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Systematic Review
Coping Mechanisms Utilized by Individuals With Drug Addiction in Overcoming Challenges During the Recovery Process: A Qualitative Meta-synthesis
Agus Setiawan, Junaiti Sahar, Budi Santoso, Muchtaruddin Mansyur, Syamikar Baridwan Syamsir
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):197-211.   Published online May 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.042
  • 1,135 View
  • 110 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Recovery from drug addiction often poses challenges for the recovering person. The coping mechanisms employed by these individuals to resist temptations and manage stress play a key role in the healing process. This study was conducted to explore the coping strategies or techniques that individuals with addiction use to handle stress and temptation while undergoing treatment.
Methods
A qualitative meta-synthesis approach was utilized to critically evaluate relevant qualitative research. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines were used for article selection, with these standards applied to 4 academic databases: Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, and CINAHL. The present review included studies published between 2014 and 2023, selected based on pre-established inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Studies Checklist. This review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) under the registration number CRD42024497789.
Results
The analysis of 13 qualifying qualitative articles revealed 5 major themes illustrating the coping mechanisms employed in the pursuit of recovery by individuals who use drugs. These themes include seeking social support, as well as psychological coping strategies, spiritual experiences, professional interventions, and the enhancement of awareness.
Conclusions
Among individuals with drug addiction, coping mechanisms are crucial for resisting stress and temptations throughout the recovery process. Healthcare professionals, as medical specialists, can establish more thorough and effective plans to support these patients on their path to recovery.
Summary
Key Message
This study attempts to investigate the coping mechanisms used by individuals with drug addiction during the recovery process. Through a qualitative meta-synthesis of 13 qualitative studies, we identified five main coping mechanisms: seeking social support, psychological coping strategies, spiritual experiences, professional interventions, and the enhancement of awareness. These results suggest that these coping mechanisms are important for managing stress and temptation, supporting a more holistic approach to addiction treatment.
COVID-19: Original Article
An Observational Study in Manipur State, India on Preventive Behavior Influenced by Social Media During the COVID-19 Pandemic Mediated by Cyberchondria and Information Overload
Renu Bala, Amit Srivastava, Gouri Devi Ningthoujam, Thadoi Potsangbam, Amita Oinam, Ch Lily Anal
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(1):22-30.   Published online December 1, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.465
  • 7,050 View
  • 245 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency posing unprecedented challenges for health authorities. Social media may serve as an effective platform to disseminate health-related information. This study aimed to assess the extent of social media use, its impact on preventive behavior, and negative health effects such as cyberchondria and information overload.
Methods
A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between June 10, 2020 and August 9, 2020 among people visiting the outpatient department of the authors’ institution, and participants were also recruited during field visits for an awareness drive. Questions were developed on preventive behavior, and the Short Cyberchondria Scale and instruments dealing with information overload and perceived vulnerability were used.
Results
The study recruited 767 participants with a mean age of about 45 years. Most of the participants (>90%) engaged in preventive behaviors, which were influenced by the extent of information received through social media platforms (β=3.297; p<0.001) and awareness of infection when a family member tested positive (β=29.082; p<0.001) or a neighbor tested positive (β=27.964; p<0.001). The majority (63.0%) of individuals often searched for COVID-19 related news on social media platforms. The mean±standard deviation scores for cyberchondria and information overload were 9.09±4.05 and 8.69±2.56, respectively. Significant and moderately strong correlations were found between cyberchondria, information overload, and perceived vulnerability to COVID-19.
Conclusions
This study provides evidence that the use of social media as an information- seeking platform altered preventive behavior. However, excessive and misleading information resulted in cyberchondria and information overload.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The impact of online health information source preference on intolerance to uncertainty and cyberchondria in a youthful generation
    Ozkan Bahadir, Cihad Dundar
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry.2024; 66(4): 360.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of Cyberchondria During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-sectional Study Using Supervised Machine Learning
    Alexandre Infanti, Vladan Starcevic, Adriano Schimmenti, Yasser Khazaal, Laurent Karila, Alessandro Giardina, Maèva Flayelle, Seyedeh Boshra Hedayatzadeh Razavi, Stéphanie Baggio, Claus Vögele, Joël Billieux
    JMIR Formative Research.2023; 7: e42206.     CrossRef
  • Cyberchondria: a Growing Concern During the COVID-19 Pandemic and a Possible Addictive Disorder?
