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COVID-19: Perspective
Beyond SARS-CoV-2: Lessons That African Governments Can Apply in Preparation for Possible Future Epidemics
Mary Aigbiremo Oboh, Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Christian Eseigbe Imafidon, Olumide Ajibola, Eniyou Cheryll Oriero, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(5):307-310.   Published online August 18, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.259
  • 4,056 View
  • 138 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has placed unprecedented pressure on healthcare systems, even in advanced economies. While the number of cases of SARS-CoV-2 in Africa compared to other continents has so far been low, there are concerns about under-reporting, inadequate diagnostic tools, and insufficient treatment facilities. Moreover, proactiveness on the part of African governments has been under scrutiny. For instance, issues have emerged regarding the responsiveness of African countries in closing international borders to limit trans-continental transmission of the virus. Overdependence on imported products and outsourced services could have contributed to African governments’ hesitation to shut down international air and seaports. In this era of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, we recommend that African nations should consider self-sufficiency in the health sector as an urgent priority, as this will not be the last outbreak to occur. In addition to the Regional Disease Surveillance Systems Enhancement fund (US$600 million) provided by the World Bank for strengthening health systems and disease surveillance, each country should further establish an epidemic emergency fund for epidemic preparedness and response. We also recommend that epidemic surveillance units should create a secure database of previous and ongoing pandemics in terms of aetiology, spread, and treatment, as well as financial management records. Strategic collection and analysis of data should also be a central focus of these units to facilitate studies of disease trends and to estimate the scale of requirements in preparation and response to any future pandemic or epidemic.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Evaluation de la capacité de préparation et de riposte aux urgences sanitaires du Sénégal
    Bernard Sawadogo, Babacar Fall, Babacar Ndoye, Ibrahim Sonko, Delia Akosua Bandoh, Ernest Kenu, Virgil Lokossou
    Journal of Interventional Epidemiology and Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19: Brief Report
The Delay in Confirming COVID-19 Cases Linked to a Religious Group in Korea
Hyung-Ju Kim, Hyun-Seong Hwang, Yong-Hyuk Choi, Hye-Yeon Song, Ji-Seong Park, Chae-Young Yun, Sukhyun Ryu
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(3):164-167.   Published online April 8, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.088
  • 7,267 View
  • 219 Download
  • 35 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
As of March 3, 2020, the Shincheonji religious group accounted for the majority of Korean cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nonetheless, the most likely cause of the broad spread of COVID-19 among members of the Shincheonji religious group remains largely unknown.
Methods
We obtained data of laboratory-confirmed cases related to the Shincheonji religious group from press releases by Korean public health authorities and news reports. We measured the period from the date of illness onset to the date of COVID-19 confirmation.
Results
We analysed data from 59 cases (median age, 30 years). The estimated median period between the date of symptom onset and the date of COVID-19 confirmation was 4 days (95% confidence interval, 1-12).
Conclusions
There was a delay in COVID-19 confirmation from the date of illness onset among the cases linked to the Shincheonji religious group. This delay likely contributed to the occurrence of many cases of COVID-19 in the group.
Summary

Citations

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    Journal of Infection and Public Health.2024; 17: 27.     CrossRef
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    Nari Yoo, Sou Hyun Jang
    Social Science & Medicine.2024; 346: 116719.     CrossRef
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    Muzzamel Hussain Imran, Xin Leng, Mujahid Iqbal
    Pastoral Psychology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jieun Shin, Mi Jin Hong, Jong Bum Park, Yung Jin Lee
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    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Achangwa Chiara, Sukhyun Ryu, Jae-Heon Jung, Se-Min Hwang
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Sukhyun Ryu, Youngsik Hwang, Hongbi Yoon, Byung Chul Chun
    Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness.2022; 16(2): 464.     CrossRef
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    Min Min Tan, Ahmad Farouk Musa, Tin Tin Su
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  • Serial Intervals and Case Isolation Delays for Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Sheikh Taslim Ali, Amy Yeung, Songwei Shan, Lin Wang, Huizhi Gao, Zhanwei Du, Xiao-Ke Xu, Peng Wu, Eric H Y Lau, Benjamin J Cowling
    Clinical Infectious Diseases.2022; 74(4): 685.     CrossRef
  • “A Divine Infection”: A Systematic Review on the Roles of Religious Communities During the Early Stage of COVID-19
    Mikyung Lee, Heejun Lim, Merin Shobhana Xavier, Eun-Young Lee
    Journal of Religion and Health.