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Original Articles
Hepatitis A Outbreak in a Facility for the Disabled, Gyeonggi Province, Korea: An Epidemiological Investigation
Yeonhwa Chang, Chanhee Kim, Nayoung Kim, Joon Jai Kim, Heeyoung Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(5):370-375.   Published online September 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.349
  • 2,779 View
  • 100 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The number of cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections has sharply increased in Korea, especially among young adults. In this study, an HAV outbreak in a facility for disabled people was investigated, and we found epidemiological differences both between 2 different generations and between generally abled and disabled groups.
Methods
We analyzed the incubation period and attack rate of an HAV outbreak and investigated the prevalence of HAV antibodies among the staff and residents of a facility for the disabled. We performed a retrospective cohort study during the HAV outbreak, which lasted from February 8 to 25, 2019, including examinations of HAV antibody tests and post-exposure HAV vaccination for the staff or residents of the facility.
Results
There were 9 confirmed cases in 2 staff members and 7 residents. Among 53 people (30 staff and 23 residents), except for the 9 confirmed cases and 1 staff member with a known history of HAV infection, HAV seroprevalence was seen in 16.7% of the staff under 40 years of age and 95.2% of those over 40 years of age, while the corresponding rates in the residents were 0.0% and 58.8%, respectively.
Conclusions
This result implies that it is necessary to prioritize HAV vaccination for vulnerable groups and workers of residential care facilities.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 장애인 거주시설에서 발생한 A형간염 유행 사례를 다루고 있다. 그 결과 거주시설 소속의 장애인들은 종사자들보다 높은 발병률(attack rate)을 나타냈을 뿐만 아니라, 비슷한 연령의 일반 인구집단보다 낮은 항체유병률을 나타내는 것으로 확인되었다. 거주시설 소속의 장애인들과 같이 취약한 인구집단은 예방접종 이력을 확인하기 어려울 뿐만 아니라 병원체에 자연스럽게 노출 기회가 적을 수밖에 없기 때문에, 예방접종 정책 수립 시 우선 접종의 대상으로 고려될 필요가 있다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Shifting Epidemiology of Hepatitis A in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region
    Nina G. Gloriani, Sheriah Laine M. de Paz-Silava, Robert D. Allison, Yoshihiro Takashima, Tigran Avagyan
    Vaccines.2024; 12(2): 204.     CrossRef
  • A Study on the Detection Rate of Hepatitis A from Gastroenteritis Patients and the Genotype Analysis of Hepatitis A Virus in Busan
    Sun Hee Park, Chanhee Kim, Summi Lee, Jihye Jeong, Junghye Choi, Seung Ju Lee
    Journal of Bacteriology and Virology.2023; 53(2): 74.     CrossRef
  • A Study on the Detection Rate of Hepatitis A from Gastroenteritis Patients and the Genotype Analysis of Hepatitis A Virus in Busan
    Sun Hee Park, Chanhee Kim, Summi Lee, Jihye Jeong, Junghye Choi, Seung Ju Lee
    Journal of Bacteriology and Virology.2023; 53(2): 74.     CrossRef
Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Hepatitis A at a Residential Facility for the Disabled, 2011
Hyun-Sul Lim, Kumbal Choi, Saerom Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(2):62-73.   Published online March 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.2.62
  • 9,816 View
  • 82 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

An outbreak of hepatitis A occurred at a residential facility for the disabled in July 10, 2011. This investigation was carried out to develop a response plan, and to find the infection source of the disease.

Methods

A field epidemiologist investigated the symptoms, vaccination histories, living environments, and probable infection sources with 51 residents and 31 teachers and staff members. In July 25, 81 subjects were tested for the hepatitis A virus antibody, and specimens of the initial 3 cases and the last case were genetically tested.

Results

Three cases occurred July 10 to 14, twelve cases August 3 to 9, and the last case on August 29. Among the teachers and staff, no one was IgM positive (on July 25). The base sequences of the initial 3 and of the last case were identical. The vehicle of the outbreak was believed to be a single person. The initial 3 patients were exposed at the same time and they might have disseminated the infection among the patients who developed symptoms in early August, and the last patient might have, in turn, been infected by the early August cases.

Conclusions

The initial source of infection is not clear, but volunteers could freely come into contact with residents, and an infected volunteer might have been the common infection source of the initial patients. Volunteers' washing their hands only after their activity might be the cause of this outbreak. Although there may be other possible causes, it would be reasonable to ask volunteers to wash their hands both before and after their activities.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevention of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2020
    Noele P. Nelson, Mark K. Weng, Megan G. Hofmeister, Kelly L. Moore, Mona Doshani, Saleem Kamili, Alaya Koneru, Penina Haber, Liesl Hagan, José R. Romero, Sarah Schillie, Aaron M. Harris
    MMWR. Recommendations and Reports.2020; 69(5): 1.     CrossRef
  • Outbreak of Hepatitis A Virus Infection Among Adult Patients of a Mental Hospital — Los Angeles County, 2017
    Curtis Croker, Susan Hathaway, Amy Marutani, Margilane Hernandez, Crystal Cadavid, Shobita Rajagopalan, Bessie Hwang, Moon Kim
    Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.2018; 39(07): 881.     CrossRef
  • Estimating human-to-human transmissibility of hepatitis A virus in an outbreak at an elementary school in China, 2011
    Xu-Sheng Zhang, Giovanni Lo Iacono, Eric HY Lau
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(9): e0204201.     CrossRef
  • Source identification through social networks in an epidemiological investigation of a hepatitis A outbreak at an elementary school in Anhui province, China
    J. B. WU, X. L. LI, J. ZHANG, D. XU, J. J. ZHU, B. S. ZHOU
    Epidemiology and Infection.2014; 142(7): 1450.     CrossRef
Pattern of Hepatitis A Incidence According to Area Characteristics Using National Health Insurance Data
Joo Youn Seo, Jae Hee Seo, Myoung Hee Kim, Moran Ki, Hee Suk Park, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(3):164-173.   Published online May 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.3.164
  • 10,444 View
  • 62 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Over the past several years, the incidence of hepatitis A infection has been increasing rapidly in the young-adult population in Korea. We examined the effects of area-level socioeconomic status and environmental hygiene on the incidence of hepatitis A.

