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Original Articles
Association of Infant Feeding Characteristics With Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Korean Childhood
Kyoung-Nam Kim, Moon-Kyung Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(4):338-347.   Published online June 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.504
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Young children’s feeding characteristics can play an important role in eating habits and health during later childhood. This study was conducted to examine the associations of feeding characteristics with dietary patterns and obesity in children.
Methods
This study utilized data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2013 and 2017. In total, 802 toddlers were included, with information on their demographic characteristics, feeding practices and duration, and 24-hour recall obtained from their parents. Feeding characteristics were categorized into feeding type, duration of total breastfeeding, duration of total formula feeding, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and age when starting formula feeding. Dietary patterns were identified based on factor loadings for the food groups for 3 major factors, with “vegetables & traditional,” “fish & carbohydrates,” and “sweet & fat” patterns. Overweight/obesity was defined as ≥85th percentile in body mass index based on the 2017 Korean National Growth charts for children and adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between feeding characteristics and dietary patterns. The association between dietary patterns and obesity was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Results
The early introduction of formula feeding was inversely associated with the “vegetables & traditional” pattern (β=-0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.34 to -0.02). A higher “vegetables & traditional” intake was associated with a lower risk of obesity (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.95).
Conclusions
Feeding characteristics are associated with dietary patterns in later childhood, and dietary patterns were shown to have a potential protective association against obesity.
Summary
Korean summary
생애 초기 수유 형태는 유아의 식습관 형성에 영향을 주고 아울러 성장기의 식습관에도 중요한 바탕이 된다. 특히, 생애 초기 수유 형태는 유아기의 성장 발달 또는 비만과 관련됨이 알려져 있다. 과일과 채소 섭취 증가 및 다양한 식품의 섭취는 비만을 예방하는 대표적인 식습관 중의 하나이다. 본 연구에는 영아 시기의 수유 형태가 이후 유아기의 식사 패턴에 미치는 영향 및 유아기 비만과의 관련성을 살펴보고자 수행되었다. 이에 본 연구에서는 국민건강영양조사2013-2017년까지 만2-3세 유아 802명 대상으로 수유 형태에 따른 식사 패턴 분석 결과, 4개월 이전 분유 수유를 시작할 경우 ‘vegetables & traditional’패턴 점수가 감소하였다. 식사 패턴과 비만 유병률 결과, ‘vegetables & traditional’ 패턴 요인 점수가 증가할수록 비만 유병률이 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 이에 본 연구 결과들을 통해 생애 초기 수유 형태에 따라 유아기(미취학아동)의 식습관에 영향을 미치는 요인으로 판단되며, 그 식습관이 반영됨에 따라 소아 비만과 관련이 있음을 나타냈다. 따라서 국내 대규모의 표본을 대상으로 한 연구 결과로 건강하고 다양한 식습관 지도를 위한 영양 교육 프로그램의 근거 자료로 활용될 수 있다고 생각된다.
Associations Between Indoor Air Pollutants and Risk Factors for Acute Respiratory Infection Symptoms in Children Under 5: An Analysis of Data From the Indonesia Demographic Health Survey
Ichtiarini Nurullita Santri, Yuniar Wardani, Yohane Vincent Abero Phiri, Gunchmaa Nyam, Tyas Aisyah Putri, Khoiriyah Isni, Dyah Suryani, Grace Sambo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):255-263.   Published online April 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.470
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The study investigated the association between indoor air pollution (IAP) and risk factors for acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms in children under 5 years of age.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted using data derived from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey in 2017. Binary logistic regression modeling was employed to examine each predictor variable associated with ARI among children under 5 years of age in Indonesia.
Results
The study included a total of 4936 households with children. Among children under 5 years old, 7.2% reported ARI symptoms. The presence of ARI symptoms was significantly associated with the type of residence, wealth index, and father’s smoking frequency, which were considered the sample’s socio-demographic characteristics. In the final model, living in rural areas, having a high wealth index, the father’s smoking frequency, and a low education level were all linked to ARI symptoms.
Conclusions
The results revealed that households in rural areas had a substantially higher level of reported ARI symptoms among children under 5 years old. Furthermore, the father’s smoking frequency and low education level were associated with ARI symptoms.
