the severely battered children were unwillingness to study (31%), unwillingness to live (17.2%), and reluctance to go home (13.8%). The incidence rate of severe battering was significantly higher (p=0.018) among the children living in a quarter attached to a store (14.0%) than the children living in an apartment (6.6%) and individual louse (6.2%). The incidence rate of severe battering was higher among children living in a rental house (8.4%) than children living in their own house (6.3%) (p=0.005). The children of father only working (5.1%) and mother only working (4.5%) had a lower incidence rate of severe battering than the children of both parents working (9.1%) and both parents unemployed (20.7%) (p=0.006). More children were battered when there was a sick family member (80.8%) compared with the children without a sick family member (71.4%) (p=0.001). The incidence rates of severe and moderate battering increased as the frequency of quarreling between mother and father increased (P=0.000). The percentage of unbattered children was higher among children whose father's occupation was professional (39.4%) than that of the total study subjects (26.9%) (p<0.001).
Cohort Observafion of Blood Lead Concentration of Storage Battery Workers.
Chang Yoon Kim, Jung Man Kim, Gu Wung Han, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(3):324-337.
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To assess the effectiveness of the interventions in working environment and personal hygiene for the occupational exposure to the lead, 156 workers (116 exposed subjects and 40 controls) of a newly established battery factory were examined for their blood lead concentration (Pb-B) in every 3 months up to 18 months. Air lean concentration (Pb-A) of the workplaces was also checked for 3 times in 6 months interval from August 1987. Environmental intervention included the local exhaust ventilation and vacuum cleaning of the floor. Intervention of the personal hygiene included the daily change of clothes, compulsory shower after work and hand washing before meal, prohibition of cigarette smoking and food consumption at the work site and wearing mask. Mean Pb-B of the controls was 21.97 +/- 33.6 microgram/dl at the preemployment examination and slightly increased to 22.75 +/- 3.38 microgram/dl after 6 months. Mean Pb-B of the workers who were employed before the factory was in operation (Group A) was 20.49 +/- 3.84 microgram/dl on employment and it was increased to 23.90 +/- 5.30 microgram/dl after 3 months <(P<0.01). Pb-B was increased to 28.84 +/- 5.76 microgram/dl 6 months after the employment which was 1 month after the initiation of intervention program. It did not increase thereafter and ranged between 26.83 microgram/dl and 28.28 microgram/dl in the subsequent 4 tests. Mean Pb-B of the workers who were employed after the factory had been operation but before the intervention program was initiated (Group B) was 16.58 +/- 4.53 microgram/dl before the exposure and it was increased to 28.82 +/- 5.66 microgram/dl (P<0.01) in 3 months later (1 month after the intervention). The values of subsequent 4 tests remained between 26.46 and 28.54 microgram/dl. Mean Pb-B of the workers who were employed after intervention program had been started (Group C) was 19.45 +/- 3.44 microgram/dl at the preemployment examination and gradually increased to 22.70 +/- 4.55 microgram/dl after 3 months (P<0.01), 23.68 +/- 4.18 microgram/dl after 6 months, and 24.42 +/- 3.60 microgram/dl after 9 months. Work stations were classified into 4 parts according to Pb-A. The Pb-A of part I, the highest areas, were 0.365 mg/m3, and after intervention the levels were decreased to 0.216 mg/m3 and 0.208 mg/m3 in follow-up tests. The Pb-A of part II was decreased from 0.232 mg/m3 to 0.148 mg/m3, and 0.120 mg/m3 after the invention. Pb-A of part III and IV was tested only after intervention and the Pb-A of part III were 0.124 mg/m3 in January 1988 and 0.081 mg/m3 in August 1988. The Pb-A of part IV, not stationed at one place but moving around, was 0.110 mg/m3 in August 1988. There was no consistent relationship between Pb-B and Pb-A. Pb-B of the group A and B workers in the part of the highest Pb-A were lower than those of the workers in the parts of lower Pb-A. Pb-B of the workers in the part of the lowest Pb-A increased more rapidly. Pb-B of group C workers was the highest in part I and the lowest in part IV. These findings suggest that Pb-B is more valid method than Pb-A for monitoring the health of lead workers and intervention in personal hygiene is more effective than environmental intervention.
Cohort Infant Mortality Rate of Gunwee and Hapchun Counties and an MCH Center in Taegu.
Jung Han Park, Min Hae Yeh, Byung Yeol Chun, Sung Euk Cho, Hyun Kim, Han Jin Chung, Jae Yeon Cho, Jung Hub Song, Gui Yeon Kim, Jang Rak Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):87-97.
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No abstract available.
Comparative Analysis of Delivery Management in Various Medical Facilities.
Jung Han Park, Young Sook You, Jang Rak Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(4):555-577.
