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Brief Report
Determinants of Hospital Inpatient Costs in the Iranian Elderly: A Micro-costing Analysis
Ebrahim Hazrati, zahra Meshkani, Saeed Husseini Barghazan, Sanaz Zargar Balaye Jame, Nader Markazi-Moghaddam
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(3):205-210.   Published online May 16, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.250
  • 3,837 View
  • 159 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Aging is assumed to be accompanied by greater health care expenditures. The objective of this retrospective, bottom-up micro-costing study was to identify and analyze the variables related to increased health care costs for the elderly from the provider’s perspective.
Methods
The analysis included all elderly inpatients who were admitted in 2017 to a hospital in Tehran, Iran. In total, 1288 patients were included. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used.
Results
Slightly more than half (51.1%) of patients were males, and 81.9% had a partial recovery. The 60-64 age group had the highest costs. Cancer and joint/orthopedic diseases accounted for the highest proportion of costs, while joint/orthopedic diseases had the highest total costs. The surgery ward had the highest overall cost among the hospital departments, while the intensive care unit had the highest mean cost. No statistically significant relationships were found between inpatient costs and sex or age group, while significant associations (p<0.05) were observed between inpatient costs and the type of ward, length of stay, type of disease, and final status. Regarding final status, costs for patients who died were 3.9 times higher than costs for patients who experienced a partial recovery.
Conclusions
Sex and age group did not affect hospital costs. Instead, the most important factors associated with costs were type of disease (especially chronic diseases, such as joint and orthopedic conditions), length of stay, final status, and type of ward. Surgical services and medicine were the most important cost items.
Summary
Original Articles
Has the Copayment Ceiling Improved Financial Protection in the Korean National Health Insurance System? Evidence From the 2009 Policy Change
Tae-Jin Lee, Chelim Cheong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(6):393-400.   Published online November 9, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.151
  • 9,399 View
  • 165 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To relieve the financial burden faced by households, the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system introduced a “copayment ceiling,” which evolved into a differential ceiling in 2009, with the copayment ceiling depending on patients’ income. This study aimed to examine the effect of the differential copayment ceiling on financial protection and healthcare utilization, particularly focusing on whether its effects varied across different income groups.
Methods
This study obtained data from the Korea Health Panel. The number of households included in the analysis was 6555 in 2008, 5859 in 2009, 5539 in 2010, and 5372 in 2011. To assess the effects of the differential copayment ceiling on utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, and catastrophic payments, various random-effects models were applied. Utilization was measured as treatment days, while catastrophic payments were defined as OOP payments exceeding 10% of household income. Among the right-hand side variables were the interaction terms of the new policy with income levels, as well as a set of household characteristics.
Results
The differential copayment ceiling contributed to increased utilization regardless of income levels both in all patients and in cancer patients. However, the new policy did not seem to reduce significantly the incidence of catastrophic payments among cancer patients, and even increased the incidence among all patients.
Conclusions
The limited effect of the differential ceiling can be attributed to a high proportion of direct payments for services not covered by the NHI, as well as the relatively small number of households benefiting from the differential ceilings; these considerations warrant a better policy design.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Network analysis of stroke systems of care in Korea
    Jihoon Kang, Hyunjoo Song, Seong Eun Kim, Jun Yup Kim, Hong-Kyun Park, Yong-Jin Cho, Kyung Bok Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Ji Sung Lee, Ah Rum Choi, Mi Yeon Kang, Philip B Gorelick, Hee-Joon Bae
    BMJ Neurology Open.2024; 6(1): e000578.     CrossRef
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    Sujin Kim, Soonman Kwon
    Social Science & Medicine.2023; 326: 115929.     CrossRef
  • Cancer care patterns in South Korea: Types of hospital where patients receive care and outcomes using national health insurance claims data
    Dong‐Woo Choi, Sun Jung Kim, Seungju Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Wonjeong Jeong, Kyu‐Tae Han
    Cancer Medicine.2023; 12(13): 14707.     CrossRef
  • Changes in health care utilization and financial protection after integration of the rural and urban social health insurance schemes in Beijing, China
    Zhenyu Shi, Ping He, Dawei Zhu, Feng Lu, Qingyue Meng
    BMC Health Services Research.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • News media’s framing of health policy and its implications for government communication: A text mining analysis of news coverage on a policy to expand health insurance coverage in South Korea
    Wonkwang Jo, Myoungsoon You
    Health Policy.2019; 123(11): 1116.     CrossRef
Determinants of Health Care Expenditures and the Contribution of Associated Factors: 16 Cities and Provinces in Korea, 2003-2010
Kimyoung Han, Minho Cho, Kihong Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(6):300-308.   Published online November 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.6.300
  • 10,887 View
  • 119 Download
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The purpose of this study was to classify determinants of cost increases into two categories, negotiable factors and non-negotiable factors, in order to identify the determinants of health care expenditure increases and to clarify the contribution of associated factors selected based on a literature review.