Summary
Prediction of Stunting Among Under-5 Children in Rwanda Using Machine Learning Techniques
Similien Ndagijimana, Ignace Habimana Kabano, Emmanuel Masabo, Jean Marie Ntaganda
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(1):41-49.   Published online January 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.388
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  • 261 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Rwanda reported a stunting rate of 33% in 2020, decreasing from 38% in 2015; however, stunting remains an issue. Globally, child deaths from malnutrition stand at 45%. The best options for the early detection and treatment of stunting should be made a community policy priority, and health services remain an issue. Hence, this research aimed to develop a model for predicting stunting in Rwandan children.
Methods
The Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2019-2020 was used as secondary data. Stratified 10-fold cross-validation was used, and different machine learning classifiers were trained to predict stunting status. The prediction models were compared using different metrics, and the best model was chosen.
Results
The best model was developed with the gradient boosting classifier algorithm, with a training accuracy of 80.49% based on the performance indicators of several models. Based on a confusion matrix, the test accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and F1 were calculated, yielding the model’s ability to classify stunting cases correctly at 79.33%, identify stunted children accurately at 72.51%, and categorize non-stunted children correctly at 94.49%, with an area under the curve of 0.89. The model found that the mother’s height, television, the child’s age, province, mother’s education, birth weight, and childbirth size were the most important predictors of stunting status.
Conclusions
Therefore, machine-learning techniques may be used in Rwanda to construct an accurate model that can detect the early stages of stunting and offer the best predictive attributes to help prevent and control stunting in under five Rwandan children.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Child stunting prevalence determination at sector level in Rwanda using small area estimation
    Innocent Ngaruye, Joseph Nzabanita, François Niragire, Theogene Rizinde, Joseph Nkurunziza, Jean Bosco Ndikubwimana, Charles Ruranga, Ignace Kabano, Dieudonne N. Muhoza, Jeanine Ahishakiye
    BMC Nutrition.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary Feeding Practices Among Children Aged 6-23 Months in Indonesia
Siti Nurokhmah, Lucinda Middleton, Aryono Hendarto
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):549-558.   Published online October 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.199
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Poor complementary feeding practices have consistently contributed to the burden of child undernutrition in Indonesia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and predictors of the time of the introduction of solid, semi-solid, and soft foods (ISSSF), minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), and minimum acceptable diet (MAD).
Methods
We analyzed 4804 last-born infants aged 6-23 months from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey, which employed multistage cluster random sampling. The outcomes were calculated based on the 2021 World Health Organization/United Nations Children’s Fund guidelines. The predictors of the 4 complementary feeding indicators were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance adjusting for potential confounders and study design.
Results
The prevalence of ISSSF, MDD, MMF, and MAD was 86.1%, 54.3%, 71.8%, and 37.6%, respectively, with younger children less likely to meet 3 out of the 4 outcomes. Parental education, the presence of a birth attendant, and maternal media consumption were among the predictors of MDD and MAD. Children from families with higher income were more likely to meet MDD than those from low-income households (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 1.28). Living in an urban area was positively associated with MMF (aPR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.15) and MAD (aPR, 1.12; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.24). In eastern regions, the prevalence of children achieving MDD and MAD was lower than in those living in Java and Bali.
Conclusions
It is crucial that more attention and efforts are made to improve the recommended practices throughout Indonesia, since the prevalence of adequate complementary feeding practices remains low.
Summary
Women’s Empowerment Facilitates Complete Immunization in Indonesian Children: A Cross-sectional Study
Gede Benny Setia Wirawan, Ni Luh Zallila Gustina, Putu Harrista Indra Pramana, Made Yuliantari Dwi Astiti, Jovvita Jonathan, Fitriana Melinda, Teo Wijaya
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(2):193-204.   Published online March 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.592
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of women’s empowerment on the immunization of Indonesian children. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of wealth as a factor modifying this association.
Methods
We utilized data from the 2017 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). The subjects were married women with children aged 12-23 months (n=3532). Complete immunization was defined using the 2017 IDHS definition. Multiple components of women’s empowerment were measured: enabling resources, decision-making involvement, and attitude toward intimate partner violence. The primary analysis was conducted using binomial logistic regression. Model 1 represented only the indicators of women’s empowerment and model 2 controlled for socio-demographic variables. Subgroup analyses were conducted for each wealth group.
