Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Previous issues
11 Previous issues
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Authors
Volume 23(1); March 1990
Prev issue Next issue
Original Articles
Selenium Effect on the Frequency of SCEs Induced by Heavy Metals in Human Lymphocytes.
Dai Ha Koh, No Suk Ki
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):1-10.
  • 1,596 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The protective effect of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) against the cytogenetic toxicity of heavy metals was investigated on human whole-blood cultures in relation to induction of sister chromatid exchange(SCE) in secondary metaphase chromosome. Methlmercury chloride (CH3HgCl), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), and sodium selenite caused to the typically dose-dependent increase in sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by the concentrations ranging from 0.3 micro M to 10 micro M. However, the inductions of sister chromatid exchanges by methymercury chloride or cadmium chloride were inhibited by the simultaneous addition of sodium selenite 1.2 micro M. The frequencies of SCE were decreased to the level of control in the molar ratios as 2 : 1, 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 1 : 4 of selenium selenite vs. methylmercury chloride, and as 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 of selenium selenite vs. cadmium chloride, while the frequencies of SCE induced by potassium dichromate were not changed by the addition of sodium selenite in culture condition. Mitotic indices were decreased in the higher concentrations of chemicals and not significantly changed by the simultaneous addition of sodium selenite to the culture condition containing each chemicals.
Summary
A Study on the Efficient Management of Long-term Inpatient Flow in a General Hospital.
Chun Bae Kim, Young Moon Chae, Seung Hum Yu, Hee Chul Oh
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):11-21.
  • 1,998 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study refers to the problem of long-term inpatient flow in a general hospital. In this study, a queueing simulation model was developed for the two departments in the hospital with a homogenous case mix and relatively many long-term inpatients in order to increase the tumover rate and hospital charges. Before the simulation run, the model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirmov test. The following results were generated by three alternative models of the special bed policies. 1. Alternative I: When long term inpatients were admitted to the wards belonging to departments A and B without transfer to other departments and special beds, the average turn-over rate decreased by 2-4% and the average hospital charges decreased by 70 million won. 2. Alternative II: When long-term inpatients were transferred to department C but the transfer of wards was determined by department C in order of clinical need, the average turnover rate increased by 4-13% but the average hospital charges decreased by 30 million won. This result was not greatly different from the present state. 3. Alternative III: When long-term inpatients were transferred to the special wards and department C simultaneously, the increase in the average turnover rate and hospital charges was equivalent to the increase of two beds in the special wards. When the special wards were allocated 16 beds, the average turnover rate of departments A and B increased by about 55% and 20% respectively. Also, the hospital charges increased by about 0.44 billion won. As a result, trasfer to department C and the use of 16 beds in the special wards for long-term inpatients of departments A and B is expected to maximize the hospital revenue. However, as the above special bed policy can not increase the turnover rate above 60%, there is a need for a more comprehensive policy to further increase the rate. The development of an elaborate model should include the number of long-term inpatients in all clinical departments, the special wards system or an increase of hospital beds to handle admission needs, and the resources of the hospital by department. When the alternative are evaluated, a cost-benefit analysis in addition to the turnover rate and the hospital charges should be considered.
Summary
Type A behavior pattern and social control of parents.
Choong Won Lee, Nung Ki Yoon, Suk Kwon Suh, Dong Hoon Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):22-32.
  • 1,987 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Associations between type A behavior pattern (TABP) and parental social control were examined by a questionnaire survey in a sample of 803 undergraduates of the three universities in Daegu city in 1988. TABP was assessed by the Student Jenkins Activity Survey (SJAS, short from) and social control of parents by Bernstein and Brandis' Index of control and communication which were both dichotomized by median. The mean age of the sample was 20.7 (standard deviation, 2.2) and mean of total score of SJAS was 5.6 with it standard deviation and median, 2.7 and 5, respectively. In stratified analysis for TABP-social control association by the native place, sex and socioeconomic status (SES), males of rural origin with low SES showed odds ratio (OR), 2.49 but those with high 0.40. For females of rural origin, those with low SES showed OR, 1.02, whereas those with high SES did 0.35. For those who was of urban origin, males with low SES had OR 1.27, and those with high SES did 1.29. Females with high SES showed 0.85 and those with low SES 0.67. None of the TABP-social control associations among the strata showed confidence intervals not including unity. In multiple logistic regression by native place, for those with rural origin the only term showed a statistically significance was the social control-SES of parents interaction, OR 3.99 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-15.46). For those of urban origin, none of the terms are statistically significant. These results suggest a social upward mobility by education of the rural disadvantaged group and a Confucian idea that regards academic achievement as one of social virtues, both of which may reflect the different sociocultural structures from the West.
Summary
The Relationship between Stress and Health Habits in Industrial Workers.
Young Soo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):33-42.
  • 2,189 View
  • 31 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to find out the relationship between the stress perception and health habits with 426 industrial workers using the GARS(Global assessment of recent stress) scale. The results were as follows: 1. The mean scores of stress perception were higher in female, more educated and divorced. There were no evident trends of mean scores of stress perception in age, monthly income and years worked. 2. The stress perception by health habits and sex showed significant difference in physical exercise and smoking variables. The higher health habit index, the lower degree of stress perception in male, but higher in female reversely. 3. The health habits and demographic variables were classified by five factors. Factors of sleeping hours, body mass index, and taste containing smoking and alcohol drinking had relatively high relation to stress perception. The explanation power of factors and variables was relatively low as 3.4%.
