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Our Valuable Contributors: Reviewers of 2023
Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):95-95.   Published online March 29, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.148
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Summary
Original Articles
Projection of Cancer Incidence and Mortality From 2020 to 2035 in the Korean Population Aged 20 Years and Older
Youjin Hong, Sangjun Lee, Sungji Moon, Soseul Sung, Woojin Lim, Kyungsik Kim, Seokyung An, Jeoungbin Choi, Kwang-Pil Ko, Inah Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):529-538.   Published online October 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.128
  • 3,220 View
  • 181 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to identify the current patterns of cancer incidence and estimate the projected cancer incidence and mortality between 2020 and 2035 in Korea.
Methods
Data on cancer incidence cases were extracted from the Korean Statistical Information Service from 2000 to 2017, and data on cancer-related deaths were extracted from the National Cancer Center from 2000 to 2018. Cancer cases and deaths were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. For the current patterns of cancer incidence, age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) and age-standardized mortality rates were investigated using the 2000 mid-year estimated population aged over 20 years and older. A joinpoint regression model was used to determine the 2020 to 2035 trends in cancer.
Results
Overall, cancer cases were predicted to increase from 265 299 in 2020 to 474 085 in 2035 (growth rate: 1.8%). The greatest increase in the ASIR was projected for prostate cancer among male (7.84 vs. 189.53 per 100 000 people) and breast cancer among female (34.17 vs. 238.45 per 100 000 people) from 2000 to 2035. Overall cancer deaths were projected to increase from 81 717 in 2020 to 95 845 in 2035 (average annual growth rate: 1.2%). Although most cancer mortality rates were projected to decrease, those of breast, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer among female were projected to increase until 2035.
Conclusions
These up-to-date projections of cancer incidence and mortality in the Korean population may be a significant resource for implementing cancer-related regulations or developing cancer treatments.
Summary
Korean summary
최근 고령화 시대로 접어들고 암의 위험요인들에 대한 노출률이 변화함에 따라 암의 발생률 및 사망률에 대해서 관찰하는 것은 중요한 일이 되었다. 따라서, 본 연구는 한국인에서 2035년까지의 암에 대한 발생률과 사망률을 Joinpoint regression 모델을 이용하여 예측하였다. 남성에서는 전립선암, 여성에서는 유방암이 연령표준화 발생률이 가장 높았으며 대부분의 연령표준화 사망률은 감소하는 것으로 예상되지만 여성의 유방암, 췌장암, 난소암이 증가될 것으로 예상된다.

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  • Changes in metabolic syndrome and the risk of breast and endometrial cancer according to menopause in Korean women
    Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Soyeoun Kim, Boyoung Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023049.     CrossRef
The Korea Cohort Consortium: The Future of Pooling Cohort Studies
Sangjun Lee, Kwang-Pil Ko, Jung Eun Lee, Inah Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Aesun Shin, Sun-Seog Kweon, Min-Ho Shin, Sangmin Park, Seungho Ryu, Sun Young Yang, Seung Ho Choi, Jeongseon Kim, Sang-Wook Yi, Daehee Kang, Keun-Young Yoo, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(5):464-474.   Published online September 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.299
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
We introduced the cohort studies included in the Korea Cohort Consortium (KCC), focusing on large-scale cohort studies established in Korea with a prolonged follow-up period. Moreover, we also provided projections of the follow-up and estimates of the sample size that would be necessary for big-data analyses based on pooling established cohort studies, including population-based genomic studies.
Methods
We mainly focused on the characteristics of individual cohort studies from the KCC. We developed “PROFAN”, a Shiny application for projecting the follow-up period to achieve a certain number of cases when pooling established cohort studies. As examples, we projected the follow-up periods for 5000 cases of gastric cancer, 2500 cases of prostate and breast cancer, and 500 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The sample sizes for sequencing-based analyses based on a 1:1 case-control study were also calculated.
Results
The KCC consisted of 8 individual cohort studies, of which 3 were community-based and 5 were health screening-based cohorts. The population-based cohort studies were mainly organized by Korean government agencies and research institutes. The projected follow-up period was at least 10 years to achieve 5000 cases based on a cohort of 0.5 million participants. The mean of the minimum to maximum sample sizes for performing sequencing analyses was 5917-72 102.
Conclusions
We propose an approach to establish a large-scale consortium based on the standardization and harmonization of existing cohort studies to obtain adequate statistical power with a sufficient sample size to analyze high-risk groups or rare cancer subtypes.
Summary
Korean summary
한국 코호트 컨소시엄(KCC)은 “2015년 한국의 생활 습관 및 환경 요인에 따른 암 기여분율” 프로젝트의 3단계 과업으로써, 본 프로젝트에 참여한 기존의 구축된 개인 코호트 연구의 연구자들을 주도로 다수의 대규모 한국 코호트 연구를 기반으로 구성되었다. 따라서 본 연구는 KCC에 포함된 한국 코호트 연구를 소개하는 것을 목표로 하였다. 또한 여러 기 확립된 국제 컨소시엄을 기반으로 빅데이터 기반 코호트 풀링 연구의 중요성을 제시하였다.

