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Hye Sook Park 12 Articles
Environmental Health Surveillance of Low Birth Weight in Seoul using Air Monitoring and Birth Data.
Ju Hee Seo, Eun Hee Ha, Ok Jin Kim, Byung Mi Kim, Hye Sook Park, Jong Han Leem, Yun Chul Hong, Young Ju Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):363-370.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The principal objective of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal exposure to air pollution and low birth weight and to propose a possible environmental health surveillance system for low birth weight. METHODS: We acquired air monitoring data for Seoul from the Ministry of Environment, the meteorological data from the Korean Meteorological Administration, the exposure assessments from the National Institute of Environmental Research, and the birth data from the Korean National Statistical Office between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2003. The final birth data were limited to singletons within 37~44 weeks of gestational age. We defined the Low Birth Weight (LBW) group as infants with birth weights of less than 2500g and calculated the annual LBW rate by district. The air monitoring data were measured for CO, SO2, NO2, and PM10 concentrations at 27 monitoring stations in Seoul. We utilized two models to evaluate the effects of air pollution on low birth weight: the first was the relationship between the annual concentration of air pollution and low birth weight (LBW) by individual and district, and the second involved a GIS exposure model constructed by Arc View 3.1. RESULTS: LBW risk (by Gu, or district) was significantly increased to 1.113(95% CI=1.111~1.116) for CO, 1.004 (95% CI=1.003~1.005) for NO2, 1.202(95% CI=1.199~ 1.206) for SO2, and 1.077(95% CI=1.075~1.078) for PM10 with each interquartile range change. Personal LBW risk was significantly increased to 1.081(95% CI=1.002~1.166) for CO, 1.145(95% CI=1.036~1.267) for SO2, and 1.053(95% CI=1.002~1.108) for PM10 with each interquartile range change. Personal LBW risk was increased to 1.003(95% CI=0.954~1.055) for NO2, but this was not statistically significant. The air pollution concentrations predicted by GIS positively correlated with the numbers of low birth weights, particularly in highly polluted regions. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental health surveillance is a systemic, ongoing collection effort including the analysis of data correlated with environmentally-associated diseases and exposures. In addition, environmental health surveillance allows for a timely dissemination of information to those who require that information in order to take effective action. GIS modeling is crucially important for this purpose, and thus we attempted to develop a GIS-based environmental surveillance system for low birth weight.


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  • Outdoor Air Pollution, Preterm Birth, and Low Birth Weight: Analysis of the World Health Organization Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health
    Nancy L. Fleischer, Mario Merialdi, Aaron van Donkelaar, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega, Randall V. Martin, Ana Pilar Betran, João Paulo Souza
    Environmental Health Perspectives.2014; 122(4): 425.     CrossRef
  • Burden of Disease Due to Outdoor Air Pollution in Korea: Based on PM10
    Hyun-Jin Kim, Seok-Jun Yoon, Hyeong-Su Kim, Kun-Sei Lee, Eun-Jung Kim, Min-Woo Jo, In-Hwan Oh
    Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences.2011; 37(5): 387.     CrossRef
Air Pollution and Respiratory Symptoms of School Children in a Panel Study in Seoul.
Bo Eun Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Hye sook Park, Ho Kim, Hyun Jung Lee, Yeon Kyoung Lee, Seung Joo Lee, Yun Chul Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):465-472.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of air pollution on the daily respiratory symptoms of elementary school children in Seoul. METHODS: Using the panel study design, we collected diary data for the children's respiratory symptoms during the 1st day~15th day of April, July, October and December in 2003 among the 2nd and 3rd grade elementary school students. We merged the respiratory symptom data with the ambient air pollution data that was monitored by Ministry of Environment. Using a generalized estimate equation, we evaluated the relationship between the daily symptoms of the subjects and the exposure to air pollution after controlling for various potential confounders. RESULTS: The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure of the current day significantly increased the upper respiratory symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=1.12, 95% CI=1.01-1.24) and the lower respiratory symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=1.18, 95% CI=1.06-1.31) in the elementary school children. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in the current day was associated with the lower respiratory symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=1.12, 95% CI=1.01-1.25 for SO2; adjusted odds ratio=1.16, 95% CI=1.02-1.32 for CO). CONCLUSIONS: We found that exposure to air pollution affects the daily respiratory symptoms in children. This study suggests that the effect on children's health? due to the short term changes in air pollution levels needs to be considered as an important public health problem.
