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8 "Triglyceride"
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Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans
Hye Sook Min, Ji Yeon Kang, Joohon Sung, Mi Kyung Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(3):153-164.   Published online May 17, 2016
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters.
This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships.
Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall.
Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI.


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    Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.2021; 144(5): 464.     CrossRef
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    Zahra Asadi, Mojtaba Shafiee, Fatemeh Sadabadi, Maryam Saberi-Karimian, Susan Darroudi, Maryam Tayefi, Hamideh Ghazizadeh, Alireza Heidari Bakavoli, Mohsen Moohebati, Habibollah Esmaeily, Gordon A. Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
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    Sechassayana N.
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  • Differential association of dietary carbohydrate intake with metabolic syndrome in the US and Korean adults: data from the 2007–2012 NHANES and KNHANES
    Kyungho Ha, Kijoon Kim, Ock K. Chun, Hyojee Joung, YoonJu Song
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2018; 72(6): 848.     CrossRef
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    Bo Young Jang, So Young Bu
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2018; 12(3): 222.     CrossRef
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    Jihoon Oh, Tae-Suk Kim
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2017; 213: 51.     CrossRef
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    Glenn Dallérac, Julien Moulard, Jean-François Benoist, Stefan Rouach, Stéphane Auvin, Angèle Guilbot, Loïc Lenoir, Nathalie Rouach
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  • Dietary Patterns in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Study
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    Nutrients.2017; 9(12): 1366.     CrossRef
The Association Between Serum Albumin Levels and Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Population of Korea
Hye Min Cho, Hyeon Chang Kim, Ju-Mi Lee, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(2):98-104.   Published online March 31, 2012
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AbstractAbstract PDF

A positive association between serum albumin levels and metabolic syndrome has been reported in observation studies, but it has not been established in the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between serum albumin levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome among a sample of apparently healthy Korean adults.


This cross-sectional study analyzed data of 3189 community-dwelling people (1189 men and 2000 women) who were aged 40 to 87 years and were living in a rural area in Korea. Serum albumin levels were classified into quartile groups for each sex. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines with an adjusted waist circumference cut-off value (≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women). An independent association between serum albumin levels and metabolic syndrome was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis.


Higher serum albumin levels were associated with increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome for the highest versus the lowest serum albumin quartiles was 2.81 (1.91 to 4.14) in men and 1.96 (1.52 to 2.52) in women, after adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. When each metabolic abnormality was analyzed separately, higher serum albumin levels were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia in both sexes, and with abdominal obesity in men.


These results suggest that higher serum albumin levels are positively associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.



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English Abstract
The Association Between Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Lipid Profiles in Healthy Woman Workers.
Kieun Moon, Sook Hee Sung, Youn Koun Chang, Il Keun Park, Yun Mi Paek, Soo Geun Kim, Tae In Choi, Young Woo Jin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(3):213-221.
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  • 56 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Plasma lipid profiles and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The knowledge of lipid profile may estimate the potential victims of cardiovascular disease before its initiation and progression and offers the opportunity for primary prevention. The most common ApoE polymorphism has been found to influence plasma lipid concentrations and its correlation with CVD has been extensively investigated in the last decade. METHODS: The ApoE polymorphism and its influence on plasma lipid were investigated in healthy woman workers. The information on confounding factors was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire and ApoE polymorphism was investigated using PCR. RESULTS: The relative frequencies of alleles E2, E3 and E4 for the study population (n=305) were 0.127, 0.750 and 0.121, respectively. ApoE polymorphism was associated with variations in plasma HDL-cholesterol lipid profile. In order to estimate the independent effects of alleles E2 and E4, as compared with E3, on lipid profile, multiple regression was performed after adjustment for confounding variables such as age, BMI, blood pressure, education status, insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, menopause. ApoE2 had a negative association with HDL cholesterol and ApoE4 had a positive association with LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified that the ApoE and CVD risk factors contribute to the lipid profiles, similar to other studies. The analysis including dietary intake and other gene in further studies may help to identify clear effects on lipid profiles as risk factor for CVD.


