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Volume 13(1); October 1980
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Original Articles
A Study on the Crops Pollution with Heady Metal.
Yong Tae Yum, Eun Sang Bae, Bae Joung Yun
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):3-12.
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  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Certine heavy metals which may lead peoples to poisonous status are widely used in industry and their used have been increasing along with rapid industrialization of this country. Such an increasement of metal uses aggravates the status of environmental pollution affecting foodstuffs which are the most important life supporting factor of animal and human being. Concerning the safety measures to minimize food-borne transmission of such hazardous metals, surveillance is the backbone of them and probably more so with a potential problem such as intoxication. Theoretically, this surveillance should include the determination of levels of heavy metal toxicants in foods, the determination of food consumption patterns and typical total diet, and the estimation of total load the metal contaminant from all sources of exposure including air, water, and occupational sources. In recent year, actually, such estimates on the total daily intake of some heavy metals from foods have been made in several developed countries and a wide variation of date by season, locality, and research method was recognized. Also in this country, this kind of research data is vitally needed to make up for the serious shortage or lack of references to estimate the total amount of heavy metal intake of the people. In this study, a modification model for estimation of the total daily intake of cadmium copper, nickel, zinc, and lead through foods was applied and concentrations of the above metals in crops cultivated in this country were measured with atomic absorption spectrophotometer to get the following results. 1.Level of heavy metal concentration in crops. Generally, the levels of such metals in essential crops such as rice, cucumber, radish, chinese cabbage, apple, pear, grape, and orange are similar or lower than those in Japan and other developed countries. By the way, a striking result on cadmium concentration was increasement of its concentration in rice from 0-0.035ppm in 1970 to 0.11ppm in this study. However, the value is still far below the Japanese Permissible Level of 1.0ppm. 2. Estimation of total daily intake per from foods. A new model for estimation was devised utilizing levels of metal concentration in food, amount of food consumed, and other food factors. Based on the above method, the daily intake of cadmium was estimate to be 70.53 microgram/man/day in average which was as high as the Limit Value of ILO/WHO(up to 71.4 microgram/man/day). Also, 3.89mg of Zinc, 1.65mg of cuppor, 0.32mg of lead were given as the total daily intake per capita by this research. 3. Efficacy of washing or skinning to decrease the amount of metals in crops. After washing the crops sufficiently with commercial linear alkylate sulfonate, the concentration of heavy metals could bae reduced to 50-80% showing decreasement rate of 20-50%. Also, after skinning the fruits, decreasement rate of the heavy metal concentration showed 0-50%.
Summary
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Treatment of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.
D W Choi, K Y Yoo, H Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):13-18.
  • 2,546 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The ultimate goal of treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning is to promote dissociation of carboxyhemoglobin and to maintain arterial PO2 above 50mmHg throughout the course of treatment to protect vital organs from damage caused by hypoxia. The hyperbaric chamber designed and manufactured for this has obviously made and enormous contribution and yet has several handicaps to be overcome by any means. These handicaps are: the financial impact to purchase the chamber(especially in a small, remote community), an extra manpower requirement to operate the device, limitation in the capacity of the chamber (one man type), and the possible hazard of oxygen intoxication and dysbarism. The primary objective of this is to develop a new therapeutic measure as an alternative to the hyperbaric chamber when it is not available or contraindicated. The effect of intestinal perfusion with hydrogen peroxide has been studies by many investigators and was known to be an excellent way of extrapulmonary oxygen supply. The advantage of this method will include ; 1) much more amount of oxygen is delivered to the tissue than one would expect from 100% saturation with oxygen at 1 ata, 2) the procedure is simple and most economical, 3) neither sophisticated equipment nor extra manpower is required. As a study preliminary to the clinical application, authors conducted a series of experiment to observe the effect of hydrogen peroxide enema on dissociation of carboxyhemoglobin in intoxicated rabbit blood. Using an animal gas chamber, 20 rabbits were exposed to CO gas of 6,000 ppm for 60 minutes. Ten rabbits of control group were given 10cc of warmed normal saline solution by reactal perfusion and for the other 10 of the experimental group, the same amount of 1% H2O2 solution was given by the same way. Two blood specimens were drawn from each rabbit : the first one immediately following the exposure and the second one after rectal perfusion, about 30 minutes after the first sampling, The result was as following ; 1) The decrease in carboxyhemoglobin concentration during the first 30 minutes in the control and experimental group were 18.88+/-4.49% and 23.03+/-4.13% respectively showing the significant difference(p<0.05) between the two groups. 2) Hemoglobin and hematocrit value showed no significant difference between two groups and not altered significantly by intestinal perfusion with H2O2.
