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Original Article
Is Job Insecurity Worse for Mental Health Than Having a Part-time Job in Canada?
Il-Ho Kim, Cyu-Chul Choi, Karen Urbanoski, Jungwee Park, Jiman Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(2):110-118.   Published online January 11, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.179
  • 5,258 View
  • 127 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
A growing number of people depend on flexible employment, characterized by outsider employment status and perceived job insecurity. This study investigated whether there was a synergistic effect of employment status (full-time vs. part-time) and perceived job insecurity on major depressive disorder.
Methods
Data were derived from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health of 12 640 of Canada’s labor force population, aged 20 to 74. By combining employment status with perceived job insecurity, we formed four employment categories: fulltime secure, full-time insecure, part-time secure, and part-time insecure.
Results
Results showed no synergistic health effect between employment status and perceived job insecurity. Regardless of employment status (full-time vs. part-time), insecure employment was significantly associated with a high risk of major depressive disorder. Analysis of the interaction between gender and four flexible employment status showed a gender-contingent effect on this link in only full-time insecure category. Men workers with full-time insecure jobs were more likely to experience major depressive disorders than their women counterparts.
Conclusions
This study’s findings imply that perceived job insecurity may be a critical factor for developing major depressive disorder, in both men and women workers.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 CCHS-MH (2012) 자료를 이용하여 비정규직과 주관적 고용불안정성이 우울장애에 미치는 시너지 효과를 분석하였다. 연구결과 비정규직 여부와 무관하게, 주관적 고용불안정성은 우울장애와의 연관성이 유의하게 높았다. 특히 정규직 여성보다 정규직 남성에서 주관적 고용불안정성과 우울장애의 연관성이 유의하게 높았다. 이 연구결과는 비정규직 여부보다 주관적 고용불안정성이 주요우울장애에 더 큰 영향요인임을 제시하고 있다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effect of entrepreneurial intentions on depression: the mediating role of job insecurity and moderating roles of person vocation fit, and entrepreneurial leadership in the longitudinal study
    Sobia Shabeer
    Kybernetes.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Biological Assessment of Potential Exposure to Occupational Substances in Current Semiconductor Workers with at Least 5 Years of Employment
    Kyungsik Kim, Ho Kyung Sung, Jieun Jang, Chang-Mo Kang, Kwan Lee, Sue K. Park
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(14): 8737.     CrossRef
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Gender, Professional and Non-Professional Work, and the Changing Pattern of Employment-Related Inequality in Poor Self-Rated Health, 1995-2006 in South Korea.
Il Ho Kim, Young Ho Khang, Sung Il Cho, Heeran Chun, Carles Muntaner
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(1):22-31.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.1.22
  • 6,006 View
  • 102 Download
  • 25 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. METHODS: Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006) from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33 913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. RESULTS: After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea's 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however, decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, < 0.001, respectively), but only among male daily employees (p = 0.001). Relative employment-related health inequalities had clearly widened for female daily workers between 2003 and 2006 (p = 0.047). The 1997 Korean economic downturn, in particular, seemingly stimulated a widening gap in employment health inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that whereas absolute health inequalities in relation to employment status increased in the professional group, relative employment-related health inequalities increased in the nonprofessional group, especially among women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee's occupational and employment status.