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Original Articles
A Study on Serum Lipid Levels of Children in Pusan.
Soo Yong Kang, Byung Mann Cho, Su Ill Lee, In Kyong Hwang, Yeung Wook Kim, Young Sil Kim, Ae Ri Cha, I Ho Ha, Chel Ho Lee, Don Kyoun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(4):686-696.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children living in Pusan in 1996. The distribution of age is from 2 years old to 12 years old. In female children mean total cholesterol is 171.4+/-26.2mg/dl, triglyceride is 104.7+/-50.6mg/dl, HDL-cholesterol is 54.4+/-14.8mg/dl, and LDL-cholesterol is 95.4+/-32.9mg/dl. In male children mean total cholesterol is 167.9+/-25.2mg/dl, triglyceride is 90.6+/-45.5mg/dl, HDL-cholesterol is 55.4+/-11.7mg/dll, and LDL-cholesterol is 94.4+/-23.6mg/dl. The percentile of serum lipid levels is measured in children. The 95th percentile of serum total cholesterol is 210mg/dl in male children, and 214mg/dl in female children. And, the 95th percentile of serum triglyceride is 184mg/dl in male children, and 191mg/dl in female children. And, the 95th percentile of LDL-cholesterol is 133mg/dl in male children, and 135mg/dl in female children. Serum total cholesterol is positively related to age(r=0.18), height(r=0.08), weight(r=0.17), obesity index(r=0.12), and negatively related to father's education level(r=-0.13), mother's education level(r=-0.13). Serum triglyceride is positively related to weight(r=0.23), age(r=0.31) and negatively related to father's education level(r=-0.12), mother's education level(r=-0.18). Serum HDL-C was positively related to mother's education level(r=0.07) and negatively related to height(r=-0.12), weight(r=-0.09). Conclusively, the serum lipid levels of children living in Pusan is generally so high that the family and school must try to control the serum lipid levels.
Four-year change and tracking of serum lipids in Korean adolescents.
Kang Hee Lee, Il Suh, Sun Ha Jee, Chung Mo Nam, Sung Soon Kim, Won Heum Shim, Jong Won Ha, Suk Il Kim, Hyung Gon Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(1):45-60.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
It has been known that there is a tracking phenomenon in the level of serum lipids. However, no study has been performed to examine the change and tracking of serum lipids in Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes of serum lipids in Korean adolescents from 12 to 16 years of age, and to examine whether or not there is a tracking phenomenon in serum lipids level during the period. In 1992 serum lipids(total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), LDL cholesterol(LDL-C), HDL cholesterol(HDL-C)) were measured in 318 males, 365 females who were 12 years of age in Kangwha county, Korea. These participants have been followed up to 1996 and serum lipids level were examined in 1994 and 1996. Among the participants 162 males and 147 females completed all three examinations in fasting state. To examine the effect of eliminating adolescents with incomplete data, we compared serum lipids, blood pressure and anthropometric measures at baseline between adolescents with complete follow-up and adolescents who were withdrawn. To examine the change of serum lipids we compared mean values of serum lipids according to age in males and females. Repeated analysis of variance was used to test the change according to age. We used three methods to examine the existence of tracking. First, we analyzed the trends in serum lipids over 4-year period within quartile groups formed on the basis of the first-year serum lipids level to see whether or not the relative ranking of the mean serum lipids among the quartile groups remained in the same group for 4-year period. Second, we quantified the degree of tracking by calculating Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between every tests. Third, the persistence extreme quartile method was used. This method divides the population into quartile groups according to the initial level of blood lipids and then calculates the percent of the subjects who stayed in the same group at follow-up measurement. The decreases in levels were noted during 4 years for TC, LDL-C, primarily for boys. The level of HDL-C decreased between baseline and first follow-up for both sexes and girls. Tracking, as measured by both correlation coefficients and persistence extreme quartiles, was evident for all of the lipids. The correlation coefficients of TC between baseline and 4 years later in boys and girls were 0.55 and 0.68, respectively. And the corresponding values for HDL-C were 0.58 and 0.69. More than 50% of adolescents who belonged to the highest quartile group in TC, HDL-C and LDL-C at the baseline were remained at the same group at the examination performed 2 years later for both sexes. The probability of remaining at the same group was more than 35% when examined 4 years later. The tracking phenomenon of TG was less evident compared with the other lipids. Percents of girls who stayed at the same group 2 years later and 4 years later were 42.9% and 25.7%, respectively. It was evident that serum lipid levels tracked in Korean adolescents. Researches with longer follow-up would be needed in he future to investigate the long-term change of lipids from adolescents to adults.
10-year analysis of blood lipid profile and other risk factors among aircrew members in Korea.