Methods

The data in this analysis was from the statistical yearbooks of National Health Insurance Service, the Economic Index from Statistics Korea and regional statistical yearbooks. The unit of analysis was the annual growth rate of variables of 16 cities and provinces from 2003 to 2010. First, multiple regression was used to identify the determinants of health care expenditures. We then used hierarchical multiple regression to calculate the contribution of associated factors. The changes of coefficients (R2) of predictors, which were entered into this analysis step by step based on the empirical evidence of the investigator could explain the contribution of predictors to increased medical cost.

Results

Health spending was mainly associated with the proportion of the elderly population, but the Medicare Economic Index (MEI) showed an inverse association. The contribution of predictors was as follows: the proportion of elderly in the population (22.4%), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (4.5%), MEI (-12%), and other predictors (less than 1%).

Conclusions

As Baby Boomers enter retirement, an increasing proportion of the population aged 65 and over and the GDP will continue to increase, thus accelerating the inflation of health care expenditures and precipitating a crisis in the health insurance system. Policy makers should consider providing comprehensive health services by an accountable care organization to achieve cost savings while ensuring high-quality care.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Banu Tantan, Sevkiye Sence Turk
    Journal of Urban Planning and Development.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Dilek Atılgan, Enver Günay
    Hitit Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi.2024; 17(1): 39.     CrossRef
  • SAĞLIK HARCAMALARININ BELİRLENMESİNDE SOSYO-EKONOMİK UNSURLARIN ETKİLERİ: TÜRKİYE VE SEÇİLMİŞ AB ÜLKELERİ ÜZERİNE PANEL VERİ ANALİZİ
    Seyhan TAŞ, Dilek ATILGAN
    Journal of Economics and Research.2023; 4(2): 47.     CrossRef
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    Gülnur İlgün, Murat Konca, Seda Sönmez
    Journal of Health Management.2022; 24(3): 356.     CrossRef
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    Zhenjiang Xing, Xia Liu
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Mohammad Meskarpour Amiri, Mahmood Kazemian, Zahra Motaghed, Zhaleh Abdi
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    Muhammad Awais, Alam Khan, Muhammad Salman Ahmad
    Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ).2021; 5(1): 481.     CrossRef
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    Lulin Zhou, Sabina Ampon-Wireko, Henry Asante Antwi, Xinglong Xu, Muhammad Salman, Maxwell Opuni Antwi, Tordzro Mary Norvienyo Afua
    BMC Health Services Research.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Mengping Zhou, Jingyi Liao, Nan Hu, Li Kuang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(18): 6917.     CrossRef
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    Tomasz Rokicki, Aleksandra Perkowska, Marcin Ratajczak
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    Milos Stepovic
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    Milos Stepovic
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    Min Kyung Hyun
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    Jee-Ae Kim, Seokjun Yoon, Log-Young Kim, Dong-Sook Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2017; 32(5): 718.     CrossRef
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    Kyung‐Rae Hyun, Sungwook Kang, Sunmi Lee
    Health Economics.2016; 25(10): 1239.     CrossRef
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    M. Santric-Milicevic, V. Vasic, Z. Terzic-Supic
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    Wei-Erh Cheng, Li-Ting Su, Shuo-Chueh Chen, Tsai-Chung Li, Hsiang-Wen Lin
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    Hyoung Kyu Yoon
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2014; 29(6): 735.     CrossRef
Use of Drug-eluting Stents Versus Bare-metal Stents in Korea: A Cost-minimization Analysis Using Population Data
Hae Sun Suh, Hyun Jin Song, Eun Jin Jang, Jung-Sun Kim, Donghoon Choi, Sang Moo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):201-209.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.201
  • 8,426 View
  • 82 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The goal of this study was to perform an economic analysis of a primary stenting with drug-eluting stents (DES) compared with bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admitted through an emergency room (ER) visit in Korea using population-based data.

