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Joachim E. Fischer 1 Article
Transformational Leadership and Depressive Symptoms in Germany: Validation of a Short Transformational Leadership Scale
Max Leonhard Seegel, Raphael M. Herr, Michael Schneider, Burkhard Schmidt, Joachim E. Fischer
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(3):161-169.   Published online May 12, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The objective of the present study was to validate a shortened transformational leadership (TL) scale (12 items) comprising core TL behaviour and to test the associations of this shortened TL scale with depressive symptoms.
Methods
The study used cross-sectional data from 1632 employees of the overall workforce of a middle-sized German company (51.6% men; mean age, 41.35 years; standard deviation, 9.4 years). TL was assessed with the German version of the Transformational Leadership Inventory and depressive symptoms with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The structural validity of the core TL scale was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Associations with depressive symptoms were estimated with structural equation modelling and adjusted logistic regression.
Results
Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed better model fit for the core TL than for the full TL score. Logistic regression revealed 3.61-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20 to 5.93: women) to 4.46-fold (95% CI, 2.86 to 6.95: men) increased odds of reporting depressive symptoms (HADS score >8) for those in the lowest tertile of reported core TL.
Conclusions
The shortened core TL seems to be a valid instrument for research and training purposes in the context of TL and depressive symptoms in employees. Of particular note, men reporting poor TL were more likely to report depressive symptoms.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health