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  • The relationship between regional inequalities in the provision of emergency health services and other health services
    Erkan Boğa
    Medicine.2023; 102(45): e35930.     CrossRef
Special Article
The KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD): A Korean Chronic Kidney Disease Cohort
Kook-Hwan Oh, Sue K. Park, Jayoun Kim, Curie Ahn
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(4):313-320.   Published online July 1, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.031
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
The KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) was launched in 2011 with the support of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The study was designed with the aim of exploring the various clinical features and characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Koreans, and elucidating the risk factors for CKD progression and adverse outcomes of CKD. For the cohort study, nephrologists at 9 tertiary university-affiliated hospitals participated in patient recruitment and follow-up. Biostatisticians and epidemiologists also participated in the basic design and structuring of the study. From 2011 until 2016, the KNOW-CKD Phase I recruited 2238 adult patients with CKD from stages G1 to G5, who were not receiving renal replacement therapy. The KNOW-CKD Phase II recruitment was started in 2019, with an enrollment target of 1500 subjects, focused on diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive kidney diseases in patients with reduced kidney function who are presumed to be at a higher risk of adverse outcomes. As of 2021, the KNOW-CKD investigators have published articles in the fields of socioeconomics, quality of life, nutrition, physical activity, renal progression, cardiovascular disease and outcomes, anemia, mineral bone disease, serum and urine biomarkers, and international and inter-ethnic comparisons. The KNOW-CKD researchers will elaborate a prediction model for various outcomes of CKD such as the development of end-stage kidney disease, major adverse cardiovascular events, and death.
Summary
Korean summary
KNOW-CKD 코호트 연구는 전국적 규모의 다기관 만성콩팥병 장기 추적 코호트 연구로서 2011년 질병관리청의 후원으로 시작된 연구이다. 이 연구는 우리나라 만성콩팥병의 임상적인 경과와 합병증, 신기능 악화 정도와 심혈관계 사건, 사망 등 주요 사건의 발생 위험 요인들을 규명하고자 기획되었다. 궁극적으로 KNOW-CKD 연구는 말기신부전으로의 진행과 사망, 심혈관계 주요 사건 등 만성콩팥병의 예후 예측 모델을 구축하는 것을 목표로 한다.