Folate and Homocysteine Levels during Pregnancy affect DNA Methylation in Human Placenta.
Bo hyun Park, Young Ju Kim, Jong soon Park, Hwa young Lee, Eun hee Ha, Jung won Min, Hye sook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):437-442.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
DNA methylation is one of the best characterized epigenetic mechanisms that play a regulatory role in genome programming and imprinting during embryogenesis. In this present study, we investigated the association between DNA methylation in the human placenta and the maternal folate and homocysteine concentrations on the Methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR) genetic polymorphism during pregnancy. METHODS: We investigated 107 pregnant women who visited Ewha Woman's University Hospital for prenatal care during their 24~28 weeks-period of gestation. During the second trimester, we measured the serum homocysteine and folate concentrations. The MTHFR 677 genetic polymorphism was determine by performing PCR-RFLP assay. The expression of DNA methylation in the human placentas was estimated by using immunohistochemistry method. RESULTS: Serum folate was negatively correlated with the serum homocysteine concentration for all the MTHFR genotypes. We found positive correlation between the folate concentrations and the DNA methylation in the human placenta (p< 0.05). An increasing concentration of homocysteine was associated with reduced DNA methylation in the human placenta. The coefficient value was -2.03 (-3.77, -0.29) on the regression model (p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the maternal folate and homocysteine levels along with the MTHFR 677 genetic polymorphism during pregnancy affect the DNA methylation in the human placenta.
Prenatal Exposure to PM10 and Preterm Birth between 1998 and 2000 in Seoul, Korea.
Eun Hee Ha, Bo Eun Lee, Hye Sook Park, Yun Sang Kim, Ho Kim, Young Ju Kim, Yun Chul Hong, Eun Ae Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):300-305.   Published online November 30, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The exposure to particulate air pollution during the pregnancy has reported to result in adverse pregnancy outcome such as low birth weight, preterm birth, still birth, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). We aim to assess whether prenatal exposure of particulate matter less than 10 (m in diameter (PM10) is associated with preterm birth in Seoul, South Korea. METHODS: We included 382, 100 women who delivered a singleton at 25-42 weeks of gestation between 1998 and 2000. We calculated the average PM10 exposures for each trimester period and month of pregnancy, from the first to the ninth months, based on the birth date and gestational age. We used three different models to evaluate the effect of air pollution on preterm birth; the logistic regression model, the generalized additive logistic regression model, and the proportional hazard model. RESULTS: The monthly analysis using logistic regression model suggested that the risks of preterm birth increase with PM10 exposure between the sixth and ninth months of pregnancy and the highest risk was observed in the seventh month (adjusted odds ratio=1.07, 95% CI=1.01- 1.14). We also found the similar results using generalized additive model. In the proportional hazard model, the adjusted odds ratio for preterm births due to PM10 exposure of third trimester was 1.04 (95% CI=0.96-1.13) and PM10 exposure between the seventh month and ninth months of pregnancy was associated with the preterm births. CONCLUSIONS: We found that there were consistent results when we applied the three different models. These findings suggest that air pollution exposure during the third trimester pregnancy has an adverse effect on preterm birth in South Korea.
Air Pollution Exposure and Health Effects in Fetus.
