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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

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Volume 39(5); September 2006
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English Abstracts
Study on the Relationship between Childhood Obesity and Various Determinants, including Socioeconomic Factors, in an Urban Area.
Hee Tae Kang, Young Su Ju, Kyung Hee Park, Young Jun Kwon, Hyoung June Im, Do Myung Paek, Hyun Joo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):371-378.
  • 2,563 View
  • 113 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of childhood obesity, the association between the undesirable lifestyles and socioeconomic factors, the association between childhood obesity and various risk factors, including socioeconomic factors, and the agreement between the body mass index (BMI) classification and the body fat percentage. METHODS: The study subjects were all the 5th grade students from all the elementary schools in Gunpo City, Kyunggi Province, South Korea (4043 children at 22 schools). The subjects were measured for their height, weight and percent body fat etc. and they were also surveyed by questionnaire from March 18th to April 25th, 2005. To determine whether the children were within normal limits or not, standardized BMIs for each age group were used. The data was analyzed by logistic regression analysis using SAS 9.0 version. RESULTS: The prevalence of childhood obesity prevalence was 25.1%. Boys had a higher prevalence of obesity (27.5%) than did the girls (22.5%). Children had tendencies of having undesirable lifestyles and getting obese if they had a lower socioeconomic status. The risk factors for childhood obesity were low paternal education (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.97-1.42) and non-parental caregivers (OR : 1.34, 95% CI: 0.98-1.82). Other risk factors for childhood obesity were a high birth-weight, longer TV/computer-using time, a lower fruit-eating frequency, short sleeping hours and parental obesity. The agreement rate between the BMI classification and the body fat percentage was 93.1%. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the children had a higher prevalence of obesity: further, not only individual lifestyles, but also socioeconomic factors could influence childhood obesity. Childhood obesity was especially more problematic for children with a low socioeconomic status.
Summary
The Determinants of Adolescent Smoking by Gender and Type of School in Korea.
Hyuncheol Kim, Eun Kyong Kim, Eun Sil Choi, Yu Jeong Kim, Hyun Ju Lee, Jong Ju Kim, Hyung Suk Jang, Kyung Seon Shim, Sang Nam Jeon, Yo Han Kang, Hyunseok Kang, Juwhan Oh, Kung Sook Cho, Soonman Kwon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):379-388.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study assessed the influences of various factors that are related to youth smoking such as gender, age and type of school, and we wanted to provide supporting data for tailored and effective policy initiatives to reduce adolescent smoking. METHODS: A self-report survey was conducted on 14,910 teen-age students who were selected based on the nationwide distribution of students in large and small cities and counties, the gender ratio of the students and the ratio of students attending various type of school at 38 middle and high schools in six representative areas of each province. The survey was handled and managed by a health education teacher at each school. Binary and multinomial logistic regression was used in the analyses. RESULTS: Smoking by adolescents was associated with gender, age and even height. Male high school students tended to smoke more than female high school students, but this differences was not significant for middle school students. The older the adolescents were, the more likely that they smoked, except for the female high school students. Height was meaningful for all adolescents, except for the boys at the vocational high schools. Monthly allowance was significant for all adolescents. School factors such as type of school and the students' school performance were also crucial factors. Attending a vocational high school was strongly related to smoking, especially for girls. Students' school performance and the perceived level of stress were strongly associated with smoking, especially for boys. Home factors such as the relationship with parents and conversation time with family members were closely related to smoking behavior. Knowledge about the health hazard of smoking was also found to be strongly related to adolescent smoking. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, demographic factors, school factors, home surroundings and the perception on the harmfulness of smoking are strongly related to adolescent smoking behavior, but these differ from gender and type of school.
Summary
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Osteoporosis among Postmenopausal Women in Chuncheon: Hallym Aging Study(HAS).
Soong Nang Jang, Young Ho Choi, Moon Gi Choi, Sung Hyun Kang, Jin Young Jeong, Yong Jun Choi, Dong Hyun Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):389-396.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine theprevalence of osteoporosis and to evaluate the effects of body composition, health behaviors and reproductive history on bone density in postmenopausal women. METHODS: The study subjects were 362 postmenopausal women, aged 45 years old or over, who were invited to the hospital. Information on their socio-demographic characteristics and the potential risk factors such as their past medical history, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, diet and menstrual/reproductive histories were collected by trained interviewers. Weight, height, the body mass index (kg/m2), and body composition variables were measured. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: The prevalence of osteoporosis was 30.6% in the 45~64 years old women, 52.5% in the elderly women aged 65~74, and 68.7% in the women aged 75 years or over. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, those women in the highest 25% (4th quartile) of the lean body mass are less likely to have osteoporosis (aOR=0.31, 95% CI=0.12-0.76), compared with the lowest quartile group. More parity also had significantly detrimental effects on osteoporosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women increased with age from 46.3% of those aged 45-64 to 68.7% fo those aged 75 and over. Lean body mass and parity appeared significant contributor to bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in this population.
Summary
Cost-of-illness Study of Asthma in Korea: Estimated from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database.
