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8 "Radiation"
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Original Article
Comorbid Conditions in Persons Exposed to Ionizing Radiation and Veterans of the Soviet–Afghan War: A Cohort Study in Kazakhstan
Saule Sarkulova, Roza Tatayeva, Dinara Urazalina, Ekaterina Ossadchaya, Venera Rakhmetova
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):55-64.   Published online November 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.333
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  • 88 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
This study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of comorbid conditions in patients exposed to ionizing radiation and those who were involved in the Soviet–Afghan war.
Methods
This study analyzed the frequency and spectrum of morbidity and comorbidity in patients over a long-term period (30-35 years) following exposure to ionizing radiation at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site or the Chornobyl nuclear power plant, and among participants of the Soviet–Afghan war. A cohort study, both prospective and retrospective, was conducted on 675 patients who underwent comprehensive examinations.
Results
Numerical data were analyzed using the Statistica 6 program. The results are presented as the mean±standard deviation, median, and interquartile range (25-75th percentiles). The statistical significance of between-group differences was assessed using the Student t-test and Pearson chi-square test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. We found a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension (55.0%) and cardiac ischemia (32.9%); these rates exceeded the average for this age group in the general population.
Conclusions
The cumulative impact of causal occupational, environmental, and ultra-high stress factors in the combat zone in participants of the Soviet–Afghan war, along with common conventional factors, contributed to the formation of a specific comorbidity structure. This necessitates a rational approach to identifying early predictors of cardiovascular events and central nervous system disorders, as well as pathognomonic clinical symptoms in this patient cohort. It also underscores the importance of selecting suitable methods and strategies for implementing treatment and prevention measures.
Summary
Key Message
This study investigated the long-term health effects on 675 individuals exposed to ionizing radiation at Semipalatinsk and Chornobyl, and those involved in the Soviet–Afghan war. Results showed a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, notably hypertension (55%) and cardiac ischemia (32.9%), compared to the general population. The findings highlight the need for early detection of cardiovascular and central nervous system disorders in these groups, emphasizing tailored treatment and prevention strategies.
Special Articles
Cohort Study Protocol: A Cohort of Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors and Their Offspring
Seong-geun Moon, Ansun Jeong, Yunji Han, Jin-Wu Nam, Mi Kyung Kim, Inah Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, Boyoung Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(1):1-11.   Published online January 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.469
  • 2,528 View
  • 206 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
In 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Approximately 70 000 Koreans are estimated to have been exposed to radiation from atomic bombs at that time. After Korea’s Liberation Day, approximately 23 000 of these people returned to Korea. To investigate the long-term health and hereditary effects of atomic bomb exposure on the offspring, cohort studies have been conducted on atomic bomb survivors in Japan. This study is an ongoing cohort study to determine the health status of Korean atomic bomb survivors and investigate whether any health effects were inherited by their offspring. Atomic bomb survivors are defined by the Special Act On the Support for Korean Atomic Bomb Victims, and their offspring are identified by participating atomic bomb survivors. As of 2024, we plan to recruit 1500 atomic bomb survivors and their offspring, including 200 trios with more than 300 people. Questionnaires regarding socio-demographic factors, health behaviors, past medical history, laboratory tests, and pedigree information comprise the data collected to minimize survival bias. For the 200 trios, whole-genome analysis is planned to identify de novo mutations in atomic bomb survivors and to compare the prevalence of de novo mutations with trios in the general population. Active follow-up based on telephone surveys and passive follow-up with linkage to the Korean Red Cross, National Health Insurance Service, death registry, and Korea Central Cancer Registry data are ongoing. By combining pedigree information with the findings of trio-based whole-genome analysis, the results will elucidate the hereditary health effects of atomic bomb exposure.