Summary
Atmospheric concentration and mutagenicity of organic pollutants of suspended particulate in Seoul.
Dong Chun Shin, Yong Chung, Young Hahn Moon, Jae Hoon Roh
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):43-56.
  • 1,978 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
To evaluate the difference of concentration and mutagenicity of organic pollutants between residential and traffic area of Seoul, air samples were collected in Bulkwang (residential) and Shinchon (traffic) area. Samples were analyzed to measure the concentration of extractable organic matters (EOM) and their subfractions and mutagenicites were tested using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also measured by gas-chromatography and compared between two areas. The results were as follows ; 1. While the concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) in residental area was below the environmental standard in annual average, the concentration in traffic area was above the standard and was up to its maximum 256 microgram/m3 in November. The difference of TSP concentrations in both areas of each month was statistically significant (P<0.05). 2. The concentration of fine particle in traffic area was significantly higher compare to that in residential area and showed statistically significant monthly difference in both areas (P<0.05). The proportion of concentration of fine particle to TSP was 55-68%. 3. Mean concentrations of EOM in residential and traffic areas were 4.3 microgram/m3 and 5.3 microgram/m3 respectively. The proportion of amount of EOM from fine particle to EOM from TSP was 70-88%. 4. While the percentage of polar neutral organic compounds (POCN) of fine particle in Bulkwang's sample was higher compare to Shinchon's sample, the percentage of aliphatic compounds of fine particle in Shinchon's sample was higher compare to Bulkwang's sample. The percentages of PAH fraction were as low as 6-10% in both areas. 5. The mutagenic activity of unit concentration of organic matters extracted from fine particle was higher compare to that of coarse particle and was increased when metabolically activated with S9. Mutagenicities with metabolic activation calculated by unit air volume were significantly different between residential and traffic area, 17 revertants/m3 and 22 revertants/m3 respectively. 6. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in fine particle of traffic and residential areas were 3.10 microgram/m3 and 2.02 microgram/m3 respectively. Sixteen PAHs were higher in samples of traffic area compare to residential area and also concentrations of PAHs in fine particle were higher compare to coarse particle.
Summary
Clinical trial of leptospires vaccine on its immunogenicity and safety.
Hyeong Ryeol Yoon, Jeong Soon Kim, Yong Heo
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):57-64.
  • 1,638 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Since the reservior of leptospires organism is consisted of a broad spectrum of animals, the best method of prevention is vaccination. The clinical trial of leptospires vaccine conducted on human volunteer for its immunogenicity and safety. Summarized results are as follows: 1. The Oral temperature among vaccinated group ranged from 36.7 +/- 0.34 degrees C, while in placebo injected group it ranged from 36.4 +/- 0.46 degrees C to 36.7 +/- 0.53 degrees C. There wan no association between vaccination and fever (p<0.05). 2. Mild local reactions revealed in vacciness were swelling (50-75%), Redness(75-90%), and induration(25-40%). Placebo injected group revealed only redness in 12.5% in the 1st injection and 37.5% in the second injection. The duration local reactions on injection site for both vaccinees and placebo groups disappeared within 48 hours. 3. Generalized Symptoms complained by the vaccinees were myalgia (25%), back pain(15%), headache(15%), pruritus(15%), and abdominal pain(10%), whereas placebo group complained of headache(25%), myalgia(12.5%), back pain(12.5%), pain in eyes(12.5%), abdominal pain(12.5%) prutitus(12.5%) and nausea(12.5%). 4. The serological test(MAT) of vaccinees showed geometric mean antibody titer as follows: a. L. icterohemorrhagiae lai, 1 week after 1st vaccination: 22.45, 1 week after 2nd vaccination: 111.23, 3 week after 2nd vaccination: 266.64, b. L. canicola canicola, 1 week after 1st vaccination: 24.62, 1 week after 2nd vaccination: 123.92, 3 week after 2nd vaccination: 276.55, c. L. icterohemorrhagiae copenhageni, 1 week after 1st vaccination: 28.28, 1 week after 2nd vaccination: 128.55, 3 week after 2nd vaccinaton: 247.88, Whereas all of the placebo injected group, showed below 1 : 20 titers. The sero-conversion rate of vaccinees were 100 percent.
Summary
A Development and Application of Decision Support System for Cost Analysis.
Young Moon Chae, Hae Jong Lee, Chang Rae Park, Jee Sun Jeong
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):65-76.
  • 1,677 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hospitals are experiencing an increasing amount of financial difficulty due to government control of hospital rates since national health insurance has been implemented. The decision support system(DSS) was developed to provide cost and revenue information for the services rendered by each department in an effect to reduce costs. This information may be used to identify the causes of financial loss if cost exceeds revenue and to conduct variance analysis or portfolio analysis to improve financial situation of hospitals. The DSS was developed using a micro-mainframe interface approach where the mainframe computer collects and summarizes daily cost and revenue data and the micro computer computes the cost for each department. The significances of this paper are to determine the cost allocation basis and methods which are suitable to Korean situation and to apply DSS technology to the cost analysis.
