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Volume 5(1); November 1972
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Original Articles
A study on Public Nuisance in Kwangju City: Surey on Air Pollution and Noise Level.
Yo Han Chung, Kil Wng Kim, Jae Kyu Moon, Heung Kyu Joo
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):1-7.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
During the period from June 1st 1971 to November 30th 1971, studies on air polluton were made in Kwangju city. The city was divided into 6 areas : the downtown ares, the simi-downtown area, the heavy traffic area, the commercial area, the residential area, the park area, 13 surveying sites were selected each representing the characteristics of the area. The Measurement methods which were used are described below. Sulfur oxides were measured by PbO2 cylinder method, sulfur dioxides (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) by the MSA & Kitakwa detector, dustfall by the Deposit gauge method, and the noise levels by the Kanomax sound level meter. The results obtained are as follows : 1. The mean value of sulfur oxides in Kwangju city was 1.16 mg SO3/day/100cm2 PbO2, ranging from 0.45mg SO3/day/100cm2 PbO2 to 3.10mg SO3/day/100cm2 PbO2. 2. The mean value of sulfur oxides according to its specific area in the city were 1.45mg SO3/day/100cm2 PbO2 in heavy traffic area, 1.36 in downtown area, 1.23 in semi-downtown area, 1.11 in commercial area, 0.96 in residential area, and 1.07 in park area, respectively. 3. The average concentration of sulfur dioxide was 0.063 ppm from 2 to 5 P.M in Kwangju city. 4. The average concentration of sulfur dioxides according to its specific area, from 2 to 5 P.M, in the city were 0.084 ppm in heavy traffic area & downtown area, 0.067 in commercial area, 0.053 in semi-downtown area, 0.052 in residential area, and 0.036 in park area. 5. The average concentration of carbon monoxide was 22.3 ppm from 2 to 5 P.M in Kwangju city. 6. The average concentration of carbon monoxide according to its specific area, from 2 to 5 P.M, in the city were 27.0ppm in downtown traffic area, 26.3 in semi-downtown area, 23.0 in heavy traffic area, 21.7 in commercial area, 20.0 in residential area, and 17.6 in park area. 7. The mean value of dustfall in Kwangju city was 29.28 ton/Km2/month, ranging from 9.85 ton/Km2/month to 66.34 ton/Km2/month. 8. The mean values of dustfall according to its specific area in the city were 50.37 ton/Km2/month in semi-downtown area, 42.76 in heavy traffic area, 34.67 in downtown area, 17.77 in commercial area, 14.40 in park area, and 14.76 .in residential area. 9. The mean value of the soluble dust in Kwangju city was 10.23 ton/Km2/month and that of the insoluble dust was 19.05 ton/Km2/month. 10. The mean values of noise level in Kwangju city was 62 phon, ranging from 37phon to 88 phon. 11. The mean values of noise level according to its specific area in the city were 76 phon in heavy traffic area, 67 in semi-downtown area, 64 in downtown area, 59 in commercial area, 52 in part area, and 50 in residential area.
Summary
A Survey on the Environmental Conditions of the CO Patients treated by Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.
In Dal Kim, Dork Ro Yun, Y O Choi, I C Yun, C K Lee, Y H Yang
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):9-15.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most serios health problems in Korea, because we have been encountered with the highest incidence of CO poisoning in the world due to the unique heating system in home called "ondal". We opened Hyperbaric chamber unit in the Seoul National University Hospital last Jan, 1969. We have treated 848 patients as of Sept. 30., 1972, around 44 months period. We collected the informations on the environmental conditions of the place where CO intoxication actually occurred by filling up the questionaire from 505 patients. The following finding were obtained. 1. Age distribution showed that the highest incidence was found in the younger age group between age of 10 to age of 29 in both sex. 2. Sex ratio of the patients was 1:1.14. 3. The socio-economic level of the patient was relatively low. 4. Housewife & housemaid were the major victims of the intoxication in the female patients & in the case of the male patient, occupational backgrounds were diverse. 5. Many patients form the middle class experienced the intoxication bu sleeping at newly built room. 6. Many intoxication has been occurred in the structure of houses where communicating doors are existing between living room & kitchen. 7. All findings obtained taught us again that CO poisoning is the serious by-product of the national fuel policy which put emphasis on the use of coal & socio-economic status is very important parameter in this hazards.
Summary
A Study on the Therapeutic Effectiveness of Hyperbaric Oxygenation on Acute CO poisoning.