Summary
Korean summary
해당 연구는 한국인 원폭피해 생존자 및 그 후손에서 피폭이 건강에 미치는 영향과 그것의 유전적 영향 유무를 밝히고자 계획된 연구이다. 이 연구는 연구대상자들에 대한 건강 설문 조사, 신체계측, 가계도 조사, 유전체 조사 뿐 아니라 2차 자료 연계를 통해 폭넓고 정확한 건강 정보를 수집하고 있다. 이 연구를 통해 연구대상자들의 건강 상태 파악 및 개선에 도움이 되고자 한다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Intergenerational effects of ionizing radiation: review of recent studies from human data (2018–2021)
    A. Amrenova, C. Baudin, E. Ostroumova, J. Stephens, R. Anderson, D. Laurier
    International Journal of Radiation Biology.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
Researches of Epigenetic Epidemiology for Infections and Radiation as Carcinogen
Jong-Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(4):169-172.   Published online July 2, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.070
  • 6,017 View
  • 148 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
In recent years, a number of studies have been reported on the various types of cancer arising from epigenetic alterations, including reports that these epigenetic alterations occur as a result of radiation exposure or infection. Thyroid cancer and breast cancer, in particular, have high cancer burden, and it has been confirmed that radiation exposure or onco-viral infection are linked to increased risk of development of these two types of cancer, respectively. Thus, the environment-epigenetic alteration-cancer occurrence (EEC) hypothesis has been suggested. This paper reviews the trends in research supporting this hypothesis for radiation exposure and onco-viral infection. If more evidences accumulate for the EEC hypothesis from future research, those findings may greatly aid in the prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of the thyroid cancer and breast cancer.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Expression level and function analysis of serum miRNAs in workers with occupational exposure to benzene series
    Kai Dai, Chen Wang, Wu Yao, Changfu Hao
    Chemosphere.2023; 313: 137460.     CrossRef
  • HDAC1 and HDAC2 Double Knockout Triggers Cell Apoptosis in Advanced Thyroid Cancer
    Ching-Ling Lin, Ming-Lin Tsai, Chun-Yu Lin, Kai-Wen Hsu, Wen-Shyang Hsieh, Wei-Ming Chi, Li-Chi Huang, Chia-Hwa Lee
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2019; 20(2): 454.     CrossRef
Original Article
Reconstruction of Radiation Dose Received by Diagnostic Radiologic Technologists in Korea
Yeongchull Choi, Jaeyoung Kim, Jung Jeung Lee, Jae Kwan Jun, Won Jin Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):288-300.   Published online August 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.064
  • 7,976 View
  • 148 Download
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Diagnostic medical radiation workers in Korea have been officially monitored for their occupational radiation doses since 1996. The purpose of this study was to design models for reconstructing unknown individual radiation doses to which diagnostic radiation technologists were exposed before 1996.
Methods
Radiation dose reconstruction models were developed by using cross-sectional survey data and the personal badge doses of 8167 radiologic technologists. The models included calendar year and age as predictors, and the participants were grouped into six categories according to their sex and facility type. The annual doses between 1971 and 1995 for those who were employed before 1996 were estimated using these models.
Results
The calendar year and age were inversely related to the estimated radiation doses in the models of all six groups. The annual median estimated doses decreased from 9.45 mSv in 1971 to 1.26 mSv in 1995, and the associated dose variation also decreased with time. The estimated median badge doses from 1996 (1.22 mSv) to 2011 (0.30 mSv) were similar to the measured doses (1.68 mSv to 0.21 mSv) for the same years. Similar results were observed for all six groups.
Conclusions
The reconstruction models developed in this study may be useful for estimating historical occupational radiation doses received by medical radiologic technologists in Korea.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Trends in Occupational Radiation Doses for U.S. Radiologic Technologists Performing General Radiologic and Nuclear Medicine Procedures, 1980–2015
    Daphnée Villoing, David Borrego, Dale L. Preston, Bruce H. Alexander, André Rose, Mark Salasky, Martha S. Linet, Choonsik Lee, Cari M. Kitahara
    Radiology.2021; 300(3): 605.     CrossRef
  • Estimation of the historical radiation dose of Korean radiation workers, 1961–1983
    Dalnim Lee, Won Jin Lee, Young Woo Jin, Jiyeong Kim, Soojin Park, Sunhoo Park, Songwon Seo
    Journal of Radiological Protection.2021; 41(4): 1005.     CrossRef
  • OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE CHARACTERISTICS AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH RADIATION DOSES AMONG KOREAN RADIATION WORKERS