Results
The primary analysis using model 1 identified several empowerment indicators that facilitated complete immunization. The analysis using model 2 found that maternal education and involvement in decision-making processes facilitated complete immunization in children. Subgroup analyses identified that wealth had a modifying effect. The indicators of women’s empowerment were strong determinants of complete immunization in lower wealth quintiles but insignificant in middle-income and higher-income quintiles.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, this study is the first to explore women’s empowerment as a determinant of child immunization in Indonesia. The results indicate that women’s empowerment must be considered in Indonesia’s child immunization program. Women’s empowerment was not found to be a determinant in higher wealth quintiles, which led us to rethink the conceptual framework of the effect of women’s empowerment on health outcomes.
Summary

Citations

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  • Health Beliefs and Socioeconomic Determinants of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Acceptance: An Indonesian Cross-Sectional Study
    Gede Benny Setia Wirawan, Ngakan Putu Anom Harjana, Nur Wulan Nugrahani, Pande Putu Januraga
    Vaccines.2022; 10(5): 724.     CrossRef
Special Article
Overview of Noncommunicable Diseases in Korean Children and Adolescents: Focus on Obesity and Its Effect on Metabolic Syndrome
Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):173-182.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.173
  • 11,927 View
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  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Obesity during childhood is a dominant risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and is itself considered a disease that needs to be treated. Recently, the growth in childhood obesity in Korea has become stagnant; however, two in every ten children are still overweight. In addition, 60% or more of overweight children have at least one metabolic syndrome risk factor. Thus, childhood obesity should be controlled through lifestyle modification. This paper reviews studies of the modifiable risk factors of obesity in Korean children. According to the life-course approach, preschool-aged children (<5 years) are influenced by their parents rather than individual habits because they are under mostly parental care. Elementary school-aged children (6 to 11 years) are affected by overlapping individual and parental effects. This may mean that the establishment of individual behavior patterns begins during this period. The conditions of poor eating habits such as skipping meals, eating out, and high fat intake, along with low physical activity, facilitate increased obesity among adolescents (12 to 18 years). Notably, adolescent girls show high rates of both underweight and obesity, which may lead to the development of NCDs in their offspring. Therefore, the problem of NCDs is no longer limited to adults, but is also prevalent among children. In addition, early intervention offers cost-effective opportunities for preventing NCDs. Thus, children need primary consideration, adequate monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment to reduce the burden of NCDs later in adulthood.

Summary

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  • The association between metabolic components and markers of inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction in adolescents, based on the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study
    Hye Ah Lee, Eun Jeong Choi, Bohyun Park, Hwayoung Lee, Young Sun Hong, Hae Soon Kim, Moon-Kyung Shin, Hyesook Park, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog
    PLOS ONE.2020; 15(5): e0233469.     CrossRef
  • Does acculturation affect the dietary intakes and body weight status of children of immigrants in the U.S. and other developed countries? A systematic review
    Qi Zhang, Ruicui Liu, Leigh A Diggs, Youfa Wang, Li Ling
    Ethnicity & Health.2019; 24(1): 73.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Family-Based Empowerment on Obesity among Adolescents in Tana Toraja
    R. Erni Yetti, Muhammad Syafar, Andi Zulkifli, Rahayu Indriasari, Burhanuddin Bahar, Suriah ., Agus Bintara Birawida, Bagoes Widjanarko, Zadrak Tombeg, Saskiyanto Manggabara, Anto J. Hadi
    Pakistan Journal of Nutrition.2019; 18(9): 866.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants on Metabolic Health among KOREAN Children during a 1-Year Follow-Up
    Hye Lee, Su Park, Young Hong, Eun Ha, Hyesook Park
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(3): 270.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of Childhood Obesity in Korea
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2016; 31(4): 510.     CrossRef
  • Profile Development of Noncommunicable Chronic Diseases in a Brazilian Rural Town
    Giuliano Di Pietro, Damaris Santana Cardoso, Heloisa Mendonça Bernini Soares da Silva, Jessyca Costa Santos, Jordana Rosa dos Santos, Rodrigo Almeida Simões
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition.2015; 34(3): 191.     CrossRef
  • Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child–Adolescent Cohort Study
    Yang-Im Hur, Hyesook Park, Jae-Heon Kang, Hye-Ah Lee, Hong Song, Hae-Jeung Lee, Ok-Hyun Kim
    Nutrients.2015; 8(1): 20.     CrossRef
English Abstract
The Relationship between Physical Activity and Clustering of Metabolic Abnormalities in Children.