Methods

This study is based on the registered national population of Korea and the national health insurance data from 2004 to 2008. A total of 73 459 individuals were confirmed to have had hepatitis A. The standardized incidences of hepatitis A in 232 districts adjusted for sex and age of people were calculated for each year, and the rate ratios of the incidence rates were estimated according to area-level socioeconomic status and environmental hygiene using multiple Poisson regression models.

Results

The incidence rates of hepatitis A infection were 15.6 (per 100 000) in 2004, 19.0 (per 100 000) in 2005, 27.2 (per 100 000) in 2006, 25.1 (per 100 000) in 2007, and 61.7 (per 100 000) in 2008. The analysis of the area-level effects showed that residential areas of the less deprived than other regions, areas with higher levels of education, and heavily populated areas were significantly associated with increased risk.

Conclusions

There is a very strong possibility that both area-level socioeconomic status and environmental hygiene play a role in increasing the risk of hepatitis A infection in Korea. Therefore, to reduce hepatitis A infection, we need a nationwide strategy that considers these area-level characteristics.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Investigating the spatio-temporal variation of hepatitis A in Korea using a Bayesian model
    Jaehong Jeong, Mijeong Kim, Jungsoon Choi
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of urbanization on morbidity of hepatitis A: a national panel study in China during 2005–2018
    Bo-Wen Ming, Zhou Yang, Ze-Lin Yan, Chen Shi, Xiao-Han Xu, Li Li, Chun-Quan Ou
    Infectious Diseases of Poverty.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The chronological changes in the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus IgG from 2005 to 2019: Experience at four centers in the capital area of South Korea
    Dae Hyun Lim, Won Sohn, Jae Yoon Jeong, Hyunwoo Oh, Jae Gon Lee, Eileen L. Yoon, Tae Yeob Kim, Seungwoo Nam, Joo Hyun Sohn
    Medicine.2022; 101(48): e31639.     CrossRef
  • KM-based Treatment of Viral Hepatitis A accompanied with Pancreatitis: A case report
    Chang-Gue Son
    Journal of Korean Medicine.2020; 41(4): 106.     CrossRef
  • Seropositive rate of the anti-hepatitis A immunoglobulin G antibody in maintenance hemodialysis subjects from two hospitals in Korea
    Hyunsuk Kim, Jiwon Ryu, Young-Ki Lee, Myung Jin Choi, Ajin Cho, Ja-Ryong Koo, Sae Yun Baik, Eun Hee Lee, Jong-Woo Yoon, Jung-Woo Noh
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2019; 34(6): 1297.     CrossRef
  • Age-period-cohort analysis of hepatitis A incidence rates in Korea from 2002 to 2012
    Joo Yeon Seo, Sungyong Choi, BoYoul Choi, Moran Ki
    Epidemiology and Health.2016; 38: e2016040.     CrossRef
  • Low Compliance with National Guidelines for Preventing Transmission of Group 1 Nationally Notifiable Infectious Diseases in Korea
    Eu Suk Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Baek-Nam Kim, Yee Gyung Kwak, Chang-Seop Lee, Sang Won Park, Chisook Moon, Kyung Hwa Park, Hee-Chang Jang, Joon-Sup Yeom, Won Sup Oh, Chung-Jong Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Hyun-Sul Lim
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2014; 55(2): 435.     CrossRef
  • Changes in the seroprevalence of IgG anti-hepatitis A virus between 2001 and 2013: experience at a single center in Korea
    Sung Jun Chung, Tae Yeob Kim, Sun Min Kim, Min Roh, Mi Yeon Yu, Jung Hoon Lee, ChangKyo Oh, Eun Young Lee, Seung Lee, Yong Cheol Jeon, Kyo-Sang Yoo, Joo Hyun Sohn
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2014; 20(2): 162.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors for Acute Hepatitis A Infection in Korea in 2007 and 2009: A Case-Control Study
    Joo Youn Seo, Bo Youl Choi, Moran Ki, Hye Lim Jang, Hee Suk Park, Hyun Jin Son, Si Hyun Bae, Jin Han Kang, Dae Won Jun, Jin-Woo Lee, Young Jin Hong, Young Seok Kim, Chang-Hwi Kim, U Im Chang, Jong-Hyun Kim, Hyeon Woong Yang, Hong Soo Kim, Kyeong Bae Park,
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2013; 28(6): 908.     CrossRef
  • Letter to the Editor: The Increasing Hepatitis A Incidence in Korea: Is It Possible Within a Limited Time?
    Pegah Karimi Elizee, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Seyyed Mohammad Miri
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2012; 45(5): 329.     CrossRef
  • Author Response: The Increasing Hepatitis A Incidence in Korea: Is It Possible Within a Limited Time?
    Joo Youn Seo, Moran Ki, Bo Youl Choi
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2012; 45(5): 331.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health