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  • Kidney Health Plan 2033 in Korea: bridging the gap between the present and the future
    Do Hyoung Kim, Young Youl Hyun, Jin Joo Cha, Sua Lee, Hyun Kyung Lee, Jong Wook Choi, Su-Hyun Kim, Sang Youb Han, Cheol Whee Park, Eun Young Lee, Dae Ryong Cha, Sung Gyun Kim, Chun Soo Lim, Sun-Hee Park
    Kidney Research and Clinical Practice.2024; 43(1): 8.     CrossRef
  • Associations between Chronic Kidney Disease and Migraine Incidence: Findings from a Korean Longitudinal Big Data Study
    Mi Jung Kwon, Jwa-Kyung Kim, Min-Jeong Kim, Dae Myoung Yoo, Na-Eun Lee, Kyeong Min Han, Nan Young Kim, Ho Suk Kang, Hyo Geun Choi, Eun Soo Kim
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2024; 14(4): 356.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of Patients with Heart Failure and Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease (Stages 4–5) Not Undergoing Renal Replacement Therapy (ERCA-IC Study)
    Sandra Valdivielso Moré, Miren Vicente Elcano, Anna García Alonso, Sergi Pascual Sanchez, Isabel Galceran Herrera, Francesc Barbosa Puig, Laia C. Belarte-Tornero, Sonia Ruiz-Bustillo, Ronald O. Morales Murillo, Clara Barrios, Joan Vime-Jubany, Nuria Farre
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(6): 2339.     CrossRef
Correspondence
Social and Policy Determinants of COVID-19 Infection Across 23 Countries: An Ecological Study
Kyungsik Kim, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(3):308-309.   Published online May 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.171
[Original]
  • 1,948 View
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Summary
Special Article
Well-being Index Scores and Subjective Health Status of Korean Healthcare Workers
Yoonhee Shin, Bohyun Park, Nam-eun Kim, Eun Jeong Choi, Minsu Ock, Sun Ha Jee, Sue K. Park, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(3):226-233.   Published online May 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.114
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective level of health-related quality of life of Korean healthcare workers using various quality-of-life instruments.
Methods
This study included 992 participants, who were doctors and nurses. A survey was conducted between November 28 and December 4, 2019. Data from 954 participants divided into 3 groups (physicians, residents, and nurses) were analyzed. Four measurement tools (29 questions) were used in the survey to evaluate subjective health status and well-being.
Results
In the Mayo Well-being Index, burnout during work (88.5%) and emotional difficulties caused by work (84.0%) were frequently cited by the respondents. Regarding questions on burnout and emotional difficulties, residents and nurses had the highest scores (91.0 and 89.6%, respectively). Emotional problems, such as anxiety, depression, and irritability, accounted for a high percentage (73.1%) of the total, while 82.2% of respondents reported that their work schedules interfered with their leisure and family time. There was no significant difference among the groups in subjective health status. However, 10.1% of the residents experienced very low quality of life, which was a higher proportion than that of physicians (2.7%) and nurses (5.2%).
Conclusions
The level of well-being that Korean medical workers experienced in relation to work was lower than the results of the United States healthcare workers surveyed using the same tool. This study was unique in that it conducted a subjective quality-of-life survey on Korean healthcare workers.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구의 목적은 다양한 삶의 질 도구를 사용하여 한국 의료종사자들의 건강과 관련된 삶의 질에 대한 주관적인 수준을 평가하는 것이다. 피로와 정서적 어려움, 업무로 인한 일상생활의 방해 등 한국 의료종사자의 일부 삶의 질 점수가 낮았다. 의료 종사자의 소진 경험이 환자의 치료에 부정적인 영향을 미친다는 것을 고려할 때 의료 종사자들의 삶의 질을 향상시키는 정책이 마련되어야하며, 건강과 관련된 직업적 위험요인 연구도 추가적으로 필요하다.
Original Articles
Social and Policy Determinants of COVID-19 Infection Across 23 Countries: An Ecological Study
Kyungsik Kim, Young-Do Jeung, Jeoungbin Choi, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(2):144-152.   Published online February 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.396
  • 3,476 View
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  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to identify the social and policy determinants of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection across 23 countries.
Methods
COVID-19 indicators (incidence, mortality, and fatality) for each country were calculated by direct and indirect standardization. Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify the social and policy determinants of COVID-19 infection.
Results
A higher number of doctors per population was related to lower incidence, mortality, and fatality rates of COVID-19 in 23 countries (β=-0.672, -0.445, and -0.564, respectively). The number of nurses/midwives per population was associated with lower mortality and fatality rates of COVID-19 in 23 countries (β=-0.215 and -0.372, respectively). Strengthening of policy restriction indicators, such as restrictions of public gatherings, was related to lower COVID-19 incidence (β=-0.423). A national Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccination policy conducted among special groups or in the past was associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 in 23 countries (β=0.341). The proportion of the elderly population (aged over 70 years) was related to higher mortality and fatality rates (β=0.209 and 0.350, respectively), and income support was associated with mortality and fatality rates (β=-0.362 and -0.449, respectively).
Conclusions
These findings do not imply causality because this was a country-based correlation study. However, COVID-19 transmission can be influenced by social and policy determinants such as integrated health systems and policy responses to COVID-19. Various social and policy determinants should be considered when planning responses to COVID-19.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 23개국의 코로나 19 감염 지표 (발생, 사망, 치명)과 관련있는 사회적, 정책적 요소를 확인하고자 하는생태학적 연구이다. 이는 코로나 19 감염 지표에 대한 인과성을 제시하는 연구가 아니기에 주의 깊은 해석이 필요하며 본 연구에서 제시한 사회적, 정책적 요소를 통해 코로나 19 감염에 대한 국가적인 정책을 고려할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.

