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Original Articles
Changes in Adolescent Health Behavior and the Exacerbation of Economic Hardship During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study From the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Chaeeun Kim, Haeun Lee, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):18-27.   Published online November 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.306
  • 876 View
  • 131 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study investigated the association between exacerbated economic hardship during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and changes in the health behaviors of Korean adolescents.
Methods
We analyzed data from the 2021 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 44 908 students (22 823 boys and 22 085 girls) as study subjects. The dependent variables included changes in health behaviors (breakfast habits, physical activity, and alcohol use) that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aggravation of economic hardship by COVID-19 and the subjective economic status of the family were used as exposure variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was utilized to calculate the prevalence odds ratios (PORs).
Results
Severe exacerbation of a family’s economic hardship due to COVID-19 was negatively associated with the health behaviors of adolescents, including increased breakfast skipping (POR, 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 2.21 for boys and POR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.92 for girls) and decreased physical activity (POR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.57 for boys and POR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.60 for girls). These negative changes in health behaviors were further amplified when combined with a low subjective family economic status.
Conclusions
The experience of worsening household hardship can lead to negative changes in health behavior among adolescents. It is crucial to implement measures that address the economic challenges that arise from stressful events such as COVID-19 and to strive to improve the lifestyles of adolescents under such circumstances.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 코로나바이러스감염증-19 (COVID-19) 대유행 기간 악화된 가구의 경제적 상황과 청소년의 건강 행태 변화의 관련성을 청소년건강행태조사를 이용하여 분석하였다. 가구의 경제적 상황이 COVID-19로 인해 심각하게 악화된 경우, 청소년 건강 행태의 부정적인 변화와 연관성이 관찰되었다. 가구의 경제적 상황이 악화되는 경험은 청소년들의 건강 행태에 부정적인 변화를 초래할 수 있다. COVID-19와 같은 사회적 사건으로 인해 발생하는 경제적 어려움에 대응하는 조치를 마련하고, 이러한 상황에서 청소년들의 건강 행태를 개선하기 위한 개입이 필요하다.
Key Message
This study investigated the association between exacerbated economic hardship during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and changes in the health behaviors of Korean adolescents using the 2021 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Severe exacerbation of a family’s economic hardship due to COVID-19 was negatively associated with the health behaviors of adolescents. The experience of worsening household hardship can lead to negative changes in health behavior among adolescents. It is crucial to implement measures that address the economic challenges that arise from stressful events such as COVID-19 and to strive to improve the lifestyles of adolescents under such circumstances.
Association of Infant Feeding Characteristics With Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Korean Childhood
Kyoung-Nam Kim, Moon-Kyung Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(4):338-347.   Published online June 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.504
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Young children’s feeding characteristics can play an important role in eating habits and health during later childhood. This study was conducted to examine the associations of feeding characteristics with dietary patterns and obesity in children.
Methods
This study utilized data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2013 and 2017. In total, 802 toddlers were included, with information on their demographic characteristics, feeding practices and duration, and 24-hour recall obtained from their parents. Feeding characteristics were categorized into feeding type, duration of total breastfeeding, duration of total formula feeding, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and age when starting formula feeding. Dietary patterns were identified based on factor loadings for the food groups for 3 major factors, with “vegetables & traditional,” “fish & carbohydrates,” and “sweet & fat” patterns. Overweight/obesity was defined as ≥85th percentile in body mass index based on the 2017 Korean National Growth charts for children and adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between feeding characteristics and dietary patterns. The association between dietary patterns and obesity was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Results
The early introduction of formula feeding was inversely associated with the “vegetables & traditional” pattern (β=-0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.34 to -0.02). A higher “vegetables & traditional” intake was associated with a lower risk of obesity (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.95).
Conclusions
Feeding characteristics are associated with dietary patterns in later childhood, and dietary patterns were shown to have a potential protective association against obesity.
Summary
Korean summary
생애 초기 수유 형태는 유아의 식습관 형성에 영향을 주고 아울러 성장기의 식습관에도 중요한 바탕이 된다. 특히, 생애 초기 수유 형태는 유아기의 성장 발달 또는 비만과 관련됨이 알려져 있다. 과일과 채소 섭취 증가 및 다양한 식품의 섭취는 비만을 예방하는 대표적인 식습관 중의 하나이다. 본 연구에는 영아 시기의 수유 형태가 이후 유아기의 식사 패턴에 미치는 영향 및 유아기 비만과의 관련성을 살펴보고자 수행되었다. 이에 본 연구에서는 국민건강영양조사2013-2017년까지 만2-3세 유아 802명 대상으로 수유 형태에 따른 식사 패턴 분석 결과, 4개월 이전 분유 수유를 시작할 경우 ‘vegetables & traditional’패턴 점수가 감소하였다. 식사 패턴과 비만 유병률 결과, ‘vegetables & traditional’ 패턴 요인 점수가 증가할수록 비만 유병률이 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 이에 본 연구 결과들을 통해 생애 초기 수유 형태에 따라 유아기(미취학아동)의 식습관에 영향을 미치는 요인으로 판단되며, 그 식습관이 반영됨에 따라 소아 비만과 관련이 있음을 나타냈다. 따라서 국내 대규모의 표본을 대상으로 한 연구 결과로 건강하고 다양한 식습관 지도를 위한 영양 교육 프로그램의 근거 자료로 활용될 수 있다고 생각된다.
Cardiovascular Disease–related Health Beliefs and Lifestyle Issues Among Karen Refugees Resettled in the United States From the Thai-Myanmar (Burma) Border
Akiko Kamimura, Kai Sin, Mu Pye, Hsien-Wen Meng
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(6):386-392.   Published online November 2, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.098
  • 12,134 View
  • 228 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Refugees resettled in the US may be at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, little is known about CVD-related issues among Karen refugees who have migrated to the US from the Thai-Myanmar border. The purpose of this study was to examine CVD-related health beliefs and lifestyle issues among Karen refugees resettled in the US.
Methods
Karen refugees resettled in the US from the Thai-Myanmar border (n=195) participated in a survey study on health beliefs related to CVD, salt intake, physical activity (PA), and smoking in the fall of 2016.
Results
A high-salt diet, physical inactivity, and smoking were major lifestyle problems. Participants who adhered to a low-salt diet considered themselves to be susceptible to CVD. Most participants did not engage in regular PA. Regular PA was associated with less perceived susceptibility to CVD and greater perceived benefits of a healthy lifestyle for decreasing the likelihood of CVD.
Conclusions
Each refugee population may require individualized strategies to promote PA and a healthy diet. Future studies should develop health education programs that are specifically designed for Karen refugees and evaluate such programs. In addition to health education programs on healthy lifestyle choices, tobacco cessation programs seem to be necessary for Karen refugees. At the same time, it is important to foster strategies to increase the utilization of preventive care among this population by promoting free or reduced-fee resources in the community to further promote their health.
Summary