Methods

We employed a cost-minimization method using a decision analytic model with a two-year time period. Model probabilities and costs were obtained from a published systematic review and population-based data from which a retrospective database analysis of the national reimbursement database of Health Insurance Review and Assessment covering 2006 through 2010 was performed. Uncertainty was evaluated using one-way sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.

Results

Among 513 979 cases with AMI during 2007 and 2008, 24 742 cases underwent stenting procedures and 20 320 patients admitted through an ER visit with primary stenting were identified in the base model. The transition probabilities of DES-to-DES, DES-to-BMS, DES-to-coronary artery bypass graft, and DES-to-balloon were 59.7%, 0.6%, 4.3%, and 35.3%, respectively, among these patients. The average two-year costs of DES and BMS in 2011 Korean won were 11 065 528 won/person and 9 647 647 won/person, respectively. DES resulted in higher costs than BMS by 1 417 882 won/person. The model was highly sensitive to the probability and costs of having no revascularization.

Conclusions

Primary stenting with BMS for AMI with an ER visit was shown to be a cost-saving procedure compared with DES in Korea. Caution is needed when applying this finding to patients with a higher level of severity in health status.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A cost analysis comparing telepsychiatry to in-person psychiatric outreach and patient travel reimbursement in Northern Ontario communities
    Eva Serhal, Tanya Lazor, Paul Kurdyak, Allison Crawford, Claire de Oliveira, Rebecca Hancock-Howard, Peter C Coyte
    Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare.2020; 26(10): 607.     CrossRef
English Abstracts
Estimating the Socioeconomic Costs of Alcohol Drinking Among Adolescents in Korea.
Jaeyeun Kim, Woojin Chung, Sunmi Lee, Chongyon Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(4):341-351.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.4.341
  • 5,853 View
  • 95 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to estimate the socioeconomic costs resulting from alcohol drinking among adolescents as of 2006 from a societal perspective. METHODS: The costs were classified into direct costs, indirect costs, and other costs. The direct costs consisted of direct medical costs and direct non-medical costs. The indirect costs were computed by future income losses from premature death, productivity losses from using medical services and reduction of productivity from drinking and hangover. The other costs consisted of property damage, public administrative expenses, and traffic accident compensation. RESULTS: The socioeconomic costs of alcohol drinking among adolescents as of 2006 were estimated to be 387.5 billion won (0.05% of GDP). In the case of the former, the amount included 48.25% for reduction of productivity from drinking and hangover, 39.38% for future income losses from premature death, and 6.71% for hangover costs. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the socioeconomic costs of alcohol drinking among adolescents in Korea were a serious as compared with that of the United States. Therefore, the active interventions such as a surveillance system and a prevention program to control adolescents drinking by government and preventive medicine specialist are needed.
Summary