Dork Ro Yun, Kan Hyun Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):17-23.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Carbon Monoxide poisoning is one of the most serious Public health problems in Korea. The incidence rate officially reported has been known to be the highest in the world. This high incidence is mainly due to the wide prevalence of anthracite coal briquette as the domestic fuel for unique Korean heating system called "ondol." The coal briquette gas contains around 3-5% of Carbon Monoxide. A nation-wide effort to eliminate or reduce this serious hazards has produced little effect and the most hospitals are offering very ineffective measures such as oxygen inhalation through nasal catheter. Author has believed that this preventable accident should be approached by the secondary preventive measure because of our socio-economic status do not allow us optimistic results from primary preventive measure as far as the problem of CO poisoning is concerned. Author has treated 466 patients during 30 months period by Hyperbaric Oxygenation at Seoul National University Hospital. The results found are as follows. 1. Female has a higher incidence rate than male and the age group between 15-29 years showed highest incidence. 2. The recovery time depends on the time when the patients arrived at hospital. Earlier the arrival time, shorter the recovery time. 3. Some objective signs are representing typical physiological response to tissue hypoxia. 4. Therapeutic effectiveness of Hyperbaric Oxypenation is confirmed by such indices as recovery rate, Admission rate and average stay in hospital. Futher, these results are cocordant with other reports on the clinical value of Hyperbaric Oxygenation in the treatment of CO poisoning.
Summary
A Study on Health Status of Industrial Workers by Application of the Modified C.M.I..
Joon Yun Kim, Won Gae Cho, Chong Kyun Lee, Yong Chun Kim, Hea Koun Park, Don Kyoun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):25-35.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
From May lst to November 30th, 1971, a study was conducted by authors on the health status of industrial workers through applying the modified Cornell Medical Index forwards a total of 4,565 labourers working in Busan City. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The largest number of industries and labourers was in Busanjin Gu, 9 and 2,386 (52.2%), respectively. 2. Total numbers of labourers subjected to the survey were 2,355 (51.6% in male, 2,210(48.4%) in female. 3. By age and sex distribution, the largest was seen with the age group of 25-34, 1,260 in male, otherwise with under the age group of 24, 1,994 in female labourers. 4. The highest average number of complaints by section among all age groups and industries was as follows ; In case of male labourers, textile was the highest with numbering 8.7 (35-39 age group) in the section of physical complaints, in the section of mental and total complaints, food industry was the highest with numbering 8.2 and 16.4, respectively, both under 19 age group, otherwise in case of female labourers, food industry was the highest with numbering 12.3 (physical), 10.3(mental) and 22.7 (total complaints) with all in 20-24 age group. 5. The lowest average number of complaints by section among all age groups and industries was as follows; In case of male labourers, other industry was the lowest with numbering 0.4 (55and over) in the physical, 0.3 (19and under) in the mental and 0.7 (55and over) in the section of total complaints, otherwise incase of female labourers, basic metal was the lowest in the all sections with all in 50-54 age groups.
Summary
A Study on the Water Pollution of Mountain Wells around Seoul Area.
Yang Won Park, Pyong Kap Lee, Hyung Suk Kim, Soon Young Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):37-42.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Mountain Wells are very important water source of the most the climbers in Seoul area. But the facilities around the wells are not modernized to prevent from contamination of microorganism and the other pollutants. We focussed our intention on the detection of some harmful chemical ingredients and contaminants. A total of 58 wells were examined according to the Standard Methods(APHA) and the following results were obtained : 1) Among the examined 58 wells, only 10 wells adequate to the drinking water standard, 2) 7.9mg of liberated CO2 was found in the Tchun-Ho-Dong Mineral Well, 3) Chemically harmful ingredients were not found, 4) The Mountain Wells were contaminated by Coliform Groups as many as 18 times than rural well.
Summary
A study on Purification of Water Works by Multi-filter Bed Method with Aeration: Application of Biological Oxidation by Aerobic Microorganism.
Yo Han Chung, Jae Kyu Moon, Heung Kyu Joo, Hwa Jung Seo
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):43-48.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
5 bed sand filter, applying biological oxidation, was designed and studied on the treatment of water works. Never using any coagulant agent (drugs), which may cause water pollution in pre-treatment of head water, the author attempt a high rate filtration by the microorganism (nitrofication bacteria) end plant which populate in multi layer sand beds. The result are as follows ; In order to evaluate the oxygen effect on filtration, oxygen was injected in aeration tank attached to each filter tank while filtration, and NH3 was tested as a representative ingredient. It was found out that the aeration method was more effective, with over 33% of NH3 removal capacity, than the anerobic and this 5 bed filter showed double removal capacity of NH3 by comparing with conventional sand bed (2 stage bed). According to the examination of two kind of head water, pre-treated with coagulant agent and activated carben, the filtration capacity was affected by the polluted condition of head water, resulting that lower value of pollution and slower velocity of filtration showed more efficiency of NH3 removal. In this experiment NH3 content tested in treated water had a fairly good correlation with others.