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This study was conducted to compare the delivery management including laboratory tests, medication and surgical procedures for the delivery in various medical facilities. Two university hospitals, two general hospitals, three hospitals, two private obstetric clinics, and two midwifery clinics in a large city were selected as they permitted the investigators to abstract the required data from the medical and accounting records. The total number of deliveries occurred at these 11 facilities between 15 January and 15 February, 1989 was 789 among which 606(76.8%) were vaginal deliveries and 183(23.3%) were C-sections. For the normal vaginal deliveries, CBC, Hb/Hct level, blood typing, VDRL, hepatitis B antigen and antibody, and urinalysis were routinely done except the private clinics and midwifery clinics which did not test for hepatitis B and Hb/Hct level at all. In one university hospital ultrasonography was performed in 71.4% of the mothers and in one general hospital liver function test was done in 76.7% of the mothers. For the C-section, chest X-ray, bleeding / clotting time and liver function test were routinely done in addition to the routine tests for the normal vaginal deliveries. Episiotomy was performed in 97.2% of the vaginal deliveries. The type and duration of fluid infused and antibiotics administered showed a wide variation among the medical facilities. In one university hospital antibiotics was not administered after C-section at all while in the general hospitals and hospitals one or two antibiotics were administered for one week on the average. In one private clinic one pint of whole blood was transfused routinely. A wide variation was observed among the medical facilities in the use of vitamin, hemostatics, oxytocics, antipyreptics, analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, sedatives, digestives, stool softeners, antihistamines, and diuretics. Mean hospital day for the norma vaginal deliveries of primipara was 2.6 days with little variation except one hospital with 3.5 days. Mean hospital day for the C-section of primipara was 7.5 days and that of multipara was 7.6 days and it ranged between 6.5 days and 9.4 days. Average hospital fee for a normal vaginal delivery without the medical insurance coverage was 182,100 Won for the primipara and 167,300 Won for the multipara. In case of the primipara covered by the medical insurance a mother paid 82,400 Won and a multiparous mother paid 75,600 Won. Average hospital fee for a C-section without the medical insurance was 946,500 Won for the primipara and 753,800 Won for the multipara. In case of the primipara covered by the medical insurance a mother paid 256,200 Won and a multiparous mother paid 253,700 Won. Average hospital fee for a normal vaginal delivery in the university hospitals showed a remarkable difference, 268,000 Won vs 350,000 Won, as well as for the C-section. A wide variation in the laboratory tests performed for a normal vaginal delivery and a C-section as well as in the medication and hospital days brought about a big difference in the hospital fee and some hospitals were practicing the case payment system. Thus, standardization of the medical care to a certain level is warranted for the provision of adequate medical care for delivery.
Child Rearing Practice of Working Mothers in a Poor Area of Pusan.
Yeon Ja Hwang, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(3):389-397.
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To identify the problems in child rearing practice of employed mothers in urban poor area, all of 201 women with children under 6 years old living in Yun San 3 Dong, a poor area of Pusan city, were interviewed with a questionnaire by a trained interviewer from 10th April to 10th May 1989. Among 201 women, 51 women were employed and 150 women were unemployed. Of the employed mothers 78.5% got their jobs because of economical need and 31.4% of them worker for 60-69 hours per week. Their average monthly income was 100,000-190,000 Won in 33.4% and 200,000-290,000 Won in 25.4%. Breast milk was fed in 66.0% of the children of unemployed mothers while 49.0 of the children of the employed mothers were breast-fed (p<0.05). The most common reason for not breast feeding was shortage of breast milk among unemployed mothers (58.9%) but that of the employed mothers was their job(63.6%). The basic immunization for children was completed in 70.5% of children of employed mothers as compared with 82.0% of the children of the unemployed mothers were completely immunized (p<0.1). Accident experience rate of children among the employed mothers was 23.5% and that of the children of the unemployed mothers was 17.3%. The most common cause of accident in children of the unemployed mothers was carelessness while they were playing(34.6%) but in children of the employed mothers it was traffic accident(25.0%) and falling(25.0%). Most of the traffic accidents took place while the children's brother or sister of age under 14 years were baby sitting. When the accident took place 73.1% of the unemployed mothers were just at home, but 58.3% of the employed mothers were out of home for work. In case of the employed mothers, 58.7% of their children were looked after by an adult mainly grandparents, 15,7% by the children's brothers and sisters under 14 years old, and 3.9% of the children were left alone. A majority of the unemployed mothers wanted to get a job if someone could take care of their children. To facilitate the women employment and for the safety and health of the children, good nurseries for working mothers need to be established at a cost they can afford.
Impact of Changes in Maternal Age and Parity Distribution on Low Birth Weight Incidence Rate.
Young Ae Kim, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(2):276-282.