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Socioeconomic Costs of Stroke in Korea: Estimated from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database.
Seung ji Lim, Han joong Kim, Chung mo Nam, Hoo sun Chang, Young Hwa Jang, Sera Kim, Hye Young Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):251-260.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.251
  • 7,108 View
  • 144 Download
  • 42 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To estimate the annual socioeconomic costs of stroke in Korea in 2005 from a societal perspective. METHODS: We identified those 20 years or older who had at least one national health insurance (NHI) claims record with a primary or a secondary diagnosis of stroke (ICD-10 codes: I60-I69, G45) in 2005. Direct medical costs of the stroke were measured from the NHI claims records. Direct non-medical costs were estimated as transportation costs incurred when visiting the hospitals. Indirect costs were defined as patients' and caregivers' productivity loss associated with office visits or hospitalization. Also, the costs of productivity loss due to premature death from stroke were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 882,143 stroke patients were identified with prevalence for treatment of stroke at 2.44%. The total cost for the treatment of stroke in the nation was estimated to be 3,737 billion Korean won (KRW) which included direct costs at 1,130 billion KRW and indirect costs at 2,606 billion KRW. The per-capita cost of stroke was 3 million KRW for men and 2 million KRW for women. The total national spending for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke was 1,323 billion KRW and 1,553 billion KRW, respectively, which together consisted of 77.0% of the total cost for stroke. Costs per patient for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke were estimated at 6 million KRW and 2 million KRW, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke is a leading public health problem in Korea in terms of the economic burden. The indirect costs were identified as the largest component of the overall cost.
Summary

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Costs of Initial Cancer Care and its Affecting Factors.
So Young Kim, Sung Gyeong Kim, Jong Hyock Park, Eun Cheol Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):243-250.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.243
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purposes of this study is to estimate the cost of cancer care after its diagnosis and to identify factors that can influence the cost of cancer care. METHODS: The study subjects were patients with an initial diagnosis one of four selected tumors and had their first two-years of cancer care at a national cancer center. The data were obtained from medical records and patient surveys. We classified cancer care costs into medical and nonmedical costs, and each cost was analyzed for burden type, medical service, and cancer stage according to cancer types. Factors affecting cancer care costs for the initial phase included demographic variables, socioeconomic status and clinical variables. RESULTS: Cancer care costs for the initial year following diagnosis were higher than the costs for the following successive year after diagnosis. Lung cancer (25,648,000 won) had higher costs than the other three cancer types. Of the total costs, patent burden was more than 50% and medical costs accounted for more than 60%. Inpatient costs accounted for more than 60% of the medical costs for stomach and liver cancer in the initial phase. Care for late-stage cancer was more expensive than care for early-stage cancer. Nonmedical costs were estimated to be between 4,500,000 to 6,000,000 won with expenses for the caregiver being the highest. The factors affecting cancer care costs were treatment type and cancer stage. CONCLUSIONS: The cancer care costs after diagnosis are substantial and vary by cancer site, cancer stage and treatment type. It is useful for policy makers and researchers to identify tumor-specific medical and nonmedical costs. The effort to reduce cancer costs and early detection for cancer can reduce the burden to society and improve quality of life for the cancer patients.
Summary

