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2 "Mohammad Hajizadeh"
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Measuring and decomposing socioeconomic inequality in catastrophic healthcare expenditures in Iran
Satar Rezaei, Mohammad Hajizadeh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(4):214-223.   Published online June 14, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.046
  • 6,467 View
  • 216 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Equity in financial protection against healthcare expenditures is one the primary functions of health systems worldwide. This study aimed to quantify socioeconomic inequality in facing catastrophic healthcare expenditures (CHE) and to identify the main factors contributing to socioeconomic inequality in CHE in Iran.
Methods
A total of 37 860 households were drawn from the Households Income and Expenditure Survey, conducted by the Statistical Center of Iran in 2017. The prevalence of CHE was measured using a cut-off of spending at least 40% of the capacity to pay on healthcare services. The concentration curve and concentration index (C) were used to illustrate and measure the extent of socioeconomic inequality in CHE among Iranian households. The C was decomposed to identify the main factors explaining the observed socioeconomic inequality in CHE in Iran.
Results
The prevalence of CHE among Iranian households in 2017 was 5.26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.04 to 5.49). The value of C was -0.17 (95% CI, -0.19 to -0.13), suggesting that CHE was mainly concentrated among socioeconomically disadvantaged households in Iran. The decomposition analysis highlighted the household wealth index as explaining 71.7% of the concentration of CHE among the poor in Iran.
Conclusions
This study revealed that CHE is disproportionately concentrated among poor households in Iran. Health policies to reduce socioeconomic inequality in facing CHE in Iran should focus on socioeconomically disadvantaged households.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence and Determinants of Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditures in Iran From 2013 to 2019
    Abdoreza mousavi, Farhad lotfi, Samira Alipour, Aliakbar Fazaeli, Mohsen Bayati
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2024; 57(1): 65.     CrossRef
  • Examining the level and distribution of catastrophic health expenditure from 2013 to 2018: A province-level study in China
    Mingsheng Chen, Lizheng Xu, Lei Si, Zhonghua Wang, Stephen Jan
    Economic Modelling.2023; 121: 106233.     CrossRef
  • Equity and extent of financial risk protection indicators during COVID-19 pandemic in rural part of Tamil Nadu, India
    Yuvaraj Krishnamoorthy, Sathish Rajaa, Isha Sinha, Murali Krishnan, Gerald Samuel, Krishna Kanth
    Heliyon.2023; 9(8): e18902.     CrossRef
  • Catastrophic household expenditure associated with out-of-pocket payments for dental healthcare in Spain
    Samuel López-López, Raúl del Pozo-Rubio, Marta Ortega-Ortega, Francisco Escribano-Sotos
    The European Journal of Health Economics.2022; 23(7): 1187.     CrossRef
  • User fee removal for the poor: a qualitative study to explore policies for social health assistance in Iran
    Manal Etemadi, Mohammad Hajizadeh
    BMC Health Services Research.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A 25-Year Trend of Catastrophic Health Expenditure and Its Inequality in China: Evidence from Longitudinal Data
    Yongjian Xu, Yiting Zhou, Andi Pramono, Yazhuo Liu, Cong Jia
    Risk Management and Healthcare Policy.2022; Volume 15: 969.     CrossRef
  • Decomposition of Socioeconomic Inequality in Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in the Adult Population: A Cohort-based Cross-sectional Study in Northwest Iran
    Farhad Pourfarzi, Telma Zahirian Moghadam, Hamed Zandian
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(3): 297.     CrossRef
  • Financial risk protection from out-of-pocket health spending in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review of the literature
    Taslima Rahman, Dominic Gasbarro, Khurshid Alam
    Health Research Policy and Systems.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Incidence of catastrophic healthcare expenditure and its main determinants in Mexican households caring for a person with a mental disorder
    Lina Diaz-Castro, Héctor Cabello-Rangel, Carlos Pineda-Antúnez, Alejandra Pérez de León
    Global Mental Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Unmet dental care need in West of Iran: determinants and inequality
    Amjad Mohamadi-Bolbanabad, Farman Zahir Abdullah, Hossein Safari, Satar Rezaei, Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh, Shina Amirhosseini, Afshin Shadi, Jamal Mahmoudpour, Bakhtiar Piroozi
    International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare.2021; 14(5): 426.     CrossRef