Citations

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Perspective
The Big Vitamin D Mistake
Dimitrios T. Papadimitriou
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(4):278-281.   Published online May 10, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.111
  • 54,094 View
  • 1,046 Download
  • 26 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Since 2006, type 1 diabetes in Finland has plateaued and then decreased after the authorities’ decision to fortify dietary milk products with cholecalciferol. The role of vitamin D in innate and adaptive immunity is critical. A statistical error in the estimation of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin D was recently discovered; in a correct analysis of the data used by the Institute of Medicine, it was found that 8895 IU/d was needed for 97.5% of individuals to achieve values ≥50 nmol/L. Another study confirmed that 6201 IU/d was needed to achieve 75 nmol/L and 9122 IU/d was needed to reach 100 nmol/L. The largest meta-analysis ever conducted of studies published between 1966 and 2013 showed that 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <75 nmol/L may be too low for safety and associated with higher all-cause mortality, demolishing the previously presumed U-shape curve of mortality associated with vitamin D levels. Since all-disease mortality is reduced to 1.0 with serum vitamin D levels ≥100 nmol/L, we call public health authorities to consider designating as the RDA at least three-fourths of the levels proposed by the Endocrine Society Expert Committee as safe upper tolerable daily intake doses. This could lead to a recommendation of 1000 IU for children <1 year on enriched formula and 1500 IU for breastfed children older than 6 months, 3000 IU for children >1 year of age, and around 8000 IU for young adults and thereafter. Actions are urgently needed to protect the global population from vitamin D deficiency.
Summary

Citations

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Original Article
Behavioural Determinants for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study Among Urban Adolescents in India
M. Anitha Rani, B.W.C. Sathiyasekaran
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):192-200.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.192
  • 11,677 View
  • 152 Download
  • 25 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To measure the prevalence of behavioural risk factors for obesity among urban adolescent school children in Chennai, India.