Summary
An Epidemiological Study on the Accident resulting from Leakage of Chloride.
Joon Yun Kim, Won Gae Cho, Jong Hwan Park, Chong Kyun Lee, Yong Chun Kim, Don Kyoun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):49-56.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
During the Period from 22th to November 26th , 1971, An Epidemiological Survey was performed on the Accident which was occurred by Leakage of Chloride Gases in A Chimical Industry, one of Wul San Industrial Areas. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The largest damage was observed at Yeo Cheon Dong, 5.38 Km2 in Area and 8,192 in the Residents. 2. By the age distribution of Yeo Cheon Dong, The largest damaged area resulting from chloride accident, the age group of between 10 and 39 was highly occupied with 55.2% of all Yeo Cheon residents. 3. The number of patient was 436 totally, 198 in male and 238 in female. 4. By the age group distribution of the patient, in case of male, the largest group was under 20 age (96) and female, between 20 and 40 age group. 5. By the educational level of the patient, No-Education group was 116 (26.6%), and primary school, middle school and high school were respectively 168 (38.5%), 68(15.6%) and 12 (2.8%). 6. By the occupational distribution of the patient, No-Occupation group was 49.7%, students and agriculture were respectively 14.4% and 8.1%. 7. By the complaints of the patient, most of all were for respiratory tract, those are coughing (56.9%), chest tightness (35.6%), sore throat (24.8%), and so forth. 8. By the injured domestic animal, the Dog was most highly injured with 46.2%.
Summary
A Study on Maternity Aids Utilization in the Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning.
Min Hae Yeh, Sung Kwan Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):57-95.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
this study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of service by maternity aids concerning maternal and child health in improving simultaneously infant mortality, contraception and vital registration among expectant mothers in rural Korea, where there is less opportunity for maternal and child health care. It is unrealistic to expect to solve this problem in rural Korea through professional persons considering the situation of medical facilities and the sicioeconomic condition of residents. So, we intended to adopt a system of services by maternity aids who were educated formally among indigenous women. After the women were trained in maternal and child heath, contraception, and registration for a short period, they were assigned as a maternity aids to each village to help with various activities concerning maternal and child health, for example, registration of pregnant women, home visiting to check for complications, supplying of delivery kits, attendance at delivery, persuasion of contraception, and invitation for registration and so on. Mean- while, four researchers called on the maternity aids to collect materials concerning vital events, maternal child health, contraception and registration, and to give further instruction and supervision a s the program proceeded. A. Changes of women's attitude by services of maternity aid. Now, we examined to what extent such a service system to expectant mothers affected a change in attitude of women residing in the study area as compared to women of the control area. 1) In the birth and death places, there were no changes between last and present infants, in study or control area. 2) In regard to attendants at delivery, there were no changes except for a small percentage of attendant (8%) by maternity aid in study area. But, I expect that more maternity aids could be used as attendants at delivery if they would be trained further and if there was more explanation to the residents about such a service. 3) Considering the rate of utilization of sterilized delivery kit, I an sure that more than 90 percent would be used if the delivery kit were supplied in the proper time. There were significant differences in rates between the study and the control areas. 4) Taking into consideration the utilization rate of the clinic for prenatal care and well baby care, if such facilities were installed, it would probably be well utilized. 5) In the contraception, the rate of approval was as high as 89 percent in study area as compared to 82 percent in the control area. 6) Considering the rate of pre-and past-partum acceptance on contraception were as much as 70 percent or more, if motivation to use contraception was given to them adequately, the government could reach the goals for family planning as planned. 7) In the vital registration, the rate of birth registration in the study area was some what improved compared to that of the control area, while the rate of death registration was not changed at all. Taking into account the fact that the rate of confirmation of vital events by maternity aids was remarkably high, if the registration system changed to a "notification" system instead of formal registration system, it would be improved significantly compared to present system. B. Effect of the project. Thus, with changes in the residents' attitude, was there a reduction in the infant death rate? 1) It is very difficult problem to compare the mortality of infants between last and present infants, because many women don't wont to answer accurately about their dead children especially the infants that died within a few days after birth. In this study the data of present death comes from the maternity aides who followed up every pregnancy they had recorded to see what had happened. They seem to have very reliable information on what happened in first few weeks with follow up visitits to check out later changes. From these calculation, when we compared the rate of infant death between last and present infant, there was remarkable reduction of death rate for present infant compare to that of last children, namely, the former was 30, while the latter 42. The figure is the lowest rate that I have ever heard. As the quality of data we could assess by comparing the causes of death. In the current death rate by communicable disease was much lower compare to the last child especially, tetanus cases and pneumonia. 2) Next, how many respondents used contraception after birth because of frequent contact with the maternity aid. In the registered cases, the respondents showed a tendency to practice contraception at an earlier age and with a small number of children. In a comparison of the rate of contraception between the study and the control area, the rate int he former was significantly higher than that of the latter. What is more, the proportion favoring smaller numbers of children and younger women rose in the study area as compared to the control area. 3) Regarding vital registration, though the rate of registration was gradually improved by efforts of maternity aid, it would be better to change the registration system. 4) In the crude birth rate, the rate in the study area was 22.2 while in the control area was 26.5. Natural increase rate showed 15.4 in the study area, while control area was 19.1. 5) In assessment of the efficiency of the maternity aids judging by the cost-effect viewpoint, the workers in the Medium area seemed to be more efficiency than those of other areas.