Summary
Survival Analysis of Hospitalized Mesothelioma Patients.
Chun Bae Kim, Sang Hyuk Jung, Kyung Jong Lee, Jong Doo Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):77-86.
  • 1,766 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Between 1977 and 1987, 20 patients with mesothelioma were treated at Severance Hospital. Data was gathered from medical charts at the time of hospitalization of mesothelioma patients and from a follow-up questionnaire by mail or telephone. The results acquired were as follows: 1. Among the 20 patients, 11 men and 9 women with mesothelioma were identified. The mean age at hospitalization was 47 years and 11 mesothelioma patients were known or presumed to be dead during the different observation periods. 2. Only one mesothelioma patient had a definite history of occupational asbestos exposure. 3. The sites of orgin of mesothelioma were the pleura(13), peritoneum(2), pericardium(2), mediastinum(2), and pelvis(1). Common symptoms included dyspnea, chest pain, abdominal distension, etc. 4. Pathologically, mesotheliomas were divided into 14 malignant types and 6 benign types ; and histologically, 8 fibrous mesotheliomas and 3 epithelial mesotheliomas were shown. 5. There was a statistically significant difference in survival rate according to pathologic type and smoking status. In the groups with malignant mesothelioma, 50% survival time from first symptoms was 18 months and that from diagnosis was 11 months. Also, 75% survival time from diagnosis was 6 months in the smoking groups and 19 months in the non-smoking groups.
Summary
Cohort Infant Mortality Rate of Gunwee and Hapchun Counties and an MCH Center in Taegu.
Jung Han Park, Min Hae Yeh, Byung Yeol Chun, Sung Euk Cho, Hyun Kim, Han Jin Chung, Jae Yeon Cho, Jung Hub Song, Gui Yeon Kim, Jang Rak Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):87-97.
  • 1,870 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
Frequency and Pattern of Traffic Accidents in Different Atmospheric Phenomena.
Doohie Kim, Jung Mi Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):98-105.
  • 1,714 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to fine out the relationship between traffic accidents and atmospheric phenomena, we have analyzed 2,562 cases, one tenth of the total traffic accidents occurred in Taegu city for a year in 1988. The meteorological elements observed by Taegu Weather Bureau were used. It was divided into two largy categories: the patterns of accident as human injuries and destructions of car. When the accidents were overlapped in each other, it was considered as human injury. Human injuries were subdivided into three parts: death, severe damage. The average number of daily traffic accidents including human injuries were lowest in winter of four seasons. The accident patterns in accordance with the seasons showed statistically significant difference. The frequency was the highest as 3.3 case in an hour at 25.1-30.0 degrees C of atmospheric temperature, the rate of human injury showed the increase by the increased temperature. But there were not significant. Also it was the highest as 3.7 cases in less than 31% of humidity and the rate of human injury was the highest at 41-50%, but not significant. And it was the increasing tendency as wind speed increase, and the rate of human injury was the highest at 6.1-7.0m/sec, but it was not significant. In relation to precipitation, and visibility, were the highest as 5.4 cases at 5.1-10.0 mm of rainfall, the rate of human injury was increased by the increased precipitation and showed statistically significant. And it was highest within 6 Km of visibility, but the rate of the human injury was the lowest within same distance, and also showed significance. The accidents were higher with snow on the road, but the rate of human injury was comparatively lower, but no significance.
Summary
Seasonal variation of water qualities in the upper and middle reaches of the Han River(1998.8~1989.9).
Sang Jun Lee, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):106-116.
  • 1,731 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to investigate of water qualities in the upper and middle reaches of the Han River. For this purpose, water was sampled at Kwangjin and 1st Han-River Bridges of the Han River in Seoul and analysed from August, 1988 to September, 1989. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Water quality at 1st Han-River Bridge was more polluted than that at Kwangjin Bridge. 2. Except biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity, suspended solid (SS), dissolved oxygen (DO), DO saturation (DOS), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) and chloride ion (Cl-) at Kwangjin and 1st Han-River Bridges were lower as compared with the previous data before redevelopment of the Han River. 3. SS, DO and pH at Kwangjin and 1st Han-River Bridges could be classified to the 1st grade in environmental water quality standard. DOS at Kwangjin Bridge was over 100% and that at 1st Han-River Bridge was below 100% in the Han River. BOD at Kwangjin Bridge could be classified to 2nd grade and that at 1st Han-River Bridge to 3rd grade in environmental water quality standard. 4. The higher the level of water was, the lower the levels of turbidity and SS, and NH3-N was decreased with increasing water level at 1st Han-River Bridge. DO was decreased as water temperature went up but DOS was increased with DO. BOD was positively correlated with nitrite-nitrogens. 5. Turbidity and SS at the both sites and Chloride ion (Cl-) at Kwangjin Bridge were increased in July and August. And DO at the both sites and NH3-N at 1st Han-River Bridge were decreased in at July and August.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health