Hyun Jin Son, Mi Kyung Kim, Hyun Ja Kim, Ho Kim, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(6):427-433.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.6.427
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to assess the association between physical activity and the clustering of metabolic abnormalities among Korean children. The effect of substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for the time spent in inactivity was examined as well. METHODS: The study subjects were comprised of 692 (354 boys, 338 girls) 4th grade elementary school students. We used a modified form of the physical activity questionnaire that was developed in the Five-City Project. The subjects with clustering of metabolic abnormalities were defined as having two or more of the following five characteristics: waist circumference > or =90 %, systolic or diastolic blood pressure > or =90 %, fasting glucose > or =110 mg/dl, triglycerides > or =110 mg/dl and HDL cholesterol < or =40 mg/dl. We calculated the odds ratios to assess the effect of substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for time spent in inactivity. RESULTS: The risk of clustered metabolic abnormalities was inversely correlated with the increased time spent on moderate to vigorous physical activity, but the correlation was not significant. The odds ratio for clustering of metabolic abnormalities that represented the effect of substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for 30minutes of sedentary activity was 0.87 (95% CI=0.76-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for sedentary activity could decrease the risk of clustered metabolic abnormalities.
Summary

Citations

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  • Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Risk Factors Among Korean Adolescents
    Mi-Ae You, Youn-Jung Son
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2012; 24(3): 464.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Trend of the Changes in the Level of Blood Lead, Urinary Arsenic and Urinary Cadmium of Children in Ulsan: 3-year Follow-up Study.
Choong Ryeol Lee, Cheol In Yoo, Ji Ho Lee, Hun Lee, Yangho Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):166-174.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To obtain basic data on blood lead level and urinary level of arsenic and cadmium of children living near a petrochemical estate and a suburban area in Ulsan, Korea and to observe the trend of the changes in the level of these metals in these children. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 626 children living near a petrochemical estate and 299 children living in a suburban area of Ulsan. We analyzed the level of lead, arsenic and cadmium using atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: The mean levels of blood lead in children living near the petrochemical estate were 5.25 microgram/dl, 5.24 microgram/dl, and 7.24 microgram/dl in the years 1997, 1999, and 2000, respectively, whereas those of children living in the suburban area were 3.81 microgram/dl, 4.75 microgram/dl, and 7.19 microgram/dl respectively. The mean levels of urinary arsenic in children living near the petrochemical estate were 4.57 microgram/g creatinine, 4.78 microgram/g creatinine, and 6.02 microgram /g creatinine in the year 1997, 1999, and 2000 respectively, whereas those of children living in suburban area were 2.35 microgram/g creatinine, 4.75 microgram/g creatinine, and 7.07 microgram/g creatinine, respectively. The mean levels of urinary cadmium in children living near the petrochemical estate were 1.15 microgram/g creatinine, 1.05 microgram/g creatinine, and 1.71 microgram/g creatinine in the year 1997, 1999, and 2000, respectively, whereas those of the children living in the suburban area were 0.74 microgram/g creatinine, 1.29 microgram/g creatinine, and 1.48 microgram/g creatinine, respectively. There were increasing trends in the level of blood lead, urinary arsenic and cadmium of children in Ulsan, and the differences in the level of these metals were disappearing between the children living in other areas year by year. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the amount of exposure to lead, arsenic, and cadmium is increasing from year to year, and there is a need for periodic biological and atmospheric monitoring of these metals in Ulsan.
Summary
Respiratory Health of the Children Living near the Petrochemical Estate in Ulsan.
Choong Ryeol Lee, Cheol In Yoo, Ji Ho Lee, Yangho Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):174-183.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the effect of low-level exposure of air pollutants on the respiratory tract of the children living near the petrochemical estate in Ulsan. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional, and the study subjects consisted of 150 children(76 boys, 74 girls) living near the petrochemical estate and 100 children(53 boys, 47 girls) living in a suburban area. We investigated respiratory health using self-administered questionnaires(ATS-DLD-78), radiological examination, and pulmonary function test such as FVC and FEV1. RESULTS: There were higher prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in the children living near the petrochemical estate than the children living in a suburban area. And the results of FVC and FEV1 of 11-years old children living near the petrochemical estate were lower than those of the children living in a suburban area. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic exposure of low-level air pollutants would affect respiratory health of the children. Therefore, further a longitudinal study of respiratory health will be needed for children living near the petrochemical estate in Ulsan.