    Jiyeong Kim, Songwon Seo, Dal Nim Lee, Soojin Park, Ki-Jung Im, Sunhoo Park, Young Woo Jin
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry.2020; 189(1): 106.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid cancer risks among medical radiation workers in South Korea, 1996–2015
    Won Jin Lee, Dale L. Preston, Eun Shil Cha, Seulki Ko, Hyeyeun Lim
    Environmental Health.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • ESTIMATION OF ORGAN DOSES AMONG DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL RADIATION WORKERS IN SOUTH KOREA
    Yeongchull Choi, Eun Shil Cha, Ye Jin Bang, Seulki Ko, Mina Ha, Choonsik Lee, Won Jin Lee
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry.2018; 179(2): 142.     CrossRef
  • Projected lifetime cancer risks from occupational radiation exposure among diagnostic medical radiation workers in South Korea
    Won Jin Lee, Yeongchull Choi, Seulki Ko, Eun Shil Cha, Jaeyoung Kim, Young Min Kim, Kyoung Ae Kong, Songwon Seo, Ye Jin Bang, Yae Won Ha
    BMC Cancer.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Assessing the health effects associated with occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiation workers: protocol for a prospective cohort study
    Songwon Seo, Wan Young Lim, Dal Nim Lee, Jung Un Kim, Eun Shil Cha, Ye Jin Bang, Won Jin Lee, Sunhoo Park, Young Woo Jin
    BMJ Open.2018; 8(3): e017359.     CrossRef
  • Occupational radiation exposure and its health effects on interventional medical workers: study protocol for a prospective cohort study
    Seulki Ko, Hwan Hoon Chung, Sung Bum Cho, Young Woo Jin, Kwang Pyo Kim, Mina Ha, Ye Jin Bang, Yae Won Ha, Won Jin Lee
    BMJ Open.2017; 7(12): e018333.     CrossRef
Meta-Analysis
Radiation Exposure and Cancer Mortality Among Nuclear Power Plant Workers: a Meta-analysis.
Eun Sook Park, Kieun Moon, Han Na Kim, Won Jin Lee, Young Woo Jin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):185-192.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.2.185
  • 5,697 View
  • 280 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between low external doses of ionizing radiation exposure and the risk of cancer mortality among nuclear power plant workers. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE using key words related to low dose and cancer risk. The selected articles were restricted to those written in English from 1990 to January 2009. We excluded those studies with no fit to the selection criteria and we included the cited references in published articles to minimize publication bias. Through this process, a total of 11 epidemiologic studies were finally included. RESULTS: We found significant decreased deaths from all cancers (SMR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.62 - 0.90), all cancers excluding leukemia, solid cancer, mouth and pharynx, esophagus, stomach, rectum, liver and gallbladder, pancreas, lung, prostate, lymphopoietic and hematopoitic cancer. The findings of this meta-analysis were similar with those of the 15 Country Collaborative Study conducted by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. A publication bias was found only for liver and gallbladder cancer (p = 0.015). Heterogeneity was observed for all cancers, all cancers excluding leukemia, solid cancer, esophagus, colon and lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of low mortality for stomach, rectum, liver and gallbladder cancers may explained by the health worker effect. Yet further studies are needed to clarify the low SMR of cancers, for which there is no useful screening tool, in nuclear power plant workers.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Average Accumulated Radiation Doses for Global Nuclear Workers: Low Doses, Low Effects, and Comparison with Doses for Medical Radiologists
    A. N. Koterov, A. R. Tukov, L. N. Ushenkova, M. V. Kalinina, A. P. Biryukov
    Biology Bulletin.2022; 49(12): 2475.     CrossRef
  • Fiber-optic humidity sensor system for the monitoring and detection of coolant leakage in nuclear power plants
    Hye Jin Kim, Hyun Young Shin, Cheol Ho Pyeon, Sin Kim, Bongsoo Lee
    Nuclear Engineering and Technology.2020; 52(8): 1689.     CrossRef
  • Occupational Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer: A Meta-analysis
    Srmena Krstev, Anders Knutsson
    Journal of Cancer Prevention.2019; 24(2): 91.     CrossRef
  • An Update on Occupation and Prostate Cancer
    Glenn Doolan, Geza Benke, Graham Giles
    Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention.2014; 15(2): 501.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Assessment of the Glycophorin A Mutant Assay as a Biologic Marker for Low Dose Radiation Exposure.
Mina Ha, Keun Young Yoo, Sung Whan Ha, Dong Hyun Kim, Soo Hun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):165-173.