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Original Articles
A Study on the Association between Healthcare Utilization and the Burden of Families Caring for the Elderly in the Last 6 Months of Life.
Jee Jeon Yi, Hee Na Lee, Heechoul Ohrr, Hye Young Jung, Sang Wook Yi
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(4):332-338.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the relationship between medical expenses and the burden of families caring for the elderly in the last 6 months of life, and to evaluate the factors relating to the burden of family caregivers. METHODS: The families of 301 persons older than 65 years, who died between 1 July and 31 December 2001, and were registered in Resident-based- Health Insurance Programs in Seoul, were interviewed. The medical expenses and length of stay among the elderly were collected from Korean Health Insurance Corporations. RESULTS: 31 percents of the elderly had no medical expenses in the last 6 months of life. On average, the objective burden (4.92) was higher than the subjective burden (3.35). Families caring for male elderly had a higher burden. With increasing age at death, the objective burden was significantly increased. The burden on a family seemed to be influenced more by the family income than the property of the elderly. With increasing total health care costs, the objective burden on the family caregivers was significantly increased, but with increasing medical expenses, the subjective burden was significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: An association between healthcare utilization and burden on families was observed. The reason for the decreasing subjective burden when medical expenses were decreased was unclear. Further research will be needed.
Summary
Annual Visit Days, Prescription Days and Medical Expenses of Hypertensive Patients.
Bu Dol Lim, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Jeong Soo Im, Soon Woo Park, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):340-350.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the annual visit days, the annual prescription days and the medical costs of hypertensive patients. METHODS: The medical insurance records of 40,267 incident patients with the diagnostic code of hypertension from September 1998 through August 1999 in Daegu city were reviewed. RESUJLTS: The proportion of the most proper medical care pattern group (Group VIII) who visited for 6-15 days with 240 prescription days or more a year was only 6.2%. The proper care group (Group IX) who visited for more than 16 days with 240 prescription days or more a year was 9.3%. The overall proper care group (Group VIII+IX) was therefore 15.5%. The proportion of the insufficient care group (Group I,IV) in both the number of visiting days and prescription days was 57.4%. The mean prescription day of the most proper group (Group VIII) was 29 days; the mean annual medical expenses, 453,587won; the mean annual amount paid by patients, 218,013won; and mean medical expenses per prescription day, 1,483won. The proportion of the overall proper care group (Group VIII+IX) was significantly higher in adults aged 50-59, those who were enrolled in industrial workers health insurance as well as government employees and private school teachers health insurance, and those who made a higher contribution per month (p<0.01). According to the type of medical facilities, the proportion of the most proper medical care pattern group was highest in the general hospitals (9.3%) but the overall proper care group was higher in the public health centers (22.1%) and private clinics (17.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The management system of hypertension should be reinforced urgently. Therefore, it is necessary to develop guidelines including the number of visiting days per year and prescription days per visit day, and make the system provide medical facilities to more properly care for hypertensive patients.
Summary
Socioeconomic Costs of Obesity for Korean Adults.
Baek Geun Jeong, Ok Ryun Moon, Nam Soon Kim, Jae Heon Kang, Tae Ho Yoon, Sang Yi Lee, Sin Jae Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(1):1-12.
  • 2,529 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To estimate the socioeconomic costs of obesity in Korea, 1998. METHODS: The 1998 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998 NHNES) data was used and 10,880 persons who had taken health examinations were selected for study. Essential hypertension, NIDDM (non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), dyslipidemia, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease, stroke were included as obesity related disease. The data of direct costs of obesity was obtained from the National Federation of Medical Insurance. The category of indirect costs was the loss of productivity caused by premature death and admission, time costs, traffic costs, nursing fees due to obesity. Multiple logistic regression model was developed to estimate prevalence odds ratio by obesity class adjusted demographic and socio-ecnomic factors and calculate PAF (Population Attributable Fraction) of obesity on obesity related disease. And we finally calculated the socioeconomic costs of obesity in relation to BMI with PAF. RESULTS: The direct costs of obesity were 2,126 billion~965 billion Won in considering out of pocket payment to uninsured services, and the indirect costs of obesity were 2,099 billion~1,086 billion Won. Consequently, in considering out of pocket payment to uninsured services, the socioeconomic costs of obesity were 4,225 billion~2,050 billion Won, which corresponded to about 0.094% ~0.046% of GDP and 1.88%~0.91 of total health care costs in Korea. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity represents a major health problem with significant economic implications for the society. This results are conservative estimates as far as all obesity related disease and all health care and indirect costs were not included due to missing information. Further studies are needed to caculate socioeconomic costs of obesity more exactly.