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  • COVID 19 mortality as a reflection of the quality of health in EU countries
    Beáta Stehlíková, Zuzana Vincúrová, Ivan Brezina, Ilona Švihlíková
    Economics & Sociology.2023; 16(3): 138.     CrossRef
  • Social and Policy Determinants of COVID-19
    Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip, Viroj Wiwanitkit
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(3): 307.     CrossRef
  • Social and Policy Determinants of COVID-19 Infection Across 23 Countries: An Ecological Study
    Kyungsik Kim, Sue K. Park
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(3): 308.     CrossRef
  • Country-level and regional COVID-19 burden and determinants across OECD member states and partner countries
    Nlandu Roger Ngatu, Kazuto Tayama, Kanae Kanda, Tomohiro Hirao
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine.2022; 27: 41.     CrossRef
  • The association between tobacco or nicotine product use behaviors and non-compliance with mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in Korea
    Da-eun Lee, Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022087.     CrossRef
Association Between Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and the Risk of Lung Cancer Among Patients With Hypertension From the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort
Sungji Moon, Hae-Young Lee, Jieun Jang, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(6):476-486.   Published online November 3, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.405
  • 4,586 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of lung cancer in relation to angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) use among patients with hypertension from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hypertension who started to take antihypertensive medications and had a treatment period of at least 6 months. We calculated the weighted hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer associated with ARB use compared with calcium channel blocker (CCB) use using inverse probability treatment weighting. Results: Among a total of 60 469 subjects with a median follow-up time of 7.8 years, 476 cases of lung cancer were identified. ARB use had a protective effect on lung cancer compared with CCB use (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.96). Consistent findings were found in analyses considering patients who changed or discontinued their medication (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.77), as well as for women (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.93), patients without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.00), never-smokers (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.99), and non-drinkers (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.97). In analyses with different comparison antihypertensive medications, the overall protective effects of ARBs on lung cancer risk remained consistent. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that ARBs could decrease the risk of lung cancer. More evidence is needed to establish the causal effect of ARBs on the incidence of lung cancer.
Summary

Citations

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    Cancer Prevention Research.2023; 16(1): 37.     CrossRef
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    Zexu Wang, Lingyun Wei, Cheng Yin, Wang Li, Bing Wan
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 13(2): 243.     CrossRef
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    Yara G. Dagher, Sandra El Helou, Karen G. Haifa, Issam G. Chalhoub, Rita T. Boulos, Bachir Atallah, Fadi Nasr, Issam Kassab, Mirna N. Chahine
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    Kayeong Shin, Jiwoo Yang, Yeuni Yu, Eunjeong Son, Kihun Kim, Yun Hak Kim
    SSRN Electronic Journal .2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Sex-specific Associations Between Serum Hemoglobin Levels and the Risk of Cause-specific Death in Korea Using the National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS HEALS)
Yoonsuk An, Jieun Jang, Sangjun Lee, Sungji Moon, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(6):393-404.   Published online November 1, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.146
  • 6,589 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between blood hemoglobin (Hgb) levels and the risk of death by specific causes.
Methods
Using the National Health Insurance Services-National Health Screening Cohort (n=487 643), we classified serum Hgb levels into 6 sex-specific groups. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the associations between Hgb levels and the risk of cause-specific death.
Results
Hgb levels in male population showed a U-shaped, J-shaped, or inverse J-shaped association with the risk of death from ischemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, liver cancer, cirrhosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (all non-linear p<0.05; hazard ratio [HR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for the lowest and the highest Hgb levels for the risk of each cause of death in male population: HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.34; HR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.48 to 5.57; HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.40; HR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.44 to 6.48; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.56; HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.05 to 4.26; HR, 3.64; 95% CI, 2.49 to 5.33; HR, 5.97; 95% CI, 1.44 to 24.82; HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.30; HR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.22 to 12.13, respectively), while in female population, high Hgb levels were associated with a lower risk of death from hypertension and a higher risk of death from COPD (overall p<0.05; HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.67 for the lowest Hgb levels for hypertension; overall p<0.01, HR, 6.60; 95% CI, 2.37 to 18.14 for the highest Hgb levels for COPD). For the risk of lung cancer death by Hgb levels, a linear negative association was found in male population (overall p<0.01; the lowest Hgb levels, HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.33) but an inverse J-shaped association was found in female population (non-linear p=0.01; HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.63; HR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.21 to 5.50).
Conclusions
Both low and high Hgb levels were associated with an increased risk of death from various causes, and some diseases showed different patterns according to sex.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2002년 및 2003년 한국 국민건강보험공단 건강검진 수검자 코호트(NHIS-HEALS)를 이용하여 총 487,643명을 대상으로 2013년 말일까지의 통계청 사망자료 추적관찰 기반 혈중 헤모글로빈과 전체, 심뇌혈관, 암, 기타 질환의 (만성 폐쇄성 폐질환, 간경화증) 사망위험 간 상관관계를 성별 층화하여 콕스회귀모형으로 분석하였음. 연구 결과 남성에서는 낮은 헤모글로빈 및 높은 헤모글로빈 농도와 허혈성 심질환, 심근경색, 간암, 간경화증, 그리고 만성 폐쇄성 폐질환 사망위험이 통계적으로 유의하게 증가함을 보인 반면, 여성에서는 낮은 헤모글로빈 농도에서는 고혈압, 높은 헤모글로빈 농도에서는 만성 폐쇄성 폐질환 사망위험도가 통계적으로 유의하게 증가하였음.결과적으로 낮은 그리고 높은 헤모글로빈 농도가 기존에 알려져 있던 심혈관질환의 사망위험에 영향을 주었을 뿐만 아니라 암 질환 및 기타 다른 질환들의 사망위험에도 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났기에 혈중 헤모글로빈 농도가 사망위험도의 잠재적인 예측인자로써의 가능성을 보였음. 주요 단어: 헤모글로빈, 빈혈, 사망, 성별, 한국인