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The objective of this study was to examine the impact of changes in maternal age and parity distribution on birth weight. The study population included 7,786 single live births in 1987 delivered at 9 medical facilities in Pusan. Data were obtained from the delivery record. The proportion of infants born to the mothers of 25-29 years increased from 56.4% in 1977 to 65.1% in 1987 and the proportion to the mothers of 30-34 years increased from 18.8% in 1977 to 21.6% in 1987. In the same period, the proportions of 1st and 2nd birth order were increased from 56.9% and 28.8% to 59.9% and 36.8%, respectively. The proportion of infants born to the age group of < or = 24 and 35 < or = years were decreased in 1987. The proportion of births of the third or higher birth order was decreased from 14.2% in 1977 to 3.3% in 1987. Low birth weight (<2500gm) incidence rate was 5.3% in 1977 and it was decreased to 4.0% in 1987. It was estimated that changes in maternal age-parity distribution accounted for 10.7% of the decreased in low birth weight incidence rate. Rest of the change (89.3%) was attributed to the reduction of age-parity specific low birth weight incidence rate. Application of the direct adjustment method was considered to be an adequate tool for evaluating the impact of family planning on neonatal health.
Validity of Referral of High Risk Pregnancy in MCH Center.
Gui Yeon Kim, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(1):146-152.
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To test the validity of referral of high risk pregnancy in the MCH Center, 6,017 pregnant women who visited MCH Center of South District Health Center for delivery between 1 April 1985 and 31 March 1987 were interviewed on arrival to obtain the data for demographic characteristics and obstetric history and traced to check the delivery outcome. Out of 5,820 women whose delivery outcomes were confirmed, 704 women(12.1%) were referred to other hospital or clinic for high risk factors. The proportion of poor delivery outcome(stillbirth, low birth weight and neonatal death) among referred cases was 4.4% while that of the women delivered at the MCH Center was 2.2%(p<0.01). Decision of the midwives for the referral of high risk pregnancy based on their clinical assessment was consistent with the delivery outcome (good or poor) in 86.5%. Major reasons for referral were premature rupture of membrane(46.5%) and cephalopelvic disproportion(20.0%) and the C-section rates for these cases were 10.1%, 17.6%, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the demographic characteristics and obstetric history for the discrimination of delivery outcome showed that gestational age had the highest discriminant function coefficient(0.88) and it was followed by parity(0.37) and maternal education(0.30). Referral of high risk pregnancy by the midwives based on their clinical assessment was considered to be reasonably valid. However, a risk scoring system for an MCH Center which can improve the validity may be developed if one applies the discriminant analysis for more comprehensive independent variable(including clinical assessment of midwife, demographic characteristics and obstetric history) and dependent variable (including medically indicated C-section, complication of pregnancy and delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight, neonatal death and maternal death).
Association between Serum HBeAg Status and Tuberculosis Infection.
Jang Rak Kim, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(1):65-70.
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To examine the association between serum HBeAg status and tuberculosis infection, we reviewed medical records of 579 inpatients who had serum HBeAg test with RIA method at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Kyungpook University Hospital from January 1, 1985 to December 31, 1987. HBeAg positive patients had lower tuberculosis infection rate (5.0%) than that of HBeAg negative patients(9.8%) and the odds ratio of HBeAg associated with tuberculosis was 0.48(95% C.I.:0.22-1.08). Similar relationship was found in the patients of hepatobiliary diseases; tuberculosis infection rate was 4.4% in HBeAg positive patients, 8.1% in HBeAg negative patients, and the odds ratio was 0.52(95% C.I.:0.17-1.35). Although the association did not reach the statistical significance level of 0.05, the negative association was consistent with other study done on Southeast Asian population of Philadelphia. A cohort study in general population is warranted to confirm above findings because of the limitations on hopital-based data.
Causes of Burn and Emergency Care on the Spot for the Patients Admitted to Three Hospitals in Taegu.
Min Chu, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):238-244.
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This study was conducted to investigate the causes of burn and emergency cares taken on the spot for the burn patient. study population included 161 burn patients admitted to 2 university hospitals and 1 general hospital in Taegu from November 1, 1987 to April 30, 1988. Patients or guardians were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Out of 161 burn patients 111(69.8%) were males and 50(31.1%) females. Preschool children of 1-4 years old accounted for 29.8% of the total patients. Burns of children under 15 years of age took place at home in 91.0%, while 48.3% of burns of adult (15 years and over) males occurred at the working place, and 68.0% of adult females occurred at the home. Out of total burns occurred at home 39.8% took place at kitchen/dining room and 24.1% in the room. The most common cause of burns in children was the boiling water or hot food (74.3%). In adults the common causes were electrical burn(22.4%), hot water or food(19.0%) and explosion(12.1%) for males, and hot water or food(32.0%) and explosion(20.0%) for females. Common emergency cares for the burn taken on the spot were undressing(64.6%), pouring Soju(liquor)(13.7%), and pouring cold water(5.0%). There were a few cases who applied ash, soy or salt. To prevent burn, it is recommended to remodel the traditional kitchen and coal-briquet hole, to strengthen the safety control of LP Gas and LN Gas supply, to educate the public for the handling method for such gases, to strengthen the occupational safety control, to improve the safety device for the electric wire and socket, and to limit the temperature of hot water at home and public baths.
Causes of Childhood Injuries Observed at the Emergency Rooms of Five Hospitals in Taegu.