Methods

This study was performed as a cross-sectional study using a World Health Organization-designed Global School-based Student Health Survey questionnaire (modified for India) among adolescent school children studying in 30 randomly selected secondary and higher secondary schools in Chennai city. 1842 adolescents studying in the VIII to XII standards were randomly selected for the study.

Results

In the present study, 40.7% of the students ate fruit one or more times per day and 74.5% of the students ate vegetables one or more times per day. Nearly 20% of the students ate fast food items on 4 to 7 days during the previous week. Among the students, 30.4% watched television for more than two hours per day. Nearly 68% of the girls and 22% of the boys did not participate in outdoor sports activities. When the pattern of physical activity of the students was assessed, it was observed that 15.6% were inactive, 43.4% were minimally active, and the remaining 41.0% belonged to the category of health enhancing physical activity. Among the students, 6.2% were overweight and 5.2% were obese.

Conclusions

The prevalence of risk factors for obesity was quite high among the adolescents. This study also showed that a great proportion of overweight/obese adolescents had a correct perception of their body weight and they were making efforts to modify risk factors such as television viewing, computer use, a sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary habits.

Summary

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Special Article
Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases and National Strategies to Control Them in Korea
Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):155-164.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.155
Correction in: J Prev Med Public Health 2013;46(5):292
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AbstractAbstract PDF

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the most important causes of premature mortality and disability-adjusted life years in Korea. NCDs are also the main contributor to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and life expectancy. Reduction of NCDs and NCD inequalities would result in significant improvement in healthy life expectancy and health equity in Korea. Major NCD risk factors such as dietary risks (including salt intake), alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and high blood pressure were found to be the leading modifiable risk factors of disability-adjusted life years in Korea, based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Several Korean studies have shown that these risk factors play an important role in creating socioeconomic inequalities in NCD mortality and total mortality. Current international discussions on NCD policies in the United Nations and the World Health Organization would provide better opportunities for developing aggressive population-wide policy measures in Korea. Considering the paucity of population-wide policies to control major NCD risk factors in Korea, rigorous population approaches such as taxation and regulation of unhealthy commodities as well as public education and mass campaigns should be further developed in Korea.