Summary
A Study on the Reliability of the Occupational Job Stress Index Questionnaire Applied to Korea.
Young Soo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):19-25.
  • 1,928 View
  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The Occupational Job Stress Index Questionnaire is a selfadministered instrument consisting of 48 questions which are designed to collect the perceived Job stress about individual. This questionnaire was translated into Korean and applied to the selected groups of 300 blue collar workers musical manufacture industry for the purpose if assessing the it's reliability from April 1. to July 30, 1980. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. The ranged of reliability coefficients for all indices was .45-.75 which was lower than .54-.87 of original. 2. The inter-item correlation matrix for all items comprising an index along with the intercorrelation of these items with the items comprising closely related indices. 3. The reliability of JOB SATISFACTION, INTRINSIC REWARDS and IMPORTANCE REWARDS revealed .14-.20 lower than that of original. On the point of view, some items should be adjusted in parallel with actual situation of Korea through making a cultural comparative study and item factor analysis.
Summary
Some Statistical Considerations for the Estimation of Urinary Mercury Excretion in Normal Individuals.
Hee Sook Park, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):27-34.
  • 1,866 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
of this study is to find out proper means of estimating the urinary mercury excretion the normal individuals. Whole void volume was collected every 2 hours beginning from 6 o'clock in the morning until 6 o'clock next morning. Mercury excretion in each urine specimen was measured by NIOSH recommended dithizone colorimetric method (Method No. : P & CAM 145). Urinary concentration of mercury was adjusted by two means : specific gravity of 1.024 and a gram of creatinine excretion per liter of urine comparing the data with the unadjusted ones. Mercury excretion in 24-hour urine specimen was calculated by adding the amounts measured with the hourly collected specimens of each individual. Statistical analysis of the urinary mercury excretion revealed the following results : 1. Frequency distribution curve of mercury excreted in urine of hourly specimens was best fitted to power function expressed in the form of y=ax(b), Adjustment of the urinary mercury concentration by creatinine excretion was shown to be superior (y=1674x(-1.52)), r(2)=0.95) over nonadjustment(y=2702x(-1.57)), r(2)=0.92) and adjustment by specific gravity of 1.024(y=4535x(-1.66), r(2)=0.93). 2. Both log-transformed mercury excretion in hourly voided specimens and mercury excretion itself in 24 hour specimens showed the normal distributions. 3. The frequency distribution of mercury adjusting the urinary concentration of mercury by creatinine excretion was best fitted to a theoretical normal distribution with the sample means and excretion was best fitted to a theoretical normal distribution with the sample means and standard deviation than those unadjusted or adjusted with specific gravity of 1,024. 4. Average urinary mercury excretions in 24-hour urine specimen in an individual were as follows : a) Unadjusted urinary mercury excretions. mean and standard deviation :18.6+/-13.68 microgramHg/liter. median : 16.0 microgramHg/liter. range : 0.0-55.10 microgramHg/liter. b) Adjusted with specific gravity. mean : 20.7+/-11.76 microgramHg/liter x 0.024/(S.G.-1.000). median : 20.7 microgramHg/liter x 0.024/(S.G.-1.000). range : 0.0-52.9 microgramHg/liter x 0.024/(S.G.-1.000). c) Adjuested with creatinine excretion. mean and standard deviation : 10.5+/-6.98 microgramHg/g creatinine/liter. median : 9.4 microgramHg/g creatinine/liter. range : 0.0-26.7 microgramHg/g creatinine/liter. 5. No statistically significant differences were found between means calculated from 24-hour urine specimens and those from hourly specimens transformed into logarithmic values. (P<0.05).
Summary
A Study on Sickness Absence.
Ho Keun Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):35-39.
  • 1,757 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The researcher intended to investigate the rate absenteeisms and other related statistics among the workers in a steel and iron industry with the criteria and the recommendation of the International Association on Occupational Health. With the well designed questionnaire and interview, 1,882 workers were surveyed from July the 24th to the 28th, 1978. The results were as follows ; The workers who experienced absence were 16.8% in July. The rate of frequency (spells) was as follow ; the frequency (spells) was 1.34, the duration was 2.29, the frequency (persons) was 101.06 and the lost time was 0.63, respectively. The main causes of sickness absence were general symptoms. such as fatigue (50.8%) and gastro-intestinal symptoms (13.8%). The frequency of sick was highly correlated to the frequency of drinking, the amount of smoking, the physical work-load and the amount of drinking, which was analysed by the stepwize multiple regression analysis. The multiple R due to the above mentioned four variables was 0.320 and the R square was 10.3%.