Summary

Citations

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  • Association between temporary employment and current smoking and change in smoking behaviors: A prospective cohort study from South Korea (2009–2018)
    Seong-Uk Baek, Min-Seok Kim, Myeong-Hun Lim, Taeyeon Kim, Jin-Ha Yoon, Yu-Min Lee, Jong-Uk Won
    Journal of Epidemiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Temporary Employment Is Associated with Poor Dietary Quality in Middle-Aged Workers in Korea: A Nationwide Study Based on the Korean Healthy Eating Index, 2013–2021
    Seong-Uk Baek, Myeong-Hun Lim, Yu-Min Lee, Jong-Uk Won, Jin-Ha Yoon
    Nutrients.2024; 16(10): 1482.     CrossRef
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    Deokhoon Jun, Venerina Johnston, Steven M. McPhail, Shaun O’Leary
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    Work.2018; 59(1): 93.     CrossRef
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    Sojung Lim, Sun Young Jeon, Joongbaeck Kim, Hyeyoung Woo
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    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2017; 38(6): 365.     CrossRef
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    BMJ Open.2016; 6(4): e009538.     CrossRef
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    Leo Pedrana, Marina Pamponet, Ruth Walker, Federico Costa, Davide Rasella
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    Courtney McNamara
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English Abstract
Health Inequity among Waged Workers by Employment Status.
Jin Wook Bahk, Yoon Jung Han, Seung Sup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):388-396.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.5.388
  • 4,534 View
  • 80 Download
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the differences in employment status and self assessed health in Korea. METHODS: We analyzed 4 year follow-up data generated by the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS), which was conducted on 1,207 men and 582 women who had undergone a change in employment status. The study subjects were placed into 1 of the following 4 groups based on their employment history; Non-precarious workers, Precarious to non-precarious workers, Non-precarious to precarious workers and Precarious workers. Logistic regression was then used to examine the relationship between the changes in employment status and self assessed health. RESULTS: When males were considered, self assessed health was better among the precarious to non-precarious workers (OR 1.58, 95% CI=1.57-1.60) and the precarious workers (OR 1.29, 95% CI=1.28-1.30) than in the non-precarious workers, after adjusting for age, socioeconomic status (education level, occupational class, marital status, average equivalent household income and average number of hours worked per week), health behavior (smoking, drinking and exercise) and medical service access (regular medical examination, have chronic disease or hospitalized within 1 year). When female workers were considered, the precarious to non-precarious workers (OR 1.89, 95% CI=1.86-1.92), non-precarious to precarious workers(OR 1.24, 95% CI=1.23-1.26) and precarious workers (OR 1.27, 95% CI=1.25-1.28) all reported poorer health than the non-precarious workers after adjusting for the aforementioned factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that changes in employment status were associated with differences in self assessed health among men and women. Specifically, the results of this study showed that a corresponding positive outcome based on self assessed health was greater for employees that changed from precarious to non-precarious jobs and for male employees with precarious jobs, whereas female employees with non-precarious jobs had higher self assessed health. However, additional longitudinal studies on the health effects of employment status should be conducted.
Summary

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Original Articles
A Study for Effects of Economic Growth Rate and Unemployment Rate to Suicide Rate in Korea.
Jong Soon Park, June Young Lee, Soon Duck Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(1):85-91.
  • 6,390 View
  • 298 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We investigated the effects of the economic growth and unemployment rates on the suicide rate in Korea, between 1983 and 2000, using a time-series regression model. The purpose of this study was to model and test the magnitude of the rate of suicide, with the Korean unemployment rate and GDP. METHODS: Using suicide rate per 100, 000 Koreans and the unemployment rates between 1983 and 2000, as published by the Korea National Statistical Office, and the rate of fluctuation of the Korean GDP (Gross Domestic Product), as provided by the Bank of Korea, as an index of the economic growth rate, a time-series regression analysis, with a first-order autoregressive regression model, was performed. RESULTS: An 81.5% of the variability in the suicide rate was explained by GDP, and 82.6% of that was explained by the unemployment rate. It was also observed that the GDP negatively correlated with the suicide rate, while the unemployment and suicide rates were positively correlated. For subjects aged over 20, both the GDP and unemployment rate were found to be a significant factors in explaining suicide rates, with coefficients of determination of 86.5 and 87.9%, respectively. For subjects aged under 20, however, only the GDP was found to be a significant factor in explaning suicide rates (the coeficient of determination is 38.4%). CONCLUSION: It was found that the suicide rate was closely related to the National's economic status of Korea, which is similar to the results found in studies in other countries. We expected, therefore, that this study could be used as the basis for further suicide-related studies.