Summary
Heart Diseases Prevalence of Elementary School Children in Kyonggi Province.
Byung Chul Chun, Soon Duck Kim, Yong Tae Yum
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):36-44.
  • 2,137 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
The heart diseases are known as a major cause of sudden death, as well as a cause of poor life-quality of school-age children. But there have been few mass screening of heart diseases in these children in Korea. This study was done to estimate the prevalence of heart diseases of these population. METHODS: We screened all elementary students(grade 1) in 12 cities and 16 counties(Gun) in Kyonggi province from 1992 to 1995. The first screening was done by auscultation of doctors and simultaneously by checking using 'auto-interpreter of EKG-cardiac sound'(Fukuda Densi ECP 50A). We conducted futher examinations to whom classified as being abnormal condition in first screening, by using EKG, chest x-ray, doppler echocardiograpy(if needed). RESULTS: The total number of examined students was 161,308(92% of the population), the male were 83,238 and female were 78,070. The congenital heart diseases(CHD) patients were 290(18 per 10,000) - male 155(18.6 per 10,000) and female 135(17.3 per 10,000). The most frequent disease was ventricula septal defect(VSD, 45.5%), Atrial septal defect(ASD, 14.8%), Tetralogy of Follot(TOF, 11.7%), and Patent Dutus Arteriosis(PDA, 7.6%) in order. In female, the order was VSD(48.1%), ASD(13.3%), TOF(11.1%), and PDA(10.4%). The total number of EKG abnormality were 433(62.7 per 10,000) among 69,056 screened children in 1995. The complete right bundle branch block(CRBBB) and paroxymal ventricular contraction(PVC) were frequent(26.6%, 26.3% in each), and incomplete right bunddle branch block(IRBBB,14.6%), paroxymal atrial contraction(PAC, 6.7%), abnormal Q(5.8%), Wolf-Pakinson-White syndrom (5.5%) in order. In female, the most frequent abnormality was PVC(29.8%), and CRBBB(19.9%) in order. CONCLUSION: We could present the stable prevalence of the rare heart disease. The prevalence of congenital heart diseases was 18.0 per 10,000 and of EKG abnormality was 62.7 per 10,000 among school children.
Summary
Urinary Levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, and Zinc of Children in Ulsan Industrial Area.
Choong Ryeol Lee, Cheol In Ryu, Ji Ho Lee, Sung Ryul Kim, Jin Young Jeong
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(1):1-8.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We conducted this study to obtain basic data of urinary levels of arsenic, cadmium, and zinc in children of Ulsan industrial area and to evaluate the difference in urinary levels of these metals between industrial area and suburban area. METHODS: The study subjects were composed of 348(male 182, female 166) school children residing in industrial area and 100(male 50, female 50) school children of suburban area. We analyzed urinary levels of arsenic, cadmium, and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. RESULTS: The geometric means of urinary levels of arsenic, cadmium, and zinc of study participants were 3.69, 0.99, 282.49 microgram/L respectively. The adjusted geometric means of urinary levels of arsenic, cadmium, and zinc of study participants were 3.92, 1.05, 299.92 microgram/g creatinine respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The children residing in industrial area had the higher urinary levels of arsenic and cadmium than suburban children with statistical significance(p<0.01).
Summary
Characteristics of Traffic Accident for the Primary School Students and Its Affecting Factors.
Am Park, Yeon Kyung Lee, Jeong Yun Kim, Tae Yong Lee, Sok Goo Lee, Young Chae Cho, Dong Bae Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(3):372-383.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
For the purpose to analysis the characteristics of traffic accidents(TA) and investigate the relationship between traffic accidents and children attention problem rating scale(CAP) and, family environment scale(FES), this questionnaire survey was conducted to the 16 primary school students in Taejon from July 14 to August 26, 1997. The number of study subjects who had an experience of traffic accidents from July 1, 1996 to June 30, 1997 were 195, and the number of control subjects were 512. The main results were as follows; 1. The traffic accident rates was 0.9% as a whole, but those were 1.4% in boys, 0.7% in girls, 1.3% in low (1st-3rd) grade, and 0.8% in high (4th-6th) grade. 2. The rates of traffic accidents were high in spring, friday, afternoon and a driveway around home. TA occurred during walking with friends most frequently. 3. In CAP the score of inattention was lower in TA group than control group, and hyperactivity was higher in TA group but they didn't showed significantly different. In FES, cohesion score was higher in TA group than control group, but Conflict score and Expressiveness score were in control group, but they didn't showed significantly different. 4. In CAP the odds ratio of inattention score for TA group was 0.84, but that of hyperactivity score was 1.15. In FES, the odds ratio of cohesion score was 1.06, but that of expression score and conflict score was 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. In conclusion, the relationships between TA and CAP, TA and FES in this study were not clear to explain personal characteristics and environmental conditions.