  • 2,157 View
  • 30 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To assess the availability of the glycophorin A (GPA) assay to detect the biological effect of ionizing radiation in workers exposed to low-doses of radiation. METHODS: Information on confounding factors, such as age and cigarette smoking was obtained on 144 nuclear power plant workers and 32 hospital workers, by a self-administered questionnaire. Information on physical exposure levels was obtained from the registries of radiation exposure monitoring and control at each facility. The GPA mutant assay was performed using the BR6 method with modification by using a FACScan flow cytometer. RESULTS: As confounders, age and cigarette smoking habits showed increasing trends with GPA variants, but these were of no statistical significance. Hospital workers showed a higher frequency of the GPA variant than nuclear power plant workers in terms of the NO variant. Significant dose-response relationships were obtained from in simple and multiple linear regression models. The slope of the regression equation for nuclear power plant workers was much smaller than that of hospital workers. These findings suggest that there may be apparent dose-rate effects. CONCLUSION: In population exposed to chronic low-dose radiation, the GPA assay has a potential to be used as an effective biologic marker for assessing the bone marrow cumulative exposure dose.
Summary
Chromosome Aberrations and Sister Chromatid Exchanges of Hospital Workers Exposed to Radiation.
Ae Ri Cha, Mi Sun Kim, In Kyung Hwang, Su Ill Lee, Byung Mann Cho, Don Kyoun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):616-627.
  • 1,975 View
  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to evaluate the cytogenetic hazard among hospital workers potentially exposed to low dose of radiation, the analysis of chromosome aberrations(CA) and sister chromatid exchanges(SCE) in lymphocytes were performed in 79 hospital workers and 79 non-exposed workers. The mean frequency of chromosomal exchange and deletion(respectively, 0.20X10-2/cell and 0.39X10(-2)/cell) in the exposed group were significantly higher than those(0.07X10(-2)/cell and 0.23X10-2/cell) in control group. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges was 5.04/cell in the control vs. 6.57/cell in the exposed group. There were also significant differences in the mean frequencies of CA and SCE adjusted for age, sex, smoking, drinking between two groups. There were no evidence of significant increase of CA and SCE according to the department or duration of employment. But the frequency of cells having chromosome aberration was significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control group related to duration of employment. There was no dose-effect relationship between the cumulative doses and the frequency of CA and SCE. But in the case of last 1 yr cumulative dose, there were evidence of significant dose-dependant increase of chromosome type CA and percentage of cells with aberration. The result suggest that there is cytogenetic hazard in risk group like hospital workers handling low dose radiation. And the analysis CA and SCE are useful biological indicators for the exposure of low dose level of radiation.
Summary
Prediction of the risk of skin cancer caused by UVB radiation exposure using a method of meta-analysis.
D C Shin, J T Lee, J Y Yang
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(1):91-103.
  • 2,002 View
  • 32 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Under experimental conditions, UVB radiation, a type of ultra violet radiation, has shown to relate with the occurrence of skin erythema (sun-burn) in human and skin cancer in experimental animal. Cumulative exposure to UVB is also believed to be at least partly responsible for the "aging" process of the skin in human. It has also been observed to have an effect of altering DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). UVB radiation is both an initiator and a promotor of non-melanoma skin cancer. Meta-analysis is a new discipline that critically reviews and statistically combines the results of previous researches. A recent review of meta-analysis in the field of public health emphasized its growing importance. Using a meta-analysis in this study, we explored more reliable dose-response relationships between UVB radiation and skin cancer incidence. We estimated skin cancer incidence using measured UVB radiation dose at a local area of Seoul (Shin chon-dong). The studies showing the dose-response relationships between UVB radiation and non-melanoma skin cancer incidence were searched and selected for a meta-analysis. The data for 7 reported epidemiological studies of three counties (USA, England, Australia) were pooled to estimated the risk. We estimated rate of incidence change of skin cancer using pooled data by meta-analysis method, and exponential and power models. Using either model, the regression coefficients for UVB did not differ significantly by gender and age. In each analysis of variance, non-melanoma skin cancer incidence after removing the gender and age and UVB effects was significant (p>0.01). The coefficients for UVB dose were estimated 2.07x10-6 by the exponential model and 2.49 by the power model. At a local area of Seoul (Shin chon-dong), BAF value were estimated 1.90 and 2.51 by the exponential and power model, respectively. The estimated BAF value were increased statistical power than that of primary studies that using a meta-analysis method.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health