Summary
An analysis of liver function test of preemployment screening for office workers.
Yeon Gyo Shin, Yong Jin Lee, Jae Eog Ahn, Kuck Hyeun Woo, Joo Ja Kim, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(3):706-714.
  • 2,424 View
  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This is to analyze and compare the distribution of the liver function test and its abnormal rates of the preemployment screening for office workers in asymptomatic young age groups between female and male. Liver function test(SGPT and SGOT) of 8,184 young adults(2,633 in female and 5,551 in male) were examined during the period from Jan.1,1994 to Dec. 31, 1994. The results were as follows; 1. Mean level of SGPT was 9.l+/-7.6(IU/L) in female, 21.0+/-27.9(IU/L) in male, and that of SGOT was 15.1+/-6.0(IU/L) in female, 20.5+/-26.5(IU/L) in male. There were significant differences(p<0.01) between female and male in both SPT and SGOT. And also there was significant increasing trend(p<0.05) by age groups in male for SGPT, decreasing trend(p<0.01) in female for SGOT. 2. In the abnormal rates of liver function test by the level of cut-off value, there were significant differences up to twice between the lowest and the highest cut-off value in both female(0.4% vs 0.7%) and male(6.5% vs 12.4%) 3. Abnormal rate of SGPT was 0.4% in female and 6.3% in male, and that of SGOT was 0.2% in female and 1.2% in male with significant differences between female and male in both tests.
Summary
Industry of Employment and Spontaneous Abortion of Female Workers.
Joung Soon Park, Myung Chae Na, Do Myung Paek, Ok Ryun Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(2):242-257.
  • 2,014 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In Korea, female workforce has reached more than 40% of total working population but the effects of work on spontaneous abortion are yet to be examined. This study was conducted to investigate the occupational effects on spontaneous abortion. Medical insurance claim data were used to examine the effects of the employment status and industry of employment on spontaneous abortion The study population was composed of females, aged 15~44, who were the beneficiary of medical insurance in the month of June, 1993. The working females covered by medical insurance for industrial workers, hand the highest age-adjusted Spontaneous Abortion rate(SAB rate=claim frequency of spontaneous abortion/claim frequency of complication of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium), 6.65% whereas female dependants of medical insurance for industrial workers had the lowest age-adjusted SAB rate, 4.54%. Among industrial workers, the workers in manufacturing industry had the highest age-adjusted Spontaneous Abortion ratio(SAB ratio=claim frequency of spontaneous abortion/claim frequency of completely normal delivery), 43.2/100 whereas those in financing and service industry had age-adjusted SAB ratio, 16.2/100 and 20.5/100, respectively. The results of the study suggest the adverse effect of manufacturing industry on reproduction. Work environment such as chemical exposures, overwork, awkward posture, and job stress should be further studied for their effects on reproductive functions of female.
Summary
English Abstract
Does Non-standard Work Affect Health?.
Il Ho Kim, Do myung Paek, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(3):337-344.
  • 2,092 View
  • 64 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
Job insecurity, such as non-standard work, is reported to have an adverse impact on health, regardless of health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between non-standard employment and health in Korea. METHODS: We analyzed a representative weighted sample, which consisted of 2, 112 men and 1, 237 women, aged 15-64, from the 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Non-standard employment included part-time permanent, short time temporary and daily workers. Self-reported health was used as a health indicator. RESULTS: This study indicated that women were more likely to report poorer health than men with standard jobs. Of all employees, 20.3% were female manual workers. After adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, education, equivalent income, marital, social and selfreported economic status and health behavior factors, nonstandard employment was found to be significantly associated with poor health among female manual workers (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.79). No significant association was found in other working groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among female manual workers, nonstandard employees reported significantly poorer health compared with standard workers. This result raises concern as there are increasing numbers of non-standard workers, particularly females.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health