Summary
A Study on the Physical Growth and Health Status of the Freshmen in a Private University.
Yang Won Park, Pyong Kap Lee, Soon Ypung Park, Hyong Suk Kim, Jae Myung Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):97-104.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
For the purpose of ascertaining the status of physical growth and health status of the University students, an intensive survey was conducted by the authors towards a total of 1,250 (Male 792, Female 458) who passed the written entrance examination at the Kyung Hee University in 1972. The items included the measurements on physical growth, various physical and nutritional indices, status of visual distourbance, dental status and tuberculosis. The findings and results can be summarized as follows ; 1. Physical Growth and Development. i) The average of body height by anthropometric was 169.39+/-5.05cm in male and 157.45+/-4.43cm in female. ii) The averages of body weight by sex were 59.42+/-6.47Kg and 51.81+/-5.21Kg, respectively. iii) The averages of chest-girth were 87.18+/-5.30cm and 80.51+/-4.53cm. iv) The averages of sitting-height were 92.21+/-2.79cm and 86.28+/-2.57cm. In all cases the male measurements were higher than female. 2. Various ludices about Physical Growth and Development; i) Relative body weight by sex were 35.08and 32.91, relative chestgirth 51.47 and 51.13, and relative sitting-height 54.43, 54.79, respectively. ii) Rohrer index was 1.222 in males and 1.327 in females, Kaup index 2.071 and 2.089, Verveck index 86.54 and 84.04, and Pelidisi index 91.15 and 93.08, respectively. 3. Status of visual distourbance. The vision of the students under 0.8 with Landolt's testing chart was 45.4% in left eye and 46.6% in right eye (male : 44.4% and 45.7%, female : 47.2% and 48.0%), while under 0.6in both visions was 41.0% and 40.5% (male 40.8% and 40.7%, female : 41.5% and 40.2%),respectively. 4. Dental Status. Out of total 19.4% (male 19.2%, female 19.6%) had gingivitis, the female incidence rate of gingivitis was higher than male. Average number of teeth in each subjects was 29.6 teeth; male had 29.9 teeth and female had 29.1 teeth. The caries rate was 78.9%(male 75.6%, female 84.5%), the female caries rate was higher than male. The average number of i) Caries per tooth rate was 8.5% in male and 9.2% in female, ii) Missing per tooth rate was 0.3% and 0.2%, iii) Filling per tooth rate was 3.9% and 4.2%, in all cases, the female incidences were higher than the male. The average number of D.M.F. was 3.8 teeth in male and 4.0 teeth in female, female was higher than male. The average rate of D.M.F. was 12.7% in male and 13.7 in female, female was higher than male. 5. Pulmonary infiltration. Among the total, 53 students were diagnosed as pulmonary infiltration (tuberculosis), of whom 51 were minimal cases, one were moderately advanced case and one were far advanced case.
Summary
Oxygen Pulse in Load Carrying.
Byung Kuk Lee, Tal Sil Bae, Hang Ki Jin, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):105-110.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
On 6 healthy adult males aged 20-30 years, oxygen pulse was observed during carrying sand bags weighting 10, 20 and 30kg on a level treadmill running with speeds of 3,4 and 5 km/hr. The results obtained were as follows. 1. Oxygen pulse during load carrying on a level treadmill was proportionately increased with an increase of work load, average oxygen uptake per minute. Regression equation of oxygen pulse (y: ml/beat) on the average oxygen uptake (x:l/min) required for each grade of work was expressed as y=3.34x + 5.99, sy.x=0.858. 2. Oxygen pulse reached the highest value 2-5 minutes after the start of load carrying, and thereafter it decreased gradually to some extend as the load carrying was continued. Rate of decrease in the oxygen pulse was gerater in lighter works. 3. In lighter works requiring less than 2.0 l/min of oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse was larger in case of carrying a losd by embrace, in both hands and on head than on back or on shoulder.
