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COVID-19: Original Article
Did the Timing of State Mandated Lockdown Affect the Spread of COVID-19 Infection? A County-level Ecological Study in the United States
Megh M. Trivedi, Anirudha Das
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(4):238-244.   Published online July 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.071
  • 3,634 View
  • 119 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Previous pandemics have demonstrated that several demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors may play a role in increased infection risk. During this current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, our aim was to examine the association of timing of lockdown at the county level and aforementioned risk factors with daily case rate (DCR) in the United States.
Methods
A cross-sectional study using publicly available data was performed including Americans with COVID-19 infection as of May 24, 2020. The United States counties with >100 000 population and >50 cases per 100 000 people were included. The independent variable was the days required from the declaration of lockdown to reach the target case rate (50/100 000 cases) while the dependent (outcome) variable was the DCR per 100 000 on the day of statistical calculation (May 24, 2020) after adjusting for multiple confounding socio-demographic, geographic, and health-related factors. Each independent factor was correlated with outcome variables and assessed for collinearity with each other. Subsequently, all factors with significant association to the outcome variable were included in multiple linear regression models using stepwise method. Models with best R2 value from the multiple regression were chosen.
Results
The timing of mandated lockdown order had the most significant association on the DCR per 100 000 after adjusting for multiple socio-demographic, geographic and health-related factors. Additional factors with significant association with increased DCR include rate of uninsured and unemployment.
Conclusions
The timing of lockdown order was significantly associated with the spread of COVID-19 at the county level in the United States.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predisposing, Enabling, and Reinforcing Factors of COVID-19 Prevention Behavior in Indonesia: A Mixed-methods Study
    Putri Winda Lestari, Lina Agestika, Gusti Kumala Dewi
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(1): 21.     CrossRef
  • Assessing the Impacts of COVID-19 and Social Isolation on Mental Health in the United States of America
    Alexander Fulk, Raul Saenz-Escarcega, Hiroko Kobayashi, Innocent Maposa, Folashade Agusto
    COVID.2023; 3(6): 807.     CrossRef
  • Understanding mental health trends during COVID-19 pandemic in the United States using network analysis
    Hiroko Kobayashi, Raul Saenz-Escarcega, Alexander Fulk, Folashade B. Agusto, Karina Cardoso Meira
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(6): e0286857.     CrossRef
  • Conspiratorial Ideation Is Associated with Lower Perceptions of Policy Effectiveness: Views from Local Governments during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Adam Mayer, Stacia Ryder
    Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of social distancing measures and lockdowns for reducing transmission of COVID-19 in non-healthcare, community-based settings
    Caitriona Murphy, Wey Wen Lim, Cathal Mills, Jessica Y. Wong, Dongxuan Chen, Yanmy Xie, Mingwei Li, Susan Gould, Hualei Xin, Justin K. Cheung, Samir Bhatt, Benjamin J. Cowling, Christl A. Donnelly
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Closures and Openings on Public Health in the Time of COVID-19: A Cross-Country and Temporal Trend Analysis
    Long Chu, R. Quentin Grafton, Tom Kompas, Mary-Louise McLaws
    SAGE Open.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association mining based approach to analyze COVID-19 response and case growth in the United States
    Satya Katragadda, Raju Gottumukkala, Ravi Teja Bhupatiraju, Azmyin Md. Kamal, Vijay Raghavan, Henry Chu, Ramesh Kolluru, Ziad Ashkar
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Identification of Unmet Healthcare Needs: A National Survey in Thailand
Sukanya Chongthawonsatid
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(2):129-136.   Published online March 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.318
  • 3,598 View
  • 152 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study examined demographic factors hampering access to healthcare at hospitals and suggests policy approaches to improve healthcare management in Thailand.
Methods
The data for the study were drawn from a health and welfare survey conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand in 2017. The population-based health and welfare survey was systematically carried out by skilled interviewers, who polled 21 519 384 individuals. The independent variables related to demographic data (age, sex, religion, marital status, education, occupation, and area of residence), chronic diseases, and health insurance coverage. The dependent variable was the degree of access to healthcare. Multiple logistic regression analysis was subsequently performed on the variables found to be significant in the univariate analysis.
Results
Only 2.5% of the population did not visit a hospital when necessary for outpatient-department treatment, hospitalization, or the provision of oral care. The primary reasons people gave for not availing themselves of the services offered by government hospitals when they were ill were—in descending order of frequency—insufficient time to seek care, long hospital queues, travel inconvenience, a lack of hospital beds, unavailability of a dentist, not having someone to accompany them, and being unable to pay for the transportation costs. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that failure to access the health services provided at hospitals was associated with demographic, educational, occupational, health welfare, and geographic factors.
Conclusions
Accessibility depends not only on health and welfare benefit coverage, but also on socioeconomic factors and the degree of convenience associated with visiting a hospital.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Factors associated with poor self-rated health among chronic kidney disease patients and their health care utilization: Insights from LASI wave-1, 2017-18
    Swetalina Nayak, Soumya Ranjan Nayak, Alice Alice, Debadutta Sahoo, Srikanta Kanungo, Tanveer Rehman, Sanghamitra Pati, Subrat Kumar Palo
    Frontiers in Nephrology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The association between health costs and physical inactivity; analysis from the Physical Activity at Work study in Thailand
    Katika Akksilp, Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Yot Teerawattananon, Cynthia Chen
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Unmet Healthcare Needs among the Elderly Korean Population: Before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Hyo Lyun Roh, Sang Dol Kim
    Systems.2023; 11(9): 437.     CrossRef
  • The association of physical activity and sedentary behaviour on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study from the physical activity at work (PAW) trial
    Katika Akksilp, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider, Yot Teerawattananon, Cynthia Chen
    Journal of Activity, Sedentary and Sleep Behaviors.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The relationship between sexual and gender stigma and difficulty accessing primary and mental healthcare services among LGBTQI+ populations in Thailand: Findings from a national survey
    Soroush Moallef, Travis Salway, Nittaya Phanuphak, Katri Kivioja, Suparnee Pongruengphant, Kanna Hayashi
    International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.2022; 20(6): 3244.     CrossRef
  • The impact of the Syrian Refugee Crisis on the health access in Turkiye: A synthetic control analysis
    Hüseyin İKİZLER, Aslı DOLU, Emre YÜKSEL
    Uluslararası Ekonomi ve Yenilik Dergisi.2022; 8(2): 165.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health