Bo Eun Lee, Hye sook Park, Young Ju Kim, Eun Ae Park, Yun Chul Hong, Eun Hee Ha
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):291-299.   Published online November 30, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
As there have been growing concerns about the adverse effects of air pollution on birth outcome, studies for this area has been carried out in different populations and sites. We reviewed the epidemiologic studies that evaluated the effects of air pollution on birth outcome such as low birth weight and preterm births. We identified the air pollution exposure during pregnancy was related with low birth weight and preterm birth, although there are differences among studies for the critical period of vulnerability. The biological mechanisms whereby air pollution might influence health of fetus are not clearly established. The exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) during pregnancy could increase fetal carboxyhemoglobin and result in tissue hypoxia. On the other hand, ambient particles less than 10 micrometer in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) could lead to inflammation and increase blood viscosity. Controlling for potential confounders and valid assessment of exposure are the methodological issues remained in these epidemiologic studies. In the future, more studies are needed to investigate the effect of air pollution on preterm birth or stillbirths, considering the various exposure period and the biological mechanism.
Maternal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and Pregnancy Outcome (low birth weight or preterm baby) in Prospective Cohort Study.
Bo Eun Lee, Yun Chul Hong, Hye Sook Park, Jong Tae Lee, Jeong Youn Kim, Young Joo Kim, Sang Hyun Kim, Kang Jung Goo, Joo Oh Kim, Eun Hee Ha
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):117-124.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was performed to examine the relationship between maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and pregnancy outcomes (low birth weight or preterm baby) in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We made a pregnant women's cohort, and followed the pregnancy outcomes, between May 1st 2001 and August 31st 2002. We surveyed 2, 250 women who visited our hospital during their 35th gestational week, with a self-administered questionnaire. The final total of mother-infant pairs analyzed in this study was 1, 712. We used a multiple logistic regression analysis to analyze the effect of maternal ETS on the incidence of preterm or low birth weight, and a linear regression analysis for the birth weight and gestational age. RESULTS: Higher exposure to ETS (> or =1 hours/day) during pregnancy was more negatively associated with the gestational age and birth weight, than no exposure to ETS (no or less than 1hour). Maternal exposure to ETS was associated with preterm baby (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 3.3) and low birth weight (AOR 2.3; 95% CI 0.9, 5.5). In addition, we found that maternal ETS may reduce the birth weight by 70g after adjusting for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that maternal exposure to ETS during pregnancy may increase the frequency of low birth weights and preterm births.
A Survey for Computerized Information System of Occupational Health Management at Worksite.
Heui Sug Jo, Eun Hee Ha, Yun Chul Hong, Chul Hwan Kim, Kyung Ja June, Hye Sook Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(2):215-227.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to develop the computerized information system of occupational health management at worksite, we surveyed actual states of computer use at worksites. We used a self-administrative questionnaire to the members of Korean Association of Occupational Health Nursing(KAOHN) from July 4 to August 21 in 1997. Among the members of KAOHN, 147 members answered. The worksites where they, were employed were very diverse in aspect of jobs, locations, and size. Occupational health computerized system was used at 30(20.4%) worksites among 147 respondents. When they first introduced the computerized system the most difficult problem was the lack of support of manager. The programs that they have used mainly consist of drug management, health examination management, disease management, but the program of worksite environment management have been rarely used. Most users felt that the computerized system was effective, but there were problems in connection within programs. Many worksites have plans to take or expand the computerized information system within several years. It is necessary to develop the effective and integrated occupational health computerized system.
A Study on obesity pattern and related factors of the doctors.
Young Sil Kim, Hye Sook Park, Bong Su Cho, Yeong Wook Kim, Kwang Wook Koh, Soo Yong Kang, Ae Ri Cha, Cheol Ho Yi, In Kyung Hwang, Byung Mann Cho, Su Ill Lee, Don Kyoun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(4):708-718.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The author surveyed overall obesity indicies and factors concerned with obesity such as dietary intake, physical activity, stress and life style with the subject of doctors. The number of subjects was total 508 with 396 men and 112 women. They were subgrouped into surgical part, medical part and service and basic part by speciality. And also subgrouped into intern and resident, pay doctor, and practitioner by working type. The results were as follows. 1) Obesity indices: BMI of total doctor was 23.1+/-2.8, and WHR was 0.87+/-0.08 and overweight prevalence(BMI>25.0) was 23.6 %. It was within normal limit but slightly over the Korean standard. The degree of obesity indices of subgroups by speciality was "surgical part > medical part > service and basic part", and by working type was "practitioner > pay doctor > intern and resident". 2) Dietary intake and Physical activity: Average dietary intake was 2148+/-451 kcal/day. The degree of dietary intake by speciality was "surgical part > medical part > service and basic part". By working type it was "practitioner > pay doctor > intern and resident". Average physical activity was 29+/-5 METs/day. The degree of physical activity also showed similar pattern. But there was no significant difference among each groups. 3) Comparison between over-weight and non-over-weight group: The items that showed significant difference between two groups were dietary intake, skip breakfast, regular exercise, smoking, heavy drinking, chronic disease etc.