Summary
Investigation of a Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Outbreak Among School Children.
In Kyu Loh
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):111-114.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
There was an outbreak of food poisoning on the 17 October, 1970 among the primary school children who came from a rural area, Yeongi-gun, Choongcheongnam-do to Seoul City on an educational trip. Of the 199 children participating in the trip, 149 cases of food poisoning developed a 74.9% attack rate. The acute onset of symptoms, of abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and headache which occurred 1-5 hours after eating their lunch suggests that the outbreak was due to staphylococcal food poisoning. The common source of food was identified as the lunch packed in a chip-box which were eastern on October 17 during the trip. Most probable kind of food of the lunch as the cause was the flavoured fish paste. The lunch were prepared at restaurant A in Seoul City. One of the personnel of the restaurant had a unhealed cut wound on the third finger tip of the left hand, from which it was considered that the food was contaminated with Staphylococcus during preparation. The chance of multiplication of staphylococcus to produce enterotoxin in the food might be existed during flavouring the food with some degree of heat, an also during about 10 hours elapsed before serving the food after preparation.
Summary
A Survey on the Hearing Disturbance of High School Students in Korea.
Kyu Shik Rhee, Doo Hie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):115-123.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
As a link of chain study program of school health, a survey was made up by the screening test with audiometry for hearing disturbance on 18,675 high school students who are mainly aged in 15-19 years from November 5.1969 to October 30. 1970. The results obtained were summarized as follows. According to our criteria as table 3, the rates of the profound , the severe and the moderate who required the appropriate hearing aids were 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.14% respectively : the cumulative percentage was 0.197. When the marginal, 0.23% should be included the cumulative rate was 0.41%. But there was no significance by sex and school classes. If we will make the special classes for them one class would be estimated out of 10,000 persons when a class is formed with about 15 persons. Otherwise when we examined that according to each ear of persons, the rates of the profound, the severe and the moderate were 0.17%, 0.22% and 0.33% respectively and their cumulative perventage was 0.72. There was no significance also by sex and age. By the way, the rate of hearing disturbance in urban high school students tended to lower than rural. And the perceptive disturbance was higher than rural in rate. The conductive disturbance tended to oppose in comparison with the above.
Summary
A Study on Health Administration Status and Medicare Insurance Program in Universities and Colleges in Korea.
Sam Sup Choi, Ji Yong Kang, Youn Choul Koo
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):125-132.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The status of health administration and medicare insurance program of 58 universities and colleges of 4-year course was studied in 1971 and the following results were obtained; 1. The average number of students of 20 universities was 4,800+/-2,600 and that of 36 colleges was 780+/-620. 2. The types of health service facilities for the students varied widely according to the institutions, from an elaborate one, university health center, to a poor one first aid room. 3. Thirty-six out of 58 institutions had some sort of health service facilities, either health center or health service room. And 14 out of 36 institutions had elaborate health service facilities such as university health center or student health center. 4. The number of full time staff of the health center and that of the health service room were 2 to more than 10 and 0 to 3 respectively. 5. The range of student health service fee varied widely according to the institutions from won50 to won550 per student, per semester. The average cost of student health service fee at the institutions with health centers was won300+/-150 and that with health service rooms was won200+/-150 per student, per semester. 6. Utility rate of the student health service facilities at the institutions with health centers and with health service rooms were 1,200 to 1,400 and 3,900 to 4,100 per 1,000 students per year. 7. There was an obvious increasing tendency of tuberculosis prevalence rate in the students. 8. The institutions which had appointed hospitals for student medicare were 24 ; where the reduction rate of medical expenses for students varied from 10 to 50 percent. 9. Students medicare insurance program was adopted by six universities which accommodated more than 2,000 students. 10. The range of student medicare insurance fee varied widely according to the institutions from won140 to won800 per student per year. Each of the six universities which had adopted the insurance program had each own's special regulations to apply for pay claims.
Summary
Health Care and Days of Disability Survey Koje Island, Korea.
Seung Hum Yu, Kit G Johnson
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):133-140.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
Peer, Consumers and Community Leaders Evaluation of the Koje Community Health Project.
Kit G Johnson, Seung Hum Yu
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):141-151.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health