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Methods
Health Indicators Related to Disease, Death, and Reproduction
Jeoungbin Choi, Moran Ki, Ho Jang Kwon, Boyoung Park, Sanghyuk Bae, Chang-Mo Oh, Byung Chul Chun, Gyung-Jae Oh, Young Hoon Lee, Tae-Yong Lee, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Jung Han Park, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(1):14-20.   Published online January 23, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.250
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
One of the primary goals of epidemiology is to quantify various aspects of a population’s health, illness, and death status and the determinants (or risk factors) thereof by calculating health indicators that measure the magnitudes of various conditions. There has been some confusion regarding health indicators, with discrepancies in usage among organizations such as the World Health Organization the, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the CDC of other countries, and the usage of the relevant terminology may vary across papers. Therefore, in this review, we would like to propose appropriate terminological definitions for health indicators based on the most commonly used meanings and/or the terms used by official agencies, in order to bring clarity to this area of confusion. We have used appropriate examples to make each health indicator easy for the reader to understand. We have included practical exercises for some health indicators to help readers understand the underlying concepts.
Summary
Korean summary
본 논문에서는 질병과 사망, 출생 관련 지표들의 개념과 종류를 설명하고, 특히 연구자들이 흔히 혼동하여 사용하는 지표들에 대한 적절한 정의를 제시하였다. 또한 지표들의 예시를 부록으로 수록하여 독자들이 지표의 개념을 보다 쉽게 습득하도록 돕고자 하였다.

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Original Articles
Blood Pressure and the Risk of Death From Non-cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-based Cohort Study of Korean Adults
Jeoungbin Choi, Jieun Jang, Yoonsuk An, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):298-309.   Published online November 14, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.212
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and the risk of death from specific causes other than cardiovascular diseases.
Methods
We calculated the risk of specific death by SBP and DBP categories for 506 508 health examinees in 2002-2003 using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a Cox proportional hazards model.
Results
Compared to normal levels (SBP <120 or DBP <90 mmHg), stage I systolic and diastolic hypertension (SBP 140-159, DBP 85- 89 mmHg, respectively) were associated with an increased risk of death from diabetes mellitus, alcoholic liver disease, and renal failure (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.22; HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.46; HR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.64 to 3.21; HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.20; HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.81; HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.73, respectively), but a decreased risk of death from intestinal pneumonia (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.98; HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.91). Only stage II systolic hypertension (SBP ≥160 mmHg) was associated with an increased risk of death from pneumonia, liver cirrhosis, and intestinal ischemia (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.98; HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.15; HR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.24 to 11.40, respectively), and stage I and II diastolic hypertension (SBP 140-159 and ≥160 mmHg) were associated with an increased risk of death from intestinal ischemia (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.27 to 7.38; HR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.62 to 11.88, respectively).
Conclusions
An increase in blood pressure levels may alter the risk of death from certain causes other than cardiovascular diseases, a well-known outcome of hypertension, although the mechanism of these associations is not well documented.
Summary
Korean summary
2002년 및 2003년 한국 국민건강보험공단 건강검진 수검자 코호트(NHIS-HEALS) 중 506,508명을 대상으로 2013년 말일까지의 통계청 사망자료 기반 심뇌혈관질환을 제외한 기타 사망원인으로의 사망위험을 콕스회귀모형으로 분석한 결과에서 1단계 수축기 고혈압 군과 1단계 이완기 고혈압 군에서 당뇨, 알코올성 간질환, 콩팥부전 사망의 위험도가 통계적으로 유의하게 증가함을 보인 반면, 간질성 폐렴의 사망위험은 유의하게 감소함을 보였다. 2단계 수축기 고혈압 군에서는 폐렴, 간경화 및 허혈성 장질환의 사망위험이 증가하는 것을 보였다. 혈압의 증가가 기존에 알려진 심뇌혈관 질환 이외의 사망위험도에도 연관된 것으로 보이며, 고혈압의 질병부담 연구 및 보건정책 수립시 이 같은 점에 대한 고려가 필요하다.