Summary
Analysis of Socioeconomic Costs of Smoking in Korea.
Han Joong Kim, Tae Kyu Park, Sun Ha Jee, Hye Young Kang, Chung Mo Nam
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):183-190.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To estimate the annual economic costs attributable to cigarette smoking in Korea. METHODS: The costs were classified as being direct medical and non-medical costs, indirect costs and others. We focused on those costs related that are incurred in the treatment of selected diseases (cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and cancers), which have been proven to be caused by smoking. In addition to the basic costs of treatment, the additional amount of costs occurred due to smoking was obtained by computing the population attributable risk (PAR%) caused by smoking. To compute the PAR%, relative risks of smoking to the number of outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and the death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model, respectively. Our major data source was the 'Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) cohort study,' which was composed of a total of 115,682 male and 67,932 female beneficiaries who had complete records of their smoking histories in the year of 1992. RESULTS: The annual costs that could be attributable to smoking were estimated to be in the range of 2,847,500 million Won to 3,959,100 million Won. The maximum estimate of 3,959,100 million Won includes 233,100 million Won for medical costs, 5,100 million Won for transportation costs, 27,600 million Won for care giver's economic costs, 69,100 million Won in productivity loss, 3,435,000 million Won lost because of premature death, 172,100 million Won in costs resulting from passive smoke inhalation and 17,100 million Won for costs that resulted from fires that were caused by careless smoking. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that the magnitude of the economic burden of smoking to Korean society is substantial. Therefore, this study provides strong evidence that there is a strong need for a national policy of tobacco control in Korea.
Summary
English Abstracts
Socioeconomic Costs of Alcohol Drinking in Korea.
Woo Jin Chung, Hyun Jun Chun, Sun Mi Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(1):21-29.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We wanted to estimate the annual socioeconomic costs of alcohol drinking in Korea. METHODS: The costs were classified as direct costs, indirect costs and the other costs. The direct costs consisted of direct medical costs, indirect medical costs and subsidiary medical costs. Particularly, the medical costs and population attributable fraction for disease were considered to reflect the calculation of the direct medical costs. The indirect costs were computed by the extent to which the loss of productivity and loss of the workforce might have occurred due to changes in mortality and morbidity according to alcohol drinking. The other costs consisted of property loss, administration costs and costs of alcoholic beverage. RESULTS: The annual costs, which seemed to be attributable to alcohol drinking, were estimated to be 149,352 hundred million won (2.86% of GDP). In case of the latter, the amount includes 9,091 hundred million won for direct costs (6.09%), 62,845 hundred million won for the reduction and loss of productivity (42.08%), 44,691 hundred million won for loss of the workforce (29.92%), and the other costs (21.91%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that compared with the cases of Japan (1.9% of GNP) and the other advanced countries (1.00-1.42% of GDP), alcohol drinking incurs substantial socioeconomic costs to the Korean society. Therefore, this study provides strong support for government interventions to control alcohol drinking in Korea.
Summary
Out-of-pocket Health Expenditures by Non-elderly and Elderly Persons in Korea.
Sung Gyeong Kim, Seung Hum Yu, Woong Sub Park, Woo Jin Chung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):408-414.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the sociodemographic and health characteristics on the out-of-pocket health spending of the individuals aged 20 and older in Korea. METHODS: We used the data from the 2001 National Public Health and Nutrition Survey. The final sample size was 26, 154 persons. Multiple linear regression models were used according to the age groups, that is, one model was used for those people under the age of sixty-five and the other was used for those people aged sixty-five and older. In these analyses, the expenditures were transformed to a logarithmic scale to reduce the skewness of the results. RESULTS: Out-of-pocket health expenditures for those people under the age of 65 averaged 14, 800 won per month, whereas expenditures for those people aged 65 and older averaged 27, 200 won per month. In the regression analysis, the insurance type, resident area, self-reported health status, acute or chronic condition and bed-disability days were the statistically significant determinants for both age groups. Gender and age were statistically significant determinants only for the non-elderly. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study show that the mean out-of-pocket health expenditures varied according to the age groups and also several diverse characteristics. Thus, policymakers should consider the out-of-pocket health expenditure differential between the elderly and nonelderly persons. Improvement of the insurance coverage for the economically vulnerable subgroups that were identified in this study should be carefully considered. In addition, it is necessary to assess the impact of out-of-pocket spending on the peoples' health care utilization.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health