Summary
The Effects of Lead Exposure on Hematocrit and Hemoglobin.
Se Hoon Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):41-46.
  • 2,693 View
  • 38 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to study the effect of lead exposure on the hematocrit and hemoglobin values in accordance with the level of lead exposure, twenty-four Sprague-Dawly rates were equally divided into four groups of six tars each. Lead acetate disolved in glucose was injected intrapertitoneally six times a week, for weeks with does of 0.05 mg/kg/day for group I, 0.5 mg/kg/day for group II, and 5 mg/kg/day for group III. Control group was injected glucose only. Blood samples for the checking of the hematocrit and hemoglobin values, were taking from tail vein of rats before lead injection and on the third, seventh, fourteenth, twenty-first, and twenty-eighth days after lead injection. And also, the concentration of lead and ALA in urine were checked for evaluating the lead absorption. The results were as follows ; 1. The alteration of the hematocrit and hemoglobin values of the group I was not significant as that of the control group. 2. In group II, the hematocrit values were significantly decreased from the fourteenth day after lead injection, and the hemoglobin values were decreased from the twenty- first day after lead injection when the concentration of lead in urine was elevated more than 260 microgram/liter. 3. In group III, the hematocrit value were decreased from the seventh day after lead injection, and the hemoglobin value were decreased even from third day after lead injection. And the hemoglobin values were more rapidly decreased than the hematocrit values. 4. In all group, the correlation coefficient between hematocrit and hemoglobin was highly significant. And the difference between the correlation coefficient of the group III and that of the others was highly significant.
Summary
Relationships Between the amount of the Premium and Benefits and Utilization of Enrollees in a Health Insurance Cooperative.
Woo Hyun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):47-51.
  • 1,687 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study attempts to assess the effect of the 1st class health insurance program to the income redistribution among the participants in a unit health insurance cooperative. One health insurance cooperative, located in Seoul, with 1558 members and 768 households was selected for this purpose. The relationships between amount of premium payed and benefits from the cooperative were compared. Necessary data were obtained from the bills submitted to the health insurance cooperative by the contracted medical institutions from 1st January 1977 to 30th June 1979. Households and individuals were the unit of the assessment. The indicators measuring income redistribution effect were the ratios between the benefit and expected benefit and the ratios between the mean benefit. The major finds were : 1. The ratios between the benefits and the expected benefits were lower than 1 in the high income group and greater than 1 in the middle and lower income group. This fact imply that the income redistribution effect was shown in the studied group. It was shown that the middle income group received the greatest benefit, and then the lower income group. 2. The ratios between the benefit and the mean benefit of the households in the higher standard income grade, were found to be higher. This means that the equity of the benefits of households were not achieved by the policy of the health insurance plan. 3. The health insurance utilization rates of the higher standard income group, measured by the household unit, were higher, and by the individual unit, the same rates of the middle income group were higher than other groups.
Summary
An Analysis on Contents of Health- Concerned Editorials in Korean Newspapers.
Byoung Yik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):53-66.