  • The impact of out-of pocket payments of households for dental healthcare services on catastrophic healthcare expenditure in Iran
    Abraha Woldemichael, Satar Rezaei, Ali Kazemi Karyani, Mohammad Ebrahimi, Shahin Soltani, Abbas Aghaei
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Measuring Out-of-pocket Payment, Catastrophic Health Expenditure and the Related Socioeconomic Inequality in Peru: A Comparison Between 2008 and 2017
    Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Carlos Rojas-Roque, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández, Diego Rosselli
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2020; 53(4): 266.     CrossRef
  • Incidence and Intensity of Catastrophic Health-care Expenditure for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Care in Iran: Determinants and Inequality


    Bakhtiar Piroozi, Amjad Mohamadi-Bolbanabad, Ghobad Moradi, Hossein Safari, Shahnaz Ghafoori, Yadolah Zarezade, Farzam Bidarpour, Satar Rezaei
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2020; Volume 13: 2865.     CrossRef
  • Trend and status of out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in Iran: equity and catastrophic effect
    Satar Rezaei, Abraha Woldemichael, Mohammad Ebrahimi, Sina Ahmadi
    Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Catastrophic Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditure Among Rural Households in the Semi-Pastoral Community, Western Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
    Debelo Shikuro, Mezgebu Yitayal, Adane Kebede, Ayal Debie
    ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research.2020; Volume 12: 761.     CrossRef
What Explains Socioeconomic Inequality in Health-related Quality of Life in Iran? A Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition
Satar Rezaei, Mohammad Hajizadeh, Yahya Salimi, Ghobad Moradi, Bijan Nouri
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(5):219-226.   Published online August 7, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.012
  • 6,263 View
  • 208 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to explain the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) gap between the poorest and the wealthiest quintiles in the capitals of Kermanshah and Kurdistan Provinces (Kermanshah and Sanandaj), in western Iran.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 1772 adults. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES), lifestyle factors, body mass index, and HRQoL of participants were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The slope and relative indices of inequality (SII and RII, respectively) were employed to examine socioeconomic inequality in poor HRQoL. Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) decomposition was used to quantify the contribution of explanatory variables to the gap in the prevalence of poor HRQoL between the wealthiest and the poorest groups.
Results
The overall crude and age-adjusted prevalence of poor HRQoL among adults was 32.0 and 41.8%, respectively. The SII and RII indicated that poor HRQoL was mainly concentrated among individuals with lower SES. The absolute difference (%) in the prevalence of poor HRQoL between the highest and lowest SES groups was 28.4. The BO results indicated that 49.9% of the difference was explained by different distributions of age, smoking behavior, physical inactivity, chronic health conditions, and obesity between the highest and lowest SES groups, while the remaining half of the gap was explained by the response effect.
Conclusions
We observed a pro-rich distribution of poor HRQoL among adults in the capitals of Kermanshah and Kurdistan Provinces. Policies and strategies aimed at preventing and reducing smoking, physical inactivity, chronic health conditions, and obesity among the poor may reduce the gap in poor HRQoL between the highest and lowest SES groups in Iran.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Why is there a gap in self-rated health among people with hypertension in Zambia? A decomposition of determinants and rural‒urban differences
    Chris Mweemba, Wilbroad Mutale, Felix Masiye, Peter Hangoma
    BMC Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Health-related quality of life variation by socioeconomic status: Evidence from an Iranian population-based study
    Sulmaz Ghahramani, Maryam Hadipour, Payam Peymani, Sahar Ghahramani, KamranB Lankarani
    Journal of Education and Health Promotion.2023; 12(1): 287.     CrossRef
  • What explains the large disparity in child stunting in the Philippines? A decomposition analysis
    Valerie Gilbert T Ulep, Jhanna Uy, Lyle Daryll Casas
    Public Health Nutrition.2022; 25(11): 2995.     CrossRef
  • Health-related quality of life by household income in Chile: a concentration index decomposition analysis
    Rodrigo Severino, Manuel Espinoza, Báltica Cabieses
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health