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Risk Reduction of Breast Cancer by Childbirth, Breastfeeding, and Their Interaction in Korean Women: Heterogeneous Effects Across Menopausal Status, Hormone Receptor Status, and Pathological Subtypes
Seok Hun Jeong, Yoon Suk An, Ji-Yeob Choi, Boyoung Park, Daehee Kang, Min Hyuk Lee, Wonshik Han, Dong Young Noh, Keun-Young Yoo, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(6):401-410.   Published online November 10, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.152
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of childbirth, breastfeeding, and their interaction with breast cancer (BC) risk reduction, and to evaluate the heterogeneity in the BC risk reduction effects of these factors by menopause, hormone receptor (HR) status, and pathological subtype.
Methods
BC patients aged 40+ from the Korean Breast Cancer Registry in 2004-2012 and controls from the Health Examinee cohort participants were included in this study after 1:1 matching (12 889 pairs) by age and enrollment year. BC risk according to childbirth, breast-feeding, and their interaction was calculated in logistic regression models using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results
BC risk decreased with childbirth (3+ childbirths relative to 1 childbirth: OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78 and OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95 in postmenopausal and premenopausal women, respectively); and the degree of risk reduction by the number of children was heterogeneous according to menopausal status (p-heterogeneity=0.04), HR status (p-heterogeneity<0.001), and pathological subtype (p-heterogeneity<0.001); whereas breastfeeding for 1-12 months showed a heterogeneous association with BC risk according to menopausal status, with risk reduction only in premenopausal women (p-heterogeneity<0.05). The combination of 2 more childbirths and breastfeeding for ≥13 months had a much stronger BC risk reduction of 49% (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.58).
Conclusions
This study suggests that the combination of longer breastfeeding and more childbirths reduces BC risk more strongly, and that women who experience both 2 or more childbirths and breastfeed for ≥13 months can reduce their BC risk by about 50%.
Summary

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Alcohol Consumption and Mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort Study
En-Joo Jung, Aesun Shin, Sue K. Park, Seung-Hyun Ma, In-Seong Cho, Boyoung Park, Eun-Ha Lee, Soung-Hoon Chang, Hai-Rim Shin, Daehee Kang, Keun-Young Yoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(5):301-308.   Published online September 28, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.5.301
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To examine the association between alcohol consumption habit, types of beverages, alcohol consumption quantity, and overall and cancer-specific mortality among Korean adults.

Methods

The alcohol consumption information of a total of 16 320 participants who were 20 years or older from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort were analyzed to examine the association between alcohol consumption habit and mortality (median follow-up of 9.3 years). The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of alcohol consumption to mortality adjusting for age, sex, geographic areas, education, smoking status, and body mass index.

Results

Alcohol drinkers showed an increased risk for total mortality compared with never drinkers (HR, 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.14 for past drinkers; HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.39 for current drinkers), while past drinkers only were associated with higher risk for cancer deaths (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.53). The quantity of alcohol consumed per week showed a J-shaped association with risk of mortality. Relative to light drinkers (0.01 to 90 g/wk), never drinkers and heavy drinkers (>504 g/wk) had an increased risk for all-cause and cancer deaths: (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.45) and (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.83) for all-cause mortality; and (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.11) and (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.39 to 3.09) for all cancer mortality, respectively. Heavy drinkers (>504 g/wk) showed an elevated risk for death from stomach and liver cancers.

Conclusions

The present study supports the existence of a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption quantity and the risk of all-cause and cancer deaths. Heavy drinkers had an increased risk of death from cancer overall and liver and stomach cancer.

Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health