    Gemma Mestre-Bach, Marc N. Potenza
    Current Addiction Reports.2023; 10(1): 77.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of cyberchondria among undergraduate students of a private degree college with Cyberchondria Severity Scale-12 in an urban area
    Ummu Kulsum, M Sushma, SCynthia Subhaprada, A Sreedevi
    BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences.2023; 8(1): 95.     CrossRef
  • Peak months of pandemic’s first-wave in India: a cross-sectional assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards COVID-19 among internet-savvy individuals
    Jeevitha Marudachalam, Oviyha Ravichandhiran, Kameswaran Ramalingam, Sambathkumar Ramanathan, Sirajudeen Mahaboob, Habeeb Ibrahim Abdul Razack
    Drugs & Therapy Perspectives.2022; 38(2): 93.     CrossRef
  • Stratified Impacts of the Infodemic During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-sectional Survey in 6 Asian Jurisdictions
    Xi Chen, Fen Lin, Edmund W Cheng
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(3): e31088.     CrossRef
  • The effect of cyberchondria on anxiety, depression and quality of life during COVID-19: the mediational role of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and Internet addiction
    Federica Ambrosini, Roberto Truzoli, Matteo Vismara, Daniele Vitella, Roberta Biolcati
    Heliyon.2022; 8(5): e09437.     CrossRef
  • New challenges in facing cyberchondria during the coronavirus disease pandemic
    Matteo Vismara, Alberto Varinelli, Luca Pellegrini, Arun Enara, Naomi A Fineberg
    Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences.2022; 46: 101156.     CrossRef
  • The Mediating Effect of Reassurance-Seeking Behavior on the Influence of Viral Anxiety and Depression on COVID-19 Obsession Among Medical Students
    Hyun Sub Kim, Junseok Ahn, Jukab Lee, Youjin Hong, Changnam Kim, Jangho Park, Seockhoon Chung
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • How online searches fuel health anxiety: Investigating the link between health-related searches, health anxiety, and future intention
    Rachel X. Peng
    Computers in Human Behavior.2022; 136: 107384.     CrossRef
  • Closeness to social network and COVID-19
    Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip, Viroj Wiwanitkit
    Aging Clinical and Experimental Research.2021; 33(10): 2925.     CrossRef
  • The Impact of the Online COVID-19 Infodemic on French Red Cross Actors’ Field Engagement and Protective Behaviors: Mixed Methods Study
    Leonardo W Heyerdahl, Benedetta Lana, Tamara Giles-Vernick
    JMIR Infodemiology.2021; 1(1): e27472.     CrossRef
  • The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Searching for Health-Related Information and Cyberchondria on the General Population in Italy
    Matteo Vismara, Daniele Vitella, Roberta Biolcati, Federica Ambrosini, Veronica Pirola, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Roberto Truzoli
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Lifestyle behavior of patients with noncommunicable diseases during COVID-19 pandemic: An observational study
    Renu Bala, Amit Srivastava
    Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research (KLEU).2021; 14(2): 227.     CrossRef
Special Article
Scientific Evidence for the Addictiveness of Tobacco and Smoking Cessation in Tobacco Litigation
Sungwon Roh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(1):1-5.   Published online November 29, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.088
  • 7,335 View
  • 282 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others’. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research. Nicotine that enters the body via smoking is rapidly transmitted to the central nervous system and causes various effects, including an arousal response. The changes in the nicotine receptors in the brain due to continuous smoking lead to addiction symptoms such as tolerance, craving, and withdrawal. Compared with other addictive substances, including alcohol and opioids, tobacco is more likely to cause dependence in smokers, and smokers are less likely to recover from their dependence. Moreover, the thinning of the cerebral cortex and the decrease in cognitive functions that occur with aging accelerate with smoking. Such changes occur in the structure and functions of the brain in proportion to the amount and period of smoking. In particular, abnormalities in the neural circuits that control cognition and decision-making cause loss of the ability to exert self-control and autonomy. This initiates nicotine dependence and the continuation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, smoking is considered to be a behavior that is repeated due to dependence on an addictive substance, nicotine, instead of one’s choice by free will.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Psychological Therapies Used for the Reduction of Habitual Cigarette Smoking Cigarette Consumption: A Systematic Review
    Sandra-Milena Carrillo-Sierra, Lorena Cárdenas-Cáceres, John Anderson Cadrazco-Urquijo, Angie Natalia Salazar-Gómez, Diego Rivera-Porras, Valmore Bermúdez
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2024; 21(6): 753.     CrossRef
  • Psychoactive Comfort Products or Snacks: How Chinese Young Adults Perceive the Potentially Addictive Nature of E-Cigarettes
    Apei Song, Zihan Zhang, Zixi Liu
    Healthcare.2023; 11(10): 1440.     CrossRef
  • Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Nicotine-Dependent Individuals and Its Correlation with Polymorphisms of Dopamine D Receptor Gene