Jung Han Park, Yeong Sook Bae
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):224-237.
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To determine the causes of and related factors to childhood injuries, the emergency room records and inpatient medical records were reviewed for 4,849 injured children out of 15,790 pediatric patients(<15 years old) who visited the emergency rooms of 3 university hospitals and 2 general hospitals in Taegu from 1 January to 31 December 1987. Out of total injured children, 54.6% were 3-8 years old and the male to female ratio of the total injured children was about 2 : 1. The leading causes of injury were falls and slips (29.1%) and traffic accident(28.2%). The frequency of injury was higher in May-October than the rest of months and 51.6% of the injuries occurred between 15 and 20 o'clock. Falls and slips took place most frequently at the stairway(25.7%). The most common interpersonal violence was inflicted injuries(85.6%) and there were 11 child rapes. Dog bites accounted for 67.6% of all biting injuries and it occurred 2.9 times more in male than in female. CO intoxication was the most common cause of poisoning (45.3%) and scalding accounted for 85.2% of all burns. Common places of drownings were river (32.2%), swimming pool (22.6%) and construction site(19.3%). To prevent childhood injuries, it is recommended to eliminate the hazardous environmental factors, to provide safe playgrounds, to educate the children for safety from kindergarten and the general public through mass communication, to establish a strict safety standard for houses, public buildings and facilities, and playgrounds.
Cross-sectional Survey for Prevalence Rate of Scoliosis in Primary, Middle and High School Boys in Pusan City.
Bok Yong Kim, Jung Han Park, Poong Taek Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):217-223.
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A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of scoliosis in elementary, middle and high school boys in May 1988. The study population included 1,393 male students in Pusan ; 463 students of 4th grade in two elementary schools, 543 students of 1st grade in one middle school and 387 students of 1st grade in one high school. The students of elementary school were screened with inspection by two physicians at the same time and the students of middle and high schools were screened with both inspection by the same physicians and 70mm chest X-ray. Positive students in any one of the two screening tests were measured for height and body weight and asked for the shoulder side on which he carries the school bag. The angle of curvature on X-ray film was measured by Cobb's method. The number of positive students in any one of the two tests were 15(3.2%) in elementary schools, 174(32.0%) in middle school and 92(23.8%) in high school. However, positive rates in both tests were only 2.2% for the middle school students and 2.6% for the high school students and among these students 1.1% out of total middle school students and 2.3% of high school students had a curvature equal to or greater than 5 degrees of Cobb's angle on 70mm chest X-ray film. There was a statistically significant association between the direction of spinal curve and the shoulder side on which one carries school bag among positive students in both screening tests (p<0.05). Mean height and body weight of 281 positive students in any one of two screening tests were compared with the Korean standard for the same age. Mean weight of elementary school students was nearly the same as the standard weight but the height was slightly shorter than the standard. However, both mean height and weight of the middle school students were lower than the standard while those of the high school students were higher. The prevalence rate of scoliosis for the 2nd 3rd grades of high school is presumed to be higher than that of the 1st grade of high school and the rate for girls will be even higher than the rate for boys of the same age. Thus, scoliosis seems to be an important school health problem. To prevent scoliosis, it is recommended to reduce the weight of school bag, educate the students to keep a right posture and exercise periodically.
Birth Registration Rate and Accuracy of Reported Birth Date in Rural Area.
Jung Han Park, Chang Yik Lee, Jang Rak Kim, Jung Hup Song, Min Hae Yeh, Seong Eok Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):70-81.
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To measure the birth registration rate and the validity of birth registration data in rural area, all of the 4,014 married women under 49 years of age who had not been sterilized in Gunwee county of Kyungpook province were followed by Myun health workers for 2 years from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1987 and 766 births were detected. All of the birth registration records of Myun offices were reviewed on September 30, 1987 and 944 births which occurred within the above mentioned period were found. Actual birth date obtained by follow-up study were compared with the birth date on registration card. Among 766 births detected by follow-up study, 576 births(75.2%) which were reported within 6 months after birth were ascertained on the official registration records and 96 births(12.5%) were not found on the records although mother stated that the birth was registered. The registration rate within legal due date was 61.3% among 576 births detected by follow-up study and also ascertained on the official records. The registration rate within legal due date was lower in mothers under 20 years of age and above 35 years and in mothers who had only primary education. It was decreased as the birth order increased. The registration rate was higher in births occurred from October to March than births occurred from April to September. All of the births of 7 neonatal deaths were not reported. The registered birth date was consistent with the actual birth date in 78.0%. Birth date on record was earlier than the actual birth date in 6.8% and later in 15.3%. The consistency rate was lower in mothers above 35 years of age(54.5%), and in infants of 4th birth order and above(56.3%). The rate was increased as the maternal education level increased. The rate of boys was higher than that of girls. A higher percentage(17.4%) of infants born in March was registered with earlier date than the actual birth date and most of these registered birth dates were lunar calendar date. This might be related with the age for entering the primary school. The study findings revealed that the birth registration rate within legal due date and accuracy of report have been increased in recent years, but the infant mortality rate derived from the birth registration seems to be very inaccurate. It is suggested to let the medical personnel who delivered the baby report the birth by mail directly to the current address of parent while infants delivered at home without professional attendant may comply with the present registration system.