  • 1,920 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The editorials the leading newspapers may reflect as well as help formulate the public opinions to a significant degree. Bearing this in mind, this study was carried out to provide information useful in formulating such public health policies that could practically meet the social interests and demands in health appearing in the editorials of the newspapers. This analysis covered the editorials of 5 leading newspapers such as Donga Iibo, Chungang Ilbo, Kankook Iibo, Chosen Ilbo and Seoul Shinmoon for about 10 years from Jan. 1st, 1970 through Oct. 31th, 1979. The major findings are as follows : 1. The total number of health-concerned editorials in the five daily papers for the period was 1,768 or occupied 6.4% of the total editorials of the same sources. The increasing trend of frequency of the health-concerned editorials since 1976 indicates the increment of social interests and demands in health. Analysing the contents, environmental pollution received the greatest attention in those editorials, which was followed by medical affairs, environmental, and disease control in order in terms of frequency of appearance. However, there was a tendency that the interests in the environmental pollution, medical affairs and social welfare tended to increase year by year, whereas those in environmental hygiene and disease control comparatively decreased. 2. Motives of dealing with the health-concerned editorials were provided by announcement of the governmental policies and implementation for 25.6% and by out-breaks of the relevant event for 23.9%. This tendency coincides with the general characteristics of the editorials that reflect the timely issues. Closely analysing, however, the fact that the motive engendered by the out- breaks of the relevant events or by the season concerned comparatively tended to decrease as years pass by, indicates that the editorials tend more to seek the future-oriented demands in health rather than the current issue-oriented. 3. The editorials appeared to be more concerned with the governmental policies. 95.7% of all the editorials analysed were addressed to the government. This signifies the role of government in the field of public health and medical affairs. Their attitudes toward health-related policies of the government were much more negative than the other editorials that were addressed to the government in other fields. This suggests that the governmental interests in health were neither sufficient nor fair. 4. What the editorials most stressed were ; (1) increment of governmental interests in health, (2) improvement of the governmental health administration, (3) enriching the basic statistics, and (4) development of various technologies pertinent to health affairs and disease control, and so forth. However, must of their suggestions were not concrete but rather abstract and conceptual. 5. The editorials also expressed strong interests in research are. The areas of the needed research most suggested by items are ; (1) development of effective health care delivery system, (2) establishment of more practical system if calculating medical cost, (3) implementation of effective policies to control degenerative diseases, (4) division of medical care services and pharmaceutical services systems, (5) effective ways to prevent Co poisoning accidents, (6) changing status of environmental pollution and its effects upon health, and (70 status of occupational disease, and so forth. 6. There were some editorials-not small in quantity-that have risk to mislead the public opinions as well as the health policies due to lack of professional knowledge of the writes. It is desirable to establish some kind of mechanism that screens the erroneous contents of the editorials to help prevent misleading opinions.
Summary
About Family Planning Status in Today.
Nung Ki Yoon
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):67-75.
  • 1,626 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Natural increase rate in population is reached to 1.7% in 1975 from 2.55 in 1996 because of the effect of Governmental Family Planning Program. The average number of present children and ideal children is just the same, 2.4 people, in this investigation. So, I assume that the number of present and ideal children is approaching each other. The rate of unmarried female workers who don't know even one thing about the knowledge of contraception was 23.9%, and especially that of rural women was 31.5% and 41.3% of them has never experienced contraception. "Boy-preference" presented 60.1% of unmarried female workers and 79.1% of married women. "Connection of a family line" related to "Transfer to next generation of a family line" presented 38.0% and "Trustworthiness" related to "Leadership of a family" presented 26.0%( total 64.0%). As this point, we can find that this rate reveals the traditional sense of patriarchal system in society and family. The rate of women of experienced artificial abortion has been 52.1% and that of women using it as birth control caused by "Many children" and "Short birth-interval" 46.6% of women of experienced pregnancy. So, we can that artificial abortion is a main cause of Maternal Health destruction.
Summary
A Study on Smoking among Korean Rural Residents.
Pock Soo Kang, Sung Kwan Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):77-86.
  • 2,149 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The present study was conducted to investigate smoking status and the relationship of smoking to hypertension and disease 1,504 subjects who were 30-year-old age in Kyungsan Gunm Jyungpook province, during the period of 12 months from March 1978 to February 1979. The results obtained are summarized as follows : of 1,504 subjects, 52.2 percent smoked. The percentage of males smoking showed 84.8 and the percentage of females was 30.7. There were no statistically significant differences between the rate smoking and educational levels. Protestants demonstrated lower rates of smoking compared with other groups. Regarding the age started to smoke, 66.4 percent of male smokers and 16.9 percent of female smokers commenced smoking before the age of 19. In the regard to the average number of cigarettes smoked daily, 45.8 percent of male smokers consumed some 20 cigarettes and 24.1 percent of female smokers consumed some 10 cigarettes. 3.2 percent of male smokers smoked 40 or more cigarettes a day. Alcohol consumption was closely associated with smoking . 90.7 percent of male alcohol drinkers and 60.1 percent of female drinkers smoked. Cigarette smokers have higher rates of ailments than nonsmokers as a whole. The complaints of cough with sputum and shortness of breath revealed higher rates among smokers than among nonsmokers. Frequency of illnesses showed higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to suffer from chronic obstructive lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema. Abnormal systolic blood pressure(>160mmHg) and diastolic(>100) revealed significantly higher among smokers than among nonsmokers.
Summary
Notes
Smoking and Health.
M H Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):87-88.
  • 1,647 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
The Effect of The Smoking to the Health.
K C Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):89-92.
  • 1,844 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
Future Directions of Research on Smoking.
D K Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):93-96.
  • 1,438 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
Smoking Control Programes Experience in Some Other Countries.
Jhon Dewdney
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):97-101.
  • 1,598 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health