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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

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Volume 2(1); October 1969
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Original Articles
Study on Aflatoxins in Korean Fermented Foodstuffs.
Yong Chung, Sook Pyo Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 1969;2(1):1-4.
  • 1,892 View
  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
35 samples of Korean fermented foodstuffs were tested to isolate and to identify for aflatoxins. Aflatoxin G1 was detected in samples of soybean and Kanjang (Soybean sauce), are aflatoxins G1 & G2 in Meju (fermented soybean mass) are Dwenjang (fermented soybean paste). In the culture media of Aspergillus flavus aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were also isolate and identified. Aflatoxins were confirmed by the thin layer chromatography with methancl : chroroform (5:95v/v) developer and the ultra violet absorption spectrum.
Summary
Epidemiological Study of Air Pollution and Its affects on Health of Urban Population.
Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1969;2(1):5-22.
  • 1,899 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The urban population of our country is rapidly increasing due to many factors of social structure, and sociologists are predicting that the increase rate of the urban population will be over 50% in 1980's. Above all, the population of the capital city of Seoul, is at present more than four millions. Such centering of people in cities, together with the improvement of the standards of living, caused rapid increase in the amount of fuel consumption, and this consumption of fuels became one of the primary sources of the air pollution in cities. Moreover, the heavy traffic, construction of many tall buildings, and the increasing number of new factories due to the industrial development-all these are contributing to make the matter of air pollution worse and in worse in the Metropolitan, whose geographical location is quite unfavorable considered from the view point of air pollution. Most homes in Seoul use briquet as fuel, while oils are used in tall buildings. The CO, SO2, and smoke that come from burning of these furls are a great threat to the health of the urban population. With the purpose of examining the influence of air pollution upon the public health, written inquiries were made upon respiratory diseases, and the carboxyhemoglobin saturation in the blood was measured to determine whether the air pollution may affect the health of the urban population. Method of Health Examination. (1) Investigation of Respiratory Diseases. Patients' records were examined to finure out the monthly ambulance rate of respiratory patients to the total number of patients treated. On the other hand, by using the questionnaire form approved by the Medical Research Council's Committee on Research into Chronic Bronchitis, investigators interviewed the examinees and inquired into the respiratory symptoms. (2) Measuring of Carboxyhemoglobin Saturation. From the ear lobe of the examinees, with the use of the melangeur for the white blood cell counting, blood was taken, and after diluting it ten times with 0.1% Na2Co3, again diulting it 20 times with 0.5% Na2 CO3, its absorbancy was measured. The following results are obtained from the investigation. (1) It was found out that 7.7% of the total patients under treatment were suffering from upper respiratory infection, acute or chronic bronchitis. bronchial asthma. Pulmonary emphysema and bronchiectasis. of them all, patients with upper respiratory infection numbered the greatest with 4.8% and patients with acute or chronic bronchitis the next with 2.1%, and their monthly ambulance rate was high form December to February during the winter, and form April to May and Form September to October during the changeable seasons. (2) The daily ambulance rate of respiratory patients, it was revealed, had a close connection with the concentration of So2 and Co2 in the air. (3) It was found out that men were more subject to respiratory disease than women, and both men and women were more liable to the diseases with the advancing of age. (4)People living at Choong-ku with the heavy traffic and in the industrial zones of Yeundungpo had high frequency of respiratory symptoms. (5) Considered from the view point of occupations, high frequency was found among those without job, with jobs unknown, merchants and industrial workers, whose social status was rather low and traffic policemen who were always exposed to the exhaust gas of cars. As for women, the frequency was detected in the order of those from high to low, housewives who were exposed to briquet gas, women with jobs unknown, women without jobs, whose social status was low. (6) Ex-smokers rallier than smokers, of both sexes, had higher frequency. As for moll, heavy smokers had high frequency, while in women light smokers had rather high frequence which was presumed to be due to their average old age. (7) Men's average of carboxyhemoglobin saturation was 9.48%, while women's was 11.3%, higher than men's. (p<0.05). Age meant no difference in the case of men, but as for women, the saturation was remarkably high between the ages from 20 to 60. (8) No regional difference was detected in the carboxhemoglobin saturation. (9) The carboxyhemoglobin saturation was found, in the case of men, in the order of office workers, traffic policemen, students, the unemployed, merchants and industrial worker; drivers and as for women, the order was housewives, office worker merchants and industrial workers. (10) No significant correlation was found between the carboxyhemoglobin saturation and the concentration of Co detected in kitchens, or between the carboxyhemoglobin saturation 2nd the passing of time after exposure to briquet gas. No difference of carboxyhemoglobin saturation was detected between smokers and non-smokers, and the degrees of smoking: only, significant negative correlation was found between the passing of time after smoking and the carboxyhemoglobin saturation. It is true that air pollution causes or aggravates the respiratory diseases, increases the carboxyhemoglobin saturation in the blood, but what seems to be more hazardous to the health is tile air polluted by the briquet gas in the kitchens and on-dol rooms rather than the atmospheric pollution.
Summary
A Study in Acceptance of Oral Contraceptives among Women in a Rural Area.