A Follow-up Study of Fertility and Pregnancy Wastage of Women in Rural Area.
Jung Han Park, Sin Hyang Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Gui Yeon Kim, Min Hae Yeh, Seong Eok Cho, Jae Yeon Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):21-30.
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To measure the fertility rate and pregnancy wastage of women in rural area, 3,780 married women under 50 years old who were not sterilized either woman or husband in Gunwee county were followed up for 2 years. Seventeen Myun health workers visited these women periodically to check the status of their family planning practice and menstruation. Pregnant women were interviewed for their past obstetric history and followed up to the time of delivery. Family planning was practiced in 51.6% of the 6,826 women-years observed during the period from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1987. Pregnancy, abortion and delivery covered 7.6% of the observed women years and family planning was not practiced in 36.5% of the women-years. When sterilized women at the beginning of the study were included, the family planning practice rate was 72.1% which was slightly higher than the national family planning practice rate. However, 28% of the women of 30-39 years old had not practiced family planning although they had 2-3 children and they used more such less effective methods as safe-period method and condom than the women of 20-29 years old. Overall pregnancy rate was 14.3 per 100 woman-years. Women of 25-29 years old had the highest pregnancy rate of 27.4 per 100 woman-years. Pregnancy wastage including spontaneous and induced abortions and still births was 22.0% of all pregnancies and it increased with the age of women; 15.8% in women less than 30 years old and 43.7% in women of 30 years and over. Women who terminated the pregnancy with induced abortion had more pregnancies, more previous induced and spontaneous abortions and shorter pregnancy interval than those women who terminated with live birth. Pregnant women terminated with a live birth had received 4.2 prenatal cares on the average. Eighty-five percent of deliveries occurred at a medical facility and 15% at home which was substantially lower home delivery rate than the other rural area of Korea. This may be due to the effects of the demonstration project for the primary health care in 1970s in Gunwee county. These findings suggest that family planning service in rural area should be strengthened by promoting the use of more effective contraceptive method among women over 30 years of age.
Comparision of Maternal Characteristics and Birth Weight among Five Different Categories of Medical Facility for Delivery in Taegu.
Jung Hup Song, Jung Han Park, Gui Yeon Kim, Jong Rak Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):10-20.
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This study was conducted to compare the maternal characteristics, and birth weight of infants delivered at five different categories of medical facility in Taegu to examine the risk level of pregnant women and children by the medical facility for delivery. The study population included 1,410 pregnant women who delivered a baby at one of nine medical facilities (3 university hospitals, 2 general hospitals, 2 private clinics, 1 midwife clinic, 1 MCH center) in Taegu in April, 1987(April and May, 1987 for K university hospital). Pregnant women were interviewed to ask the age and educational level of woman, payment of medical fee, birth order, delivery method. Birth weight of infant was obtained from medical record. Mean ages of the women delivering at the university hospitals(27.5 years) and at general hospitals(26.7 years) were higher than those at midwife clinic(25.4 years) and at MCH center(26.1 years). Also, mean years of school education were higher in women of university hospitals(12.7 years) and general hospitals(12.2 years) than in women of midwife clinic(9.2 years) and MCH center (9.3 years). The percentages of women covered by the medical insurance were far greater in the university hospitals(78.1%) and general hospitals(82.9%) than in private clinics(44.3%), midwife clinic(29.1%) and MCH center (5.4%). Infants born at the MCH center were mostly the second birth (47.3%) while 56.0% to 61.7% of infants born at all the other medical facilities were the first birth more women delivering at the university hospitals had history of spontaneous abortion as well as still birth than the women delivering at the other medical facilities. The preterm birth rate (11.4%) and low birthweight incidence rates(5.8-13.0%) in university hospitals were significantly higher than those of other medical facilities. Accordingly, c-section rates showed a wide variation among the medical facilities. Study findings revealed that most of women delivering at the university hospitals and general hospitals are in the middle of or upper socio-economic class and obstetrically high risk group regardless of socioeconomic class while the women delivering at the midwife clinic and MCH center are low risk group of low socioeconomic class. Therefore, the data of a specific medical facility are highly limited in interpretation and can not be generalized.
A Cohort Study of Incidence Rate and Causes of School Accidents in a Boys' Middle School in Taegu.
Jung Han Park, Mi Wha Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1987;20(2):331-340.
