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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 2006;39(4): 317-324.
Estimation of Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents in a Community by Design-based Analysis.
Soon Woo Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Sang Won Lee, Jung Han Park, Yeon Oh Yun, Won Kee Lee
1Department of Preventive Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Korea. kom824@cu.ac.kr
2Daegu Metropolitan Office of Education, Korea.
3Health Promotion Research Center, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Korea.
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to estimate the unbiased smoking prevalence and its standard errors among adolescents in a large city in Korea, by designbased analysis. METHODS: All the students in Daegu city were stratified by grade, gender and region, and then schools as primary sampling units (PSU) were selected by probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. One or two classes were sampled randomly from each grade, from 5th grade in elementary schools to the 3rd grade in high schools. The students anonymously completed a standardized selfadministered questionnaire from October to December 2004. The total number of respondents was 8,480 in the final analysis, excluding the third graders in the general high schools because of incomplete sampling. The sampling weight was calculated for each student after poststratification adjustment, with adjustment being made for the missing cases. The data were analyzed with Stata 8.0 with consideration of PSU, weighting and the strata variables. RESULTS: The smoking prevalence (%) and standard errors for male students from the fifth grade in elementary schools to the second grade in high schools were 0.93[0.47, 1.83[ 0.74, 3.16[1.00, 5.12[1.02, 10.86[1.13, 15.63[2.44 and 17.96[2.67, and those for the female students were 0.28[ 0.28, 1.17[0.73, 3.13[0.60, 1.45[0.58, 3.94[0.92, 8.75 [1.86 and 10.04[1.70, sequentially. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence from this study was much higher than those from the other conventional studies conducted in Korea. The point estimates and standard errors from the design-based analysis were different from those of the model-based analysis. These findings suggest the importance of design-based analysis to estimate unbiased prevalence and standard errors in complex survey data and this method is recommended to apply to future surveys for determining the smoking prevalence for specific population.
Key words: Adolescents; Smoking prevalence; Designbased analysis; Probability proportional to size
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