Summary
Blood Lead Levels of Children in Ulsan Industrial Area.
Cheol In Yoo, Ji Ho Lee, Choong Ryeol Lee, Sung Ryul Kim, Seon Ho Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(2):240-248.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We conducted this study, to obtain basic data of lead concentrations in children of Ulsan industrial area and to evaluate the difference in blood lead levels between industrial area and suburban area. The study subjects were composed of 348 school children residing in industrial area and 100 school children of suburban area. There is no difference in age and sex distribution of study participants between industrial and suburban area. The obtained results were as follows: l. The geometric means of blood lead levels of study participants were 4.90 ng/dl, which is lower than current acceptable value 10 ng/dl. 2. The children residing in industrial area had the higher blood lead levels(5.26 ng/dl) than suburban children(3.81 ng/dl) with statistical significance(P<0.001).
Summary
A Study on Serum Lipid Levels of Children in Pusan.
Soo Yong Kang, Byung Mann Cho, Su Ill Lee, In Kyong Hwang, Yeung Wook Kim, Young Sil Kim, Ae Ri Cha, I Ho Ha, Chel Ho Lee, Don Kyoun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(4):686-696.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children living in Pusan in 1996. The distribution of age is from 2 years old to 12 years old. In female children mean total cholesterol is 171.4+/-26.2mg/dl, triglyceride is 104.7+/-50.6mg/dl, HDL-cholesterol is 54.4+/-14.8mg/dl, and LDL-cholesterol is 95.4+/-32.9mg/dl. In male children mean total cholesterol is 167.9+/-25.2mg/dl, triglyceride is 90.6+/-45.5mg/dl, HDL-cholesterol is 55.4+/-11.7mg/dll, and LDL-cholesterol is 94.4+/-23.6mg/dl. The percentile of serum lipid levels is measured in children. The 95th percentile of serum total cholesterol is 210mg/dl in male children, and 214mg/dl in female children. And, the 95th percentile of serum triglyceride is 184mg/dl in male children, and 191mg/dl in female children. And, the 95th percentile of LDL-cholesterol is 133mg/dl in male children, and 135mg/dl in female children. Serum total cholesterol is positively related to age(r=0.18), height(r=0.08), weight(r=0.17), obesity index(r=0.12), and negatively related to father's education level(r=-0.13), mother's education level(r=-0.13). Serum triglyceride is positively related to weight(r=0.23), age(r=0.31) and negatively related to father's education level(r=-0.12), mother's education level(r=-0.18). Serum HDL-C was positively related to mother's education level(r=0.07) and negatively related to height(r=-0.12), weight(r=-0.09). Conclusively, the serum lipid levels of children living in Pusan is generally so high that the family and school must try to control the serum lipid levels.
Summary
Normal Predicted Values of Pulmonary Function of the Primary School Children in Rural Area and Sensitive Index of Respiratory Symptoms.
Byung Sun Choi, Jung Duck Park, Yeon Pyo Hong, Im Won Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(3):690-705.
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Pulmonary function tests were conducted on 815 healthy primary school children (390 males and 425 female) in rural area using Collins Survey Spirometer (warren E. collins, Inc, U. S. A.) with X-Y Recorder. Respiratory symptoms(cough, sputum, sore throat, chest pain, chest tightness, dyspnea, coryza) were surveyed by the interviews. Multiple regression analysis and regression diagnostics were done for prediction equations of FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% . FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values in 3 groups of children classified by the number of symptom were compared each other through standard variable value. FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% showed highly significant correlation with age, height and weight. Prediction equations for FVC, FEV1, PEER, FEF25-75% are functions of height only in both male and female children aged between 6 and 12 years old. PEFR showed a significant difference related with the number of symptom in female. These results suggest that the PEFR is sensitive PFT parameter in this study.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health