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English Abstract
A Factor of Fasting Blood Glucose and Dietary Patterns in Korean Adults Using Data From the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Kyung Won Paek, Ki Hong Chun, Soo Jin Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(2):93-100.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.2.93
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to identify the socioeconomic factors, health behavior factors and dietary patterns that have an influence on the fasting blood glucose in adults. METHODS: This study used data collected from the 2007, 2008, 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The final sample included 4163 subjects who were 30-59 years old and who had completed the necessary health examinations, the health behaviors survey and nutrition survey. RESULTS: Eleven dietary patterns emerged from the factor analysis with different factor loading. After controlling for potential confounders, multiple regression analysis of the dietary patterns showed that 'fruits', 'alcohols', and 'starchy foods' affected the fasting blood. Lower consumption of 'fruits' and higher consumption of 'alcohols' and 'starch foods' were significantly associated only with an increased risk of high blood glucose. CONCLUSIONS: In the light of the results of this study, it appears pretty likely that the risk of developing high blood glucose can be reduced by changing a person's dietary patterns.
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Review
Gene-Diet Interaction on Cancer Risk in Epidemiological Studies.
Sang Ah Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(6):360-370.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.6.360
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Genetic factors clearly play a role in carcinogenesis, but migrant studies provide unequivocal evidence that environmental factors are critical in defining cancer risk. Therefore, one may expect that the lower availability of substrate for biochemical reactions leads to more genetic changes in enzyme function; for example, most studies have indicated the variant MTHFR genotype 677TT is related to biomarkers, such as homocysteine concentrations or global DNA methylation particularly in a low folate diet. The modification of a phenotype related to a genotype, particularly by dietary habits, could support the notion that some of inconsistencies in findings from molecular epidemiologic studies could be due to differences in the populations studied and unaccounted underlying characteristics mediating the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and the actual phenotypes. Given the evidence that diet can modify cancer risk, gene-diet interactions in cancer etiology would be anticipated. However, much of the evidence in this area comes from observational epidemiology, which limits the causal inference. Thus, the investigation of these interactions is essential to gain a full understanding of the impact of genetic variation on health outcomes. This report reviews current approaches to gene-diet interactions in epidemiological studies. Characteristics of gene and dietary factors are divided into four categories: one carbon metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and dietary factors including folate, vitamin B group and methionines; oxidative stress-related gene polymorphisms and antioxidant nutrients including vegetable and fruit intake; carcinogen-metabolizing gene polymorphisms and meat intake including heterocyclic amins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; and other gene-diet interactive effect on cancer.
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English Abstracts
Seasonal Variation of Food Intake in Food Frequency Questionnaire among Workers in a Nuclear Power Plant.
Jae Jeong Yang, Sue Kyung Park, Hyun Sul Lim, Kwang Pil Ko, Younjhin Ahn, Yoon Ok Ahn
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(3):239-248.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.3.239
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to investigate the systematic error, such as seasonal change or inadequate food items, in a food frequency questionnaire administered to workers in a Nuclear Power Plant, Korea. METHODS: We performed three repeat-tests with 28 subjects on May 13, July 8 and Dec 16, 1992. Our food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) comprised 84 foods organized into 7 food-groups, and was composed of the items of usual intake frequency (8 categories) and the amount per intake (3 or 4 categories) over the previous year. We compared the means of intake frequency and the frequency of the portion-size according to each season using Repeated Measures ANOVA and Pearson's chisquare test with Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: We found the significant seasonal changes of several food items in intake frequency measurement. These items were typical seasonal foods such as mandarin orange, plum and green vegetables, while the single questions consisted of inadequate food items such as thick beef or similar soup and various kimchi products. Significant seasonal changes in portion-size were found in only two items: cooked rice-brown and fresh.frozen fishes. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic errors observed could caused loss of validity in the FFQ. Consideration should be given for seasonal variation in FFQ survey and methodological concerns are needed to improve the quality for measuring usual diet pattern.
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Relationship between the Source of Energy Intake and Obesity in Korean Women Using the Average of Four 3-day Dietary Records.
Myung Hee Shin, Mi Ock Yoon, Seok Jin Nam, Yun Mi Song
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(1):45-50.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.1.45
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions of macronutrients to the total energy intakes and Body Mass Indices (BMI, kg/m2) of Korean women. METHODS: We used dietary records data from 115 healthy Korean women, ages 20 and over, who completed four 3-day dietary records between February 2003 and March 2004. For the calculation of nutrients we used a dietary assessment program developed by the Korean Nutritional Society. Macronutrient intakes were estimated by averaging individual total daily intakes in four 3-day dietary records. Subjects were categorized into three Body Mass Index (BMI) groups: underweight (BMI<20), normal (20< or =BMI<25), and overweight (BMI> or =25) group. RESULTS: The total energy intakes were not different among the three BMI groups. Similarly, other macronutrient intakes such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, vegetable protein, animal protein, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were not different. From the multivariate nutrient density model, substituting polyunsaturated fatty acid for carbohydrate was positively associated with BMI in women aged 20 to 49 (beta=2.31, p<0.01). In women aged 50 and over, substituting animal protein for carbohydrate was positively associated with BMI (beta=0.549, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: No single macronutrient was associated with BMI when all subjects were combined. However, when stratified by age, polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in younger women, and animal protein intake in older women, were positively associated with BMI. In the future, we recommend a larger study to confirm these results.