    Hongfeng Liu, Lixin Guan, Ying Nie, Qi Li, Jiting Xue, Yong Yang, Shengzhong Rong, Jun Liang, Yanzhong Guan, Fengguo Zhai, Yanhai Ren, Ziyi An, Zesong Dong, Zhixue Han, Yuvaraja Teekaraman
    Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • The concept of “food addiction” helps inform the understanding of overeating and obesity: NO
    Johannes Hebebrand, Ashley N Gearhardt
    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2021; 113(2): 268.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge and Perception about Health Risks Associated with Tobacco Habit — A Survey
    Casilda Sushanthi L, Archana Santhanam, Herald J. Sherlin, Gifrina Jayaraj, Kanchi Ravi Don
    European Journal of General Dentistry.2020; 9(03): 163.     CrossRef
  • Trajectory of Smoking and Incidence of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease among Korean Young Adult Men
    Yongho Jee, Jooeun Jeon, Joung Hwan Back, Mikyung Ryu, Sung-il Cho
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(12): 2219.     CrossRef
Validation Studies
Development of Internet Addiction Measurement Scales and Korean Internet Addiction Index.
Jae Sung Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(3):298-306.
  • 2,333 View
  • 54 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To develop measurement scales of Internet addiction, and propose a Korean Internet Addiction Index (K-IAI) and classification criteria for Internet addiction from the threshold scores developed. METHODS: The identification of the concept of "Internet addiction" was based on the literature review. To select the scales, an exploratory factor analysis was applied. A construct validation was tested by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with a structured equation model (SEM). In testing the validity of the classification criteria, ANOVA and non-recursive models with SEM were applied. RESULTS: Out of 1, 080 questionnaires distributed, 1, 037 were returned, ; a response rate of 96%. The Cronbach-alpha of all items was over 0.75. Using an exploratory factor analysis in the condition of a 6 factor constrain as the study model proposed, 23 of the initial 28 items were identified. In testing the discriminant and convergent validity of the selected 23 scales using CFA with SEM, the Internet addiction model explained about 93% of all variances of the data collected, and all the latent variables significantly explained the designated scales. A K-IAI was proposed using the T-scores of the sum of all factor averages. In the classification of users, the basic concept was a two standard deviation approach of the K-IAI as the criteria of MMPI. The addiction group had a score > or = 70 in the K-IAI, the pre-addiction group between > or = 50 and < 70, and the average user group < 50. The Internet use times of the classified groups were statistically different in the ANOVA and multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: The K-IAI is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring Internet addiction. Moreover, the taxonomy of the groups was also verified using various methods.
Summary
English Abstract
Association of Internet Addiction with Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile and Perceived Health Status in Adolescents.
Jung Sook Kim, Byung Chul Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(1):53-60.
  • 3,090 View
  • 209 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To identify the relationship between the internet addiction of adolescents and their Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile and Perceived Health Status, and thereby to detect the impact of internet addiction on the health of adolescents, produce the basic information necessary to develop a prevention program for internet addiction and to plan for a health promotion program. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, and the subjects were the second-grade students of three junior-high and three high schools located in the city of K in Kyung Gi Province. Out of 769 subjects, 764 completed the questionnaires (99.3%) ; 369 (48.3%) junior-high school students and 395 (51.7%) high school students. The questionnaires were composed of Young's Internet Addiction, Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile, Perceived Health Status, and general characteristics. We used t-test, ANOVA in means comparison between groups, X2-test in frequency analysis, and multiple regression analysis in multivariate analysis, using the SAS 8.1 (R) program. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile according to internet addiction status (severe addiction vs. other status, p< 0.0001). The Perceived Health Status scores was lowest in the severe addiction group (p< 0.001). There was also a significant negative correlation between internet addiction and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile (p< 0.0001). The results of multiple regression showed that Young's Addiction Score was significant for the subjects' Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile after controlling for other variables (p< 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the severe internet addiction group had the lowest score in Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile and Perceived Health Status, which suggests that the addiction could have a negative effect on the health status of adolescents.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health