The Risk Factors of Industrial Low Back Pain among Shipyard Workers.
Yun Chul Hong, Eun Hee Ha, Hye Sook Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):91-102.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Low back pain patients an controls of shipyard workers were surveyed between June 1995 and september 1995 to identify risk factors of industrial low back pain. The patients were 17 male workers who had got medical treatment for over 3 days because of industrial back pain controls were 51 male workers who had not have musculoskeletal disorder for one year before the survey. By univariate analysis, the workers who did overtime work 4 times or more for the last 2 weeks showed odds ratio of 3.67 on low back pain with the workers who did less overtime work. Carrying heavy materials was also associated with the low back pain and the odds ratio increased with the increase of carrying weight. work space and work posture were not associated with the low back pain significantly. The welder had higher odds ratio than the other workers on low back pain. The duration of employment and job satisfaction did not affect the risk of low back pain. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that frequency of overtime work for the last 2 weeks and carrying heavy materials among the risk factors were associated significantly with the low back pain. We found that important risk factors of low back pain of shipyard workers are work intensity factors such as overtime work and carrying heavy weight.
Drug Sensitivity and Relapsed Period of Relapsed Pulmonary Tuberculous Patients registered in Some Public Health Offices, in Seoul.
Hye Sook Park, Eun Hee Ha, Cha Hyung Wie, Ji Yong Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):67-78.
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The purpose of this study was examine the general characteristics of relapsed pulmonary tuberculous patients (i.e. age, sex, weight, occupation, previous forms of treatment, drug sensitivity, and the frequency of relapse) in order to improve future treatments of tuberculosis as well as to perpetuate health education. The data was obtained from the medical records of 186 relapsed pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were registered for treatment at various public health officers in Seoul during the year of 1994. The major findings obtained from the study were as follows; l) The male to female ratio of relapsed pulmonary tuberculous patients was about 7:3, more specifically 23.7% of the men and 30.9% of the women were between 20 and 29 years of age. 2) Comparing initial less aggravated states to relapsed states, patients with minimal x-ray findings later proved moderately advanced X-ray findings. Furthermore, patients with negative sputum AEB findings later proved positive sputum AFB findings. 3) of the l86 patients studied, 91.9% suffered, relapse and 8.1% suffered 2 or more relapses. Of the patients who suffered at least 1 relapse, 54.8% received short-term treatment, 26.9% received long-term treatment, and 18.3% received treatment of an unknown during their initial tuberculosis treatment periods. 4) Fifty five point four percent of the patients had no reaction to the drug treatment(not available), 25.9% of the patients had sensitive reaction to the drug treatment, 18.7% of the patients had resistant reaction to the drug treatment. Drug resistance was higher in patients to exhibited positive X-ray findings as well as in patients that exhibited positive sputum findings furthermore, patients receiving treatment of an unknown nature(35.5%) exhibited higher drug resistance than those receiving short-term treatment(13.6%) and long-term treatment(l7.0%). 5) Of the 160 patients who suffered relapses, 8.8% suffered a relapse within 1 year after treatment and 91.2% suffered a relapse at least 1 year after treatment. Furthermore, our study showed that women, under 30, who received short-term treatment and encounterd complications during their primary treatment suffered relapses faster than any other groups studied. In addition, minimal X-ray findings and sputum AFB findings were not correlated to the time relapse occurred. Therefore, the greater efforts are needed to prevent relapsed pulmonary tuberculosis.