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To determine the incidence rate of school accidents and its associated factors, a cohort observation was carried out in a boys' high school of a total 2,324 students for an academic year from March 1986 to February 1987. Data for accidents were collected by the author (school nurse) as students came to the school health station for treatment of accidental injury. Data for school activities were obtained from the diary of academic affairs. A total of 603 students made 1,126 visits to the station for accidental injury during the study period that gave an average 1.9 accidents per student. The average number of visits for accidental injury per day was 5.1 and the incidence rate of accidental injury was 2.2 per 1,000 student days. Each class had about 30 accidents on the average in a year. However there were two classes that had exceptionally high incidence rate of accidents; 54 accidents in one class where 10 athletes were assigned and 58 accidents in the other class where the teacher in charge was on vacation for two months. The highest incidence rate of accident was observed in June (3.4 per 1,000 student days) and the lowest rates were in December and February (1.5 and 0.7 per 1,000 student days, respectively) and there were no appreciable difference by day of week. Accidents were caused by mischief or carelessness of students in 62.2% and by the inappropriate tools and facilities of school in 18.6%. The accidents caused by tools and facilities were mainly due to the antiquated chairs and tables. Referral rate to hospital for severe injury was three times higher in cloudy days and five times higher in rainy days than in clear days. There was almost no accident during the examination period but increased after the examination. Based on these findings, following measures are recommended to prevent school accident: disperse the athletes throughout the classes; should the teacher in charge leave the class for a long period, replace with another teacher who is familiar with the class to keep order; replace or repair the inappropriate tools and facilities; and warn the students for the risk of accident or broadcast music or let the students have light physical exercise to relieve the tension in cloudy or rainy day and after examination.
Changing Pattern of Birth Weight and Relationship of Birth Weight with Maternal Age and Parity.
Jung Han Park, Bong Sun Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1987;20(2):322-330.
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The objectives of this study were to examine the changes of birth weight and relationship of birth weight with maternal age and parity. The study population included 13,634 single live births out of 14,346 births delivered at a general hospital in Busan between January 1, 1977 and December 31, 1986. Data were obtained from the delivery record. In 1979 the mean birth weight of male was 3,074 gm and that of female to 2,985 gm. In 1986 birth weight of male was increased to 3,266 gm and that of female to 3,210 gm. Low birth weight (< or = 2,500 gm) incidence rate was 7.2% in 1977 and it was increased gradually to 10.4% in 1980 but decreased thereafter to 6.5% in 1986. Incidence rate of overweight infant (4,001 gm < or =) was 3.9% for 10 years and it ranged from 2.9% to 4.6% but no particular changing pattern was observed. The percentage of mothers who had history of induced abortion was decreased from 51.6% in 1979 to 45.1% in 1986. Also, stillbirth rate was decreased from 2.6% in 1977 to 1.5% in 1986. The proportion of the first and second births was increased from 85.4% in 1977 to 96.0% in 1986 and the proportion of mothers of 25-34 years increased from 72.1% in 1977 to 84.7% in 1986. The incidence rates of low birth weight and over weight infant are lower in the first and second births of 25-34 years old mothers than other parities and age groups. In creased mean birth weight and decreased low birth weight incidence rate indicate that the health status of newborn infants has been improved and substantial portion of these changes can be attributed to increase in family planning practice rate and delayed marriage. There is no evidence, however, for increasing incidence rate of overweight infant.
Maternal and Child Factors Associated with Early Detection of Cerebral Palsy.
Sung Soo Bae, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1987;20(2):312-321.
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To investigate the maternal and child factors associated with early detection of cerebral palsy, 74 mothers of cerebral palsy children who were born since January 1, 1980 and being treated at Taegu Rehabilitation Center for the Handicapped, Rehabilitation Center of Taegu University, St. Paul Children's House and Pusan Welfare Association of Cerebral Palsy Children were interviewed from February to April 1987. There is no association between age of child when parents noticed the child's abnormality and educational level of father but it tend to be detected earlier when education level of mother is college or above compared with high school or under. There is a trend of earlier detection of child's abnormality although statistically not significant in case father is professional or managerial worker, monthly income of father is over 610,000 won, child is first-born, age of the parents is 34 years or under, child is a boy, and child has periodic well-baby check-up. The child's abnormality is detected earlier when mothers had 7 prenatal visits or more compared with those who had 6 visits or less (P<0.05). Parents noticed the child's abnormality first in 85.1% of the case whereas doctors detected it first in 2.7% and this percentage was not different whether the child had periodic well-baby check-up or not. The first physician's diagnosis of the children was cerebral palsy in 36.5% and the rest was normal, need for observation, uncertain, etc. Parents took the child to doctor for diagnosis 2-3 months after they noticed the child's abnormality and after the child was diagnosed as cerebral palsy parents either took no therapeutic measure or brought the child to physiotherapy or acupuncture or gave herb medicine before they started specific rehabilitative therapy. For early detection of the cerebral palsy children, teaching of evaluation method for child development should be reinforced both in medical school and clinical training course and should train the specialist for diagnosis and treatment of crippling conditions. Also, public education needed for the importance of early detection of crippling conditions and currently available methods for diagnosis and treatment.
Hepatitis B Virus Infection Rate of Medical School Students in Taegu.
Jung Han Park, Tae Hyum Youn, Byung Yeol Chun, Jung Hup Song
Korean J Prev Med. 1987;20(1):129-136.