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  • Carbohydrate-to-fat ratio affects food intake and body weight in Wistar rats
    Ren-Ying Xu, Yan-Ping Wan, Qing-Ya Tang, Jiang Wu, Wei Cai
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Original Articles
Study on Relationship between Hypertension and Dietary intake in a Rural Adult Population.
Un Yeong Go, Joung Soom Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(4):729-740.
  • 1,913 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To determine the relationship between hypertension and nutrient intake cross-sectional study were performed in a rural area. Adult resident over 30-year-old age were measured blood pressure and body mass index(BMI), and interviewed about food intake for the previous 24 hours. 250 men and 297 women participated the survey. Significant correlation was shown in men between mean systolic blood pressure and protein density. Significant correlation with mean diastolic blood pressure was shown on protein density, protein energy(%), calcium density and energy-adjusted protein in men. We analysed risk factor for hypertension adjust the effect of age, BMI, sex and family history by multiple logistic regression. Protein density(odds ratio=3.18), fat density(odds ratio=1.94) and energy-adjusted protein(odds ratio=1.01) intake were positively associated with hypertension but sodium density(odds ratio=0.73) was shown to have inverse relationship.
Summary
A Study on obesity pattern and related factors of the doctors.
Young Sil Kim, Hye Sook Park, Bong Su Cho, Yeong Wook Kim, Kwang Wook Koh, Soo Yong Kang, Ae Ri Cha, Cheol Ho Yi, In Kyung Hwang, Byung Mann Cho, Su Ill Lee, Don Kyoun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(4):708-718.
  • 1,918 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The author surveyed overall obesity indicies and factors concerned with obesity such as dietary intake, physical activity, stress and life style with the subject of doctors. The number of subjects was total 508 with 396 men and 112 women. They were subgrouped into surgical part, medical part and service and basic part by speciality. And also subgrouped into intern and resident, pay doctor, and practitioner by working type. The results were as follows. 1) Obesity indices: BMI of total doctor was 23.1+/-2.8, and WHR was 0.87+/-0.08 and overweight prevalence(BMI>25.0) was 23.6 %. It was within normal limit but slightly over the Korean standard. The degree of obesity indices of subgroups by speciality was "surgical part > medical part > service and basic part", and by working type was "practitioner > pay doctor > intern and resident". 2) Dietary intake and Physical activity: Average dietary intake was 2148+/-451 kcal/day. The degree of dietary intake by speciality was "surgical part > medical part > service and basic part". By working type it was "practitioner > pay doctor > intern and resident". Average physical activity was 29+/-5 METs/day. The degree of physical activity also showed similar pattern. But there was no significant difference among each groups. 3) Comparison between over-weight and non-over-weight group: The items that showed significant difference between two groups were dietary intake, skip breakfast, regular exercise, smoking, heavy drinking, chronic disease etc.
Summary
Effect of Dietary Calcium, Casein, and Suet on the Accumulation of Cadmium in Mice.
Kyu Sang Jung, Doohie Kim, Kyung Dong Jung
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):340-350.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to clarify the effect of dietary calcium, casein, and suet on the accumulation of cadmium in mice. It was performed for 30 days, from April 11 to May 10 1988. 90 mice were divided into 4 experimental groups and control group with 6 mice each dietary group, and measured survival rate, body weight, and weight ratio of organ to body. The contents of cadmium in liver, kidney, spleen, muscle and skin with hair, and faces were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer after sacrifice by anesthesia. After 30 days, the survival rate of control group was 100%, but 66.7% in group IV(basal+Cd+Ca) with single dose of 100 microgram cadmium and with free-intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium, and group V(basal diet+Cd+suet) with free-intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium. The rate of weight gain in the case of single dose of 100 microgram cadmium was highest in group IV as 42.3% and lowest in group V as 26.0%, whereas in the cases of free intake group IV was highest as 24.0% and group II(basal diet+Cd) was lowest as 11.6%. The body weight, in the case of single dose of 100 microgram cadmium showed no increase until 5th day after acute poisoning. But in the case of free intake group, it showed very increase through all the breeding period. The weight ratio of organ to body were lowest in the liver of group II in both occasions. The most of cadmium administered were excreted through feces within 2 days after single dose of 100 microgram cadmium. The contents of cadmium in each group were significantly higher than those of control group. In the liver, kidney, spleen and muscle, group II showed the highest level in both occasions of 100 microgram single dose and free intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium. In the skin with hair, group II of the occasion with single dose of 100 microgram and group V with free intake showed the highest level. And the contents of cadmium in tissue were markedly higher in the occasion of free intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium. From the above results I would conclude that the addition of casein and calcium are effective in the inhibition of intension absorption of cadmium esp. by calcium.
Summary
Association of Dietary Factors with Cognitive Impairment in Older Women.
Jin Hee Kim, Yunhwan Lee, Geunshik Han
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(2):174-181.
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OBJECTIVE
To examine the association between dietary factors and cognitive impairment in older Korean women living in the community. METHODS: Wave 2 data, from the Suwon Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS), of 365 women aged 65 years or over, were used. The Korean version of the 30-point Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K) was used to assess cognitive impairment (score< = or19). Dietary habits and frequencies of food group consumption were also examined. RESULTS: A total of 67 women (18.4%) were found to be cognitively impaired. In bivariate analyses, nondietary factors, such as age, marital status, education, income, self-rated health, depression, emotional support, social activity, exercise, and dietary factors, such as self-rated nutritional status, frequency of beans and bean products and milk and dairy products consumption were associated with cognitive impairment. In the multivariate analysis, a higher frequency ( > = or 1 vs. < 1 time/day) of beans and bean products (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.23-0.99) and milk and dairy products (OR=0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.61) consumption was inversely associated with cognitive impairment, after adjustment for non-dietary factors. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that dietary factors may play a significant role in cognitive impairment of older Korean women.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health