Trends of Study and Classification of Reference on Occupational Health Management in Korea after Liberation.
Eun Hee Ha, Hye Sook Park, Young Bok Kim, Hyun Jong Song
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):809-844.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purposes of this study are to define the scope of occupational health management and to classify occupational management by review of related journals from 1945 to 1994 in Korea. The steps of this study were as follows: (l)Search of secondary reference; (2) Collection and review of primary reference; (3) Survey; and (4) Analysis and discussion. The results were as follows; 1. Most of the respondents majored in occupational health(71.6%), and were working in university (68.3%), males and over the age 40. Seventy percent of the respondents agreed with the idea that classification of occupational health management is necessary, and 10% disagreed. 2. After integration of the idea of respondents, we reclassified the scope of occupational health management. It was defined 3parts, that is, occupational health system, occupational health service and others (such as assessment, epidemiology, cost-effectiveness analysis and so on). 3. The number of journals on occupational health management was 510. It was slightly increased from 1986 and abruptly increased after 1991. The kinds of journals related to occupational health management were The Korean Journal of occupational Medicine(18.2%), several kinds of Medical College Journal(17.0%), The Korean Journal occupational Health(15.l%), The Korean Journal of preventive Medicine(15.l%) and others(34.6%). As for the contents, the number of journals on occupational health management systems was 33(6.5%) and occupational health services 477(93.5%). Of the journals on occupational health management systems, the number of journals on the occupational health resource system was 15(45.5%), occupational finance system 8(24.2%), occupational health management system 6(l8.2%), occupational organization 3(9.1%) and occupational health delivery system l(3.0%). of the journals on occupational health services, the number of journals on disease management was 269(57.2%), health management 116(24.7%), working environmental management 85(18.1%). As for the subjects, the number of journals on general workers was l85(71.l%), followed by women worker, white color workers and so on. 4. Respondents made occupational health service(such as health management, working environmental management and health education) the first priority of occupational health management. Tied for the second are quality analysis(such as education, training and job contents of occupational health manager) and occupational health systems(such as the recommendation of systems of occupational and general disease and occupational health organization). 5. Thirty seven respondents suggested 48 ideas about the future research of occupational health management. The results were as follows: (l) study of occupational health service 40.5%; (2) Study of organization system 27.1%; (3) Study of occupational health system (e.g. information network) 8.3%; (4) Study of working condition 6.2%; and (5) Study of occupational health service analysis 4.2%.
A study on results of short-course chemotherapy of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis registered at Seoul city health centers.
Hye Sook Park, Eun Hee Ha, Cha Hyung Wie
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(2):487-496.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was performed for the comparison of the therapeutic efficiency between 6-month (2tHER/4HER) and 9-month (9HER) short-course chemotherapy under the programe conditions for pulmonary tuberculosis in terms of sputum AFB negative conversion rate, remedial interruption rate and cost effectiveness analysis. Two hundreds and ninty three patients treated with 9HER and 641 treated with 2HERZ/4HER had been discharged from 22 health centers in Seoul from May 1, 1993 to April 30, 1994. Seven hundreds and seventeen was subsequently analysed excluding 217 patients due to remedial interruption. The results: 1. Bacteriological negative conversion rate in 9HER regimen and 2HERZ/4HER regimen was 97.8% and 96.4% respectively (p>0.05). But the early treatment period, negative conversion rate in 2HERZ/4HER regimen was very higher than in 9HER regimen(p<0.01). 2. Remedial interruption rate for 9HER regimen and 2HERZ/4HER regimen was 34.1% and 13.6% respectively. The primary reason for the interruption was transfering to other clinics and this interruption was high within 3months. 3. Cost effectiveness for 2HERZ/4HER regimen was higher than 9HER regimen. The difference cost effectiveness ratio was 2.33 at the first sputum test and 1.69 at the last sputum test.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health