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To determine the hepatitis B virus infection rate of medical school students and appropriate time for immunization with hepatitis B vaccine, 385 students in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd grades of Medical School of Kyungpook National University who had not been vaccinated and volunteered to participate in this study were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc with radioimmunoassay method (Abbortt Lab. kit). A questionnaire was administered to ask the history of transfusion, acupuncture and surgery. HBsAg positive students were retested 16 months after the initial test. Overall HBsAg positive rate was 6.8% and the age adjusted rate for male (7.2%) was higher than that for female (4.9%). Anti-HBs positive rate was 35.8% (36.1% for male, 37.9% for male) and anti-HBc positive rate was 45.5% (46.5% for male, 44.7% for femaleP. Overall hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection rats was 49.1% and the infection rate for male (50.3%) was slightly higher than that for female (46.5%). HBsAg positive rate and infection rate were increased as the grade increased but it was attributed to the age distribution of the students. HBsAg positive rate for 20 years old students was 1.7%; 21 years, 6.6%; 22 years, 6.1%; 23 years, 12.2%; and 24 years and older, 6.4%. HBV infection rate showed an increasing trend as age increased; 45.8% for 20 years, 41.5% for 21 years, 49.5% for 22 years, 55.5% for 23 years and 59.6% for 24 years and older. The age differences in HBsAg positive rates and HBV infection rates did not reach the statistical significance level of 0.05. However, these findings and similar age differences in HBsAg positive rates and HBV infection rates observed in other study suggest that there is a significant age differences. Study of the same age group in other schools and different social classes is warranted to confirm the age difference. Clarification of the reason for such differences would provide a clue to identify the major route of HBV transmission in this age group. Among 26 HBsAg positive students in the initial test, only one student was active hepatitis patient. Out of 24 students who had follow-up test after 16 months 22 students were positive for HBsAg and two students became HBsAg negative and anti-HBs positive. It is obvious that nearly one-half of the medical school students were infected with HBV before 20 years of age and the HBV infection occurs in medical school. Thus, it is recommended to test all the students for HBV infection soon after the admission to the medical school and immunize all the susceptible students with hepatitis B vaccine and give booster as they start to practice at a hospital.
Assessment of the Activities of General Physicians in Health Subcenters and a Scheme to Improve the Training Program.
Jung Han Park, Byung Yeol Chun, Kuck Hyeun Woo
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(2):193-202.
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The activities of general physicians (GPs) in health subcenters and their competency for clinical skills were assessed to develop a scheme to improve the training program. One hundred-twenty GPs in southern four provinces (Kyungpook Kyungnam, Chunpook, Chunnam) were randomly selected and 97 were interviewed between January 9 and February 10, 1984. Of the 97 GPs, 86 provided all the information we requested. Average number of patient visits per health subcenter in a day was 30-40 in the demonstration project area for the class II medical insurance whereas it was 3-4 visits in other area. The interviewees asked to rate their competency in 63 clinical skills. The skills in which over 50% of the interviewees rated themselves competent were only 12 items including IM injection, IV injection, wound dressing, etc. Less than 10% of the interviewees rated themselves competent in such skills as maternal health care, emergency medical care, preventive and promotive health services. Most part of the training program of the NIH for the GPs were not applicable to their field work as the training contents were unrealistic. Clinical training at a local general hospital was of great help in 38.8% and the rest of training was not much helpful as the training was inadequate due to lack of trainer or indifference of the trainer. For more effective training of the GPs, the training program of the NIH should be modified to be more realistic and utilize competent field workers as the instructors. It may be more effective if the training is carried out at several local centers. Ideal length of the clinical training for the GPs is 4 months. A pocketbook should be developed that includes specific skills to master during the clinical training and require the trainer to confirm the achievement. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs should provide the training hospitals with a training guideline and evaluate the training activities and make sure that the training hospital has specialist for each of the 4 major clinical departments. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs shuld provide the GPs with a continuing education to assist the problem solving in the field and motivate them to activitely carry out the health program. A province may be divided into several regions and a supervisory committee may be organized with specialists in each region. The committee may hold a meeting for the GPs periodically and respond to the specific questions of the GPs by mail.
Gastroscopic Findings of Rural Residents with Symptoms of Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorder.
Jung Han Park, Byung Yeol Chun, Dong Koo Lee, Yong Whan Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):85-90.