Sung Kwan Lee, Dae Woo Han, Min Hae Ye, Doo Hie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1969;2(1):23-60.
  • 1,856 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
Recent Mortality Trends in Korea.
Il Soon Kim, Dong Woo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1969;2(1):61-76.
  • 1,925 View
  • 31 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A review has been made of mortality trends in Korea from 1958 to 1907 analyzing the data by sex, age and cause of death. The crude death rates and age specific death rates were estimate6 by the model of N. Keyfitz life table which had teen developed by the data of the 1960's national census. The cause specific death rates shown in this article are based on the following: all deaths occurring in the death-registration are expressed as a numberator, while the denominator was estimated from the regular national census data by interpolation method. It is estimated that only an average of about 40% of deaths which occurred during a year were registered during 1958 to 1967. The validity and the reliability of the diagnosis of causes of death seem to be extremely poor in this country. Therefore the cause specific death rates in this article are aimed to reveal trends of causes of registered death and not for the actual level of death rates. For 10 years very interesting mortality trends were observed : 1. The trend in the crude death rates was downward slowly. 2. The estimated death rate for the infant in 1960 was still high up to 100 per 1,000. 3. The rates for mortality attributed to such infectious diseases as pneumonia, bronchitis, gastroenteritis and measles decreased an average 40-60%. 4. The death rates for over-all tuberculosis decreased only 9.8%. 50% of the decrease was contributed by those in the less-than-15 year age group. 5. The death rates for chronic diseases, such as vascular diseases affecting the central nervous system, malignant neoplasm, major heart diseases and all accidents rose about 40-60%. 6. The rank order of the 10 leading causes of death showed large changes over the years, except for pneumonia and tuberculosis which occupyed 1st and End places respectively. Vascular diseases affecting the central nervous system moved from 5th to 3rd place and malignant neoplasm from 6th to 4th palace. The major heart diseases moved from 10th to 6th place and all accidents from 10th to 7th place. On the other hand, gastroenteritis moved from 3rd to 5th place and influenza from 4th to 8th place.
Summary
Studies on the Cackroach Distribution from the House in Seoul City Area.
C W Cha, K S Ham, S K Ahn, D W Park, S H Koo, Y I Han
Korean J Prev Med. 1969;2(1):77-80.
  • 1,993 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In tile cities nowadays. the dwelling conditions of Carckroach are provided by use of various kinds of construction material, installation of heating and cooling facilities that maintain moderate temperature, filthy sanitation, and lack of knowledge about insect as mechanical Vector. Cackroach is infectious disease Vector, and it proves to be of much importance in the public health. Considering such importance, the author has surveyed the distribution of Cackroach in the housing areas of Seoul City from May 1969 to the end of August 1969, and has come to the following conclusion ; 1. House dwelling Cackroach collected in the City of Seoul are of two species, i. e. Blatella Germanica Linneaus and Periplaneta Japonica Karny. 2. Most of cackroach collected in Seoul are Blatella Germanica Linneaus and they are distributed in whole area of Seoul while that of Periplaneta Japonica Karny is distributed only in the limited area. 3. Dwelling places of Blatella Germanira Lineaus are in grog shop, Korean food restaurants, bakery shops. and patient rooms in hospitals. Many of them are found in the kitchens and dining rooms of restaurants, and tearooms. They live in groups at older houses with much crack, warm and humid places. 4. For method of collection, the hand collection was the most effective. In trap collection during the day time, when the trap is placed at the narrow corners off the ground after confirming the dwelling places of cackroach, the match trap was more effective than the flask trap in collecting. In case of collecting during the night time, the flask trap was much more effective method than the match trap.
Summary
A Study of Clothings for Cold Prevention: Protective Effects of viny1 Sheet against Wind.
Sang Hwang Shim, Chul Hwan Cha, Jong June Yoon, Chung Hee Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1969;2(1):81-87.
  • 1,937 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Three combinations of cloths were evaluated for the protective effects of different kinds of clothings in cold environments. Table 1 shows tile components of tile three models of clothings. A prototype was made by putting a sheet of vinyl at the middle layer of raw cotton in a fabric-quilt cloths. A glove mannequin was covered by each of these cloths. The globes contained 1,000 cc of hot water about 40 degrees C. Tele-thermisters were fixed in order to check the temperature of cloths space and water temperature for evaluation of caloric-loss and climate of clothings. Results are summarized as follows : 1) Without wind, there is no significant difference of air temperatures between ski-parka and quilt wear clothing. 2) The prototype with vinyl sheet best protects against wind, the next is the ski-parka. Quilt-wear protects the least. 3) It is well-known that a working-clothing needs not have any separate liners nor outers. 4) For innermost layer of a clothing preventing cold, a cotton-fabrics is recommended and a water-proof cloths for outer layer. 5) Heat-loss was calculated from the cooling degrees of water. Calorie-loss was 910ca1/m2/hr. when bared, but with the prototype of vinyl sheets the calorie-loss was 350cal/m2/hr. (38.5% of bared). Quilt-wear and ski-parka were 380(41.8%) and 440 cal/m2/hr. (48.4%) respectively.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health