In Ho Kwak, Yong Ho Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(3):387-399.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to analyzed blood lipid profile and other risk factors among crew members who are currently active and had more than 10 years of experience as crew members. Data was analyzed using medical record files in an airline medical department. The results are as follows. 1. The total number of crew members studied was 392. Among age groups, those below age 40 consisted of 26(6.9% of the total), those in age 41~50 were 135(34.4%) and those over age 51 were 230(58.7%). 263 were former air force pilots consisting 66.9%. Those who had captain status numbered 211 comprising 53.7% of the total. The type of aircraft most of the crew members involved were large size aircraft which totaled 268(68.2%). With respect to the number of working years as crew members, 488(48.9%) comprised the largest group with 11~15 years. 2. The rate of smoking among crew members has shown gradual decrease with 50.3% smoking in 1983 to 33.6% in 1993. Among 41~50 age group the rate has shown a decrease from 20.9% to 13.3%. In those group over age 51 it decreased from 25.5% to 16.6%. But group below age 40 were within the range of 3.6~3.8% with no significant change in the rate of smoking. 3. Body Mass Index in age group over 51 was slightly higher than other age groups. On the whole, BMI over 25 was not found. 4. The total cholesterol levels of those below age 40 were 196.9+/-38.5 mg/dl, 216.2+/-39.2 mg/dl in ages 41~50, and 225.1+/-42.5 mg/dl in age group over 51. No significant difference was found among age groups. 5. HDL-cholesterol levels of over age 50 were higher than other age group and ranged from 40~55 mg/dl. 6. LDL-cholesterol levels of those over 51 were 126.7+/-37.7 mg/dl higher than other age groups. But there were no significant changes in all age during 10 years of follow up. 7. Cardiac index of age group below age 40 was 3.8, 4.3 in age group 41~50 and 4.5 in those over age 51 group. No significant changes among groups were found during the follow up period. 8. Triglyceride levels of age group below age 40 was 142.2+/-70.1, 167.3+/-77.5 in age group of 41~50 and 173.6+/-89.7 in age group over 50 showing that triglyceride levels increased with age. No significant changes in pattern were noted.
Leisure time physical activity and its relationship to coronary risk factors in male workers.
Yun Kyeong Rho, Mi Hae Yeh, Sung Kook Lee, Byung Yeol Chun
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(3):332-346.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was attempted to observe leisure time physical activity pattern and its relationship to coronary risk factors(BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar). Subjects participated in this study were 277 adult male workers of an industry in Kyungpook province, Korea. Energy expenditure were measured using modified Physical Activity History questionnaire of CARDIA study by interviewing. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar level were tested with 5 ml fasting blood and height, weight and blood pressure were measured. Data on smoking and drinking habits and others were obtained. Geometric mean of leisure time physical energy expenditure were estimated as 212.80 kcal per week for study subjects and only 22.4% of them expended 2,000 kcal or more per week in leisure time physical activity. Taking walks or hikes and jogging or running were more frequent leisure time physical activities in study subjects. Statistically significant mean differences in total weekly leisure time physical activity for all coronary risk factors were not found among three groups. Because energy expenditure of leisure time was generally low in this subjects and most of them were healthy men, we did not found that leisure time physical activity was significantly associated with coronary risk factors.
The Effect of Alcohol on the Blood Lipid Level of Korean Adult Men.
Chung Yill Park, Yun Chul Hong, Seung Han Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(1):44-52.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to evaluate the relations between alcohol intake and blood lipid level in a group of 1,138 Korean adult men, ages 20 to 69 years. Total number of each of a variety of drinks in the previous two weeks was obtained by questionnaire and converted into grams of alcohol consumed in a week. The levels of blood lipid such as Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, Triglyceride and LDL-Cholesterol were examined by enzyme method. We also observed the effects of various variables such as age, body mass index, smoking, exercise and blood pressure on blood lipid level. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Average weekly alcohol intake was 129.0+/-167.4 gm and that of 30-39 age group was the highest as 149.3+/-170.4gm. 2. Levels of Cholesterol, Triglyceride and LDL-Cholesterol tended to increase with increasing age, but level of HDL-Cholesterol showed no significant relationship with age. 3. The positive linear regressions of alcohol intake on HDL-Cholesterol and Triglyceride were noted statistically significant. 4. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the effect of alcohol on HDL-Cholesterol and Triglyceride was statistically significant and the contribution rates were 5.0% and 0.8%, respectively. And, in the case of HDL-Cholesterol, the alcohol intake was the most significant independent variable.

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