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This study was conducted in July-August, 1984, to define the causes of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms in rural population and to provide data for the management of such patients. A household survey was conducted to identify all the residents of Youngchun and Sungju counties in Kyungpook province who were over 20 years of age, had chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms for over the last 6 months, never had medical examination for the symptoms, and volunteered to participate in the gastroscopic examination. Gastroscopy was done for 106 males and 108 females. Gastric ulcer was found in 16.8% of all the examinees, duodenal ulcer in 15.4%, gastritis in 14.0%, and gastric cancer in 3.7%. No lesion was found by gastroscopy in 52.3%. Gastric ulcer more common in male(26.4%) than in female(7.4%) (p<0.01) and the same was true for duodenal ulcer(20.8% of male, 10.2% of female). Gastric cancer was found in 7.5% of the male while none of the female had gastric cancer. A higher proportion of the female(68.5%) showed normal finding in the gastroscopy than the male(35.9%) (p<0.01). No significant association was found between the upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the gastroscopic findings. The higher prevalence rate of gastric ulcer than that of duodenal ulcer in this study which is the reverse of the study findings of urban area in Korea and western countries may be related in part with the dietary habit and social environment of the rural population. Although early diagnosis is the most important for the treatment of gastric cancer, many of the people with chronic upper gastrointestinal complaints defer the diagnosis and treatment. It is may be due to lack of the knowledge of disease and the health care attitude of the rural people. A national program for the health education and mass screening for the gastric cancer should be developed.
A Comparison Study of childhood Immunizational level between Urban and Rural Areas.
Jung Han Park, Jung Nam Kim, Kuck Hyeun Woo
Korean J Prev Med. 1985;18(1):137-147.
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To assess the childhood immunization level of uran and rural areas, 250 mothers of 6-23 months old children residing in Namsan 1 Dong, Taegu, and 264 mothers of the same age children residing in five areas of Kyungsan Gun where community health practitioners are assigned were interviewed in March, 1984. Immunization rate for BCG was 98.0% in urban area and 95.8% in rural area. Among children who had BCG vaccination 91.4% of them were immunized within 1 month after birth in urban area and 88.1% in rural area. The percentage of children who received three doses of DPT vaccine was 83.2% in urban, and 87.5% in rural area and that for the polio vaccine was 80.8% in urban and 87.9% in rural area. Only a few children have never been immunized with either BCG or DPT or polio vaccine. Overall immunization rate for measles was 64.4% in urban area while it was 55.3% in rural area and that for mumps and rubella was 50.4% in urban area as compared with 36.0% in rural area. However, among children of 15 months old and above the percentage of measles vaccination was 85.3% in urban area and 73.7% in rural area. Mumps and rubella vaccination rate was 77.6% in urban area and 62.4% in rural area. These differences in measles, mumps and rubella vaccination rates between urban and rural areas were statistically significant (p<0.05). Such findings as improved immunization level, no significant differences in BCG, DPT and polio vaccination rate between urban and rural areas, and fewer mothers in rural area have not vaccinated their children than mothers in urban area because of their ignorance may be attributed to the general improvement of living standard and implementation of the maternal and child health services of the government. Nevertheless many of the mothers in rural as well as urban area have not immunized their children on time and measles, mumps and rubella vaccination rates are substantially lower than other childhood immunizations. Future immunization activity should be geared to reinforcing these areas.
The Effects of Maternal HBs antigenemia on the Neonatal Health.
Jung Han Park, Sung Do Yoon, Chang Youn Kim, Sung Kwan Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):47-56.
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To study the risk factors associated with maternal HBsAg carrier and the effects of maternal HBs antigenemia on the neonatal health, sera of 729 pergnant women admitted to the Keimyung University Hospital for delivery during the period of February 1-May 30, 1982 were tested for HBsAg by RPHA method and for anti-HBs by PHA method. Among them 43 women (5.9%) had HBsAg and 246 women (33.7%) had anti-HBs giving an infection rate of 39.6%. The interview data for 43 HBsAg positive mothers and randomly selected 210 HBsAg negative mothers showed a statistically significant association between acupuncture history and HBsAg positive rate (p<0.005) which suggest that acupuncture might have contributed significantly to the propagation of viral hepatitis in Korea. The living standard of HBsAg positive mothers was generally lower than that of HBsAg negative mothers which supports the hypothesis that environmental factors are associated with viral hepatitis B infection. None of the 43 neonates born to HBsAg positive mothers had HBsAg in their cord blood. Three months after birth, 35 out of 43 infants were retested and only one infant became HBsAg positive. At six months of age, 32 out of 35 infants were retested and none of them were HBsAg positive except the same infant who was positive at three months. Among 20 control infants of HBsAg negative mothers, all of them were HBsAg negative at three and six months follow-up. These findings are not consistent with the supposition that perinatal infection is a main route of viral hepatitis B transmission in south-east Asia including Korea. HBsAg positive mothers had significantly higher rate of premature delivery (27.9%) than HBsAg negative mothers (11.7%) (p<0.05). Also, the low birthweight incidence rate was higher among HBsAg positive mothers (23.3%) than negative mothers (14.1%) but this was not statistically significant (p=0.16). The premature rupture of membrane was more frequent among HBsAg positive mothers (25.5%) than negative mothers (11.1%) (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the stillbirth rate and incidence of congenital anomalies between HBsAg positive and negative groups. It was not clarified in this study due to small sample size whether higher incidence of premature delivery and premature rupture of membranes among HBsAg positive mothers was due to HBs antigenemia per se or their lower living standard than HBsAg negative mothers.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health