Choon Seon Park, Hye Young Kang, Il Kwon, Dae Ryong Kang, Hye Young Jung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):397-403.
  • 2,560 View
  • 135 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We estimated the asthma-related health care utilization and costs in Korea from the insurer's and societal perspective. METHODS: We extracted the insurance claims records from the Korea National Health Insurance claims database for determining the health care services provided to patients with asthma in 2003. Patients were defined as having asthma if they had > or =2 medical claims with diagnosis of asthma and they had been prescribed anti-asthma medicines. Annual claims records were aggeregated for each patient to produce patient-specific information on the total utilization and costs. The total asthma-related cost was the sum of the direct healthcare costs, the transportation costs for visits to healthcare providers and the patient's or caregivers' costs for the time spent on hospital or outpatient visits. RESULTS: A total of 699,603people were identified as asthma patients, yielding an asthma prevalence of 1.47%. Each asthma patient had 7.56 outpatient visits, 0.01 ED visits and 0.02 admissions per year to treat asthma.The per-capita insurance-covered costs increased with age, from 128,276 Won for children aged 1 to 14 years to 270,729 Won for those aged 75 or older. The total cost in the nation varied from 121,865 million to 174,949 million Won depending on the perspectives. From a societal perspective, direct healthcare costs accounted for 84.9%, transportation costs for 15.1% and time costs for 9.2% of the total costs. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations and ED visits represented only a small portion of the asthma-related costs. Most of the societal burden was attributed to direct medical expenditures, with outpatient visits and medications emerging as the single largest cost components.
Summary
One Year Follow-up Study of Symptomatic Cases of Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow in a Rural Population.
Young Joo Sim, Hyun Sul Lim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):404-410.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study examined the natural history of symptomatic patients who did or did not display abnormal results on nerve conduction studies (NCS). METHODS: Forty hundred fifty adults were selected among a total of 578 residents who participated in the health examination in a rural Korean district. A symptom questionnaire and NCS were used to diagnose ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). There were 6.4% of the subjects with UNE, 5.1% of the subjects showed symptoms without a NCS, and 84.2% of the subjects who were asymptomatic. One year later, 20 symptomatic limbs with an abnormality on the ulnar NCS and 22 symptomatic limbs without any abnormality in the ulnar NCS were enrolled in a follow-up study. The natural history of UNE was evaluated by examining the changes in the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. RESULTS: The 1-year follow-up of the enrolled limbs found that for the symptomatic limbs with an abnormality on the NCS, the degree of severe of the clinical grade changed from 20% to 10%. In contrast, for the symptomatic limbs that were without any abnormality in the NCS, the change of the severe degree of the clinical grade was from 0% to 18.2%. Also, for the electrodiagnostic change, only symptomatic limbs without NCS abnormalities showed significant changes in motor latency, amplitude and conduction velocity at the 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year follow-up study revealed symptomatic limbs that were without any abnormality on the ulnar NCS were more likely to progress than the symptomatic limbs with an abnormality on the ulnar NCS.
Summary
Comparative Study
Differences in Medical Care Utilization Rates of the Disabled and the Non-disabled with Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions.
Sang Jun Eun, Jee Young Hong, Jin Yong Lee, Jin Seok Lee, Yoon Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Youngsoo Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):411-418.
  • 2,307 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the disabled have worse access to primary care than the non-disabled. METHODS: We used the National Disability Registry data and the National Health Insurance data for the calendar year 2003, and we analyzed 807,380 disabled persons who had been registered until December 2001 and we also analyzed 1,614,760 non-disabled persons for nine ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). The rates of physician visits and hospitalizations for the patients with ACSCs were compared between the disabled and the nondisabled. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between medical care utilization and disability and to assess the association between hospitalization and the number of physician visits while controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: The numbers of physician visits per 100 patients were 0.78~0.97 times lower for the disabled than that for the non-disabled with five of nine ACSCs. The numbers of hospitalizations per 100 patients were 1.16~1.77 times higher for the disabled than that for the non-disabled with all the ACSCs. While the ORs of a physician visit for the disabled were significantly lower than that for the non-disabled with all the ACSCs (OR: 0.44~0.70), and the ORs of hospitalization for the disabled were significantly higher (OR: 1.16~1.89). The lower physician visit group (number of physician visits < or =1) was more likely to be hospitalized than the higher physician visit group (number of physician visits > or =2) (OR: 1.69~19.77). The effect of the physician visit rate on hospitalization was larger than the effect of disability on hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the disabled were more likely to be hospitalized for ACSCs due to their lower access to primary care.
Summary
English Abstract
Relationships Between Mental Health and Psychosocial Factors with Single-child High School Students in an Urban City of Korea.
Young Sun Lee, Kwang Hwan Kim, Young Chae Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):419-426.
  • 2,492 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to determine the mental health of high school students, and specifically that of children with no siblings in urban areas, and we aimed at revealing the various potential influences of different psycho-social factors. METHODS: The participants were, 514 high school students who were the 1st- to 3rd-graders in Daejon City; they were, given self-administered questionnaires that required no signature during the period of March through June 2005. The analyzed items included the general character of the subjects, the symptoms of stress and depression for mental health, self-esteem as a psychological component, anxiety, dependent behavioral traits and , social support of family members and friends. RESULTS: The study results suggested that the group of urban high school children with no siblings had a higher tendency for stress and depression than did the urban high school children with siblings. The mental health and psychosocial factors were found to be influenced by friends, a sense of satisfaction at school and home life, and emotional support as well. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, emotional support by the family members can improve mental health by reducing anxiety, stress and depression.
Summary
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Dipstick Urine Protein, as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Mortality in Korean Men: Korea Medical Insurance Corporation Study.
Kyoungsoo Ha, Hyeon Chang Kim, Dae Ryong Kang, Chung Mo Nam, Song Vogue Ahn, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):427-432.
  • 2,222 View
  • 51 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was to investigate if the dipstick proteinuria can predict cardiovascular mortality in a population of Korean men. METHODS: We measured urine protein and other cardiovascular risk factors in 100059 Korean men, aged between 35-59 years in 1990 and 1992. Levels of proteinuria measured by dipstick method were trace or less, 1+, 2+, and 3+ or greater. The primary outcomes were deaths from all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and others in a 12 year follow-up from 1993 to 2004. RESULTS: The multivariate-adjusted relative risks (95% CI) for cardiovascular death according to the level of proteinuria (1+, 2+, 3+ and more) in 1990 examination were 2.18 (1.36-3.48), 2.55 (1.37-4.78), and 4.57 (2.16-9.66) respectively. The corresponding relative risks according to the level of proteinuria in 1992 examination were 2.49 (1.71-3.64), 2.64 (1.53-4.58), and 2.78 (1.15-6.73). The relative risks for cardiovascular death of men with proteinuria (1+ or greater) once and twice among the examinations were 2.18 (1.63-2.92) and 3.75 (2.27-6.18), compared with men without proteinuria in 1990 and 1992 examinations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that dipstick proteinuria is associated with cardiovascular mortality in Korean men. Dipstick proteinuria could be a predictor for cardiovascular mortality.
Summary
English Abstracts
Estimation of a Nationwide Statistics of Hernia Operation Applying Data Mining Technique to the National Health Insurance Database.
Sunghong Kang, Seok Kyung Seo, Yeong Ja Yang, Aekyung Lee, Jong Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):433-437.
  • 2,126 View
  • 31 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to develop a methodology for estimating a nationwide statistic for hernia operations with using the claim database of the Korea Health Insurance Cooperation (KHIC). METHODS: According to the insurance claim procedures, the claim database was divided into the electronic data interchange database (EDI_DB) and the sheet database (Paper_DB). Although the EDI_DB has operation and management codes showing the facts and kinds of operations, the Paper_DB doesnjt. Using the hernia matched management code in the EDI_DB, the cases of hernia surgery were extracted. For drawing the potential cases from the Paper_DB, which doesnjt have the code, the predictive model was developed using the data mining technique called SEMMA. The claim sheets of the cases that showed a predictive probability of an operation over the threshold, as was decided by the ROC curve, were identified in order to get the positive predictive value as an index of usefulness for the predictive model. RESULTS: Of the claim databases in 2004, 14,386 cases had hernia related management codes with using the EDI system. For fitting the models with applying the data mining technique, logistic regression was chosen rather than the neural network method or the decision tree method. From the Paper_DB, 1,019 cases were extracted as potential cases. Direct review of the sheets of the extracted cases showed that the positive predictive value was 95.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that applying the data mining technique to the claim database in the KHIC for estimating the nationwide surgical statistics would be useful from the aspect of execution and cost-effectiveness.
Summary
Developing the Predictive Model for the Group at High Risk for Colon Cancer.
Ae Kyoung Lee, Sang Yi Lee, Il Soo Park, Su Young Kim, Tae Ho Yoon, Baek Geun Jeong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(5):438-446.
  • 2,126 View
  • 47 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We developed the predictive model for the incidence of colon cancer by utilizing the health screening data of the National Health Insurance in Korea. We also explored the characteristics of the high risk group for colon cancer. METHODS: The predictive model was used to determine those people who have a high risk for colon cancer within 2 years of their NHI health screening, and we excluded the people who had already been treated for cancer or who were cancer patient. The study population is the insured of the NHI, aged 40 or over and they had undergone health screening from the year 2000 to 2004, according to NHI health screening formula. We performed logistic regression analysis and used SAS Enterprise Miner 4.1. RESULTS: This study shows that there exists a higher rate of colon cancer in males than females. Also, for the population in their 60s, the incidence rate of colon cancer is much higher by 5.36 times than that for those people in their 40s. Amongst the behavioral factors, heavy drinking is the most important determinant of the colon cancer incidence (7.39 times in males and 21.51 times in females). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that the major influencing factors for the incidence of colon cancer are drinking, lack of exercise, a medical history of colon polypus and a family history of colon cancer. As a result, we can choose the group that is at a high risk for colon cancer and provide customized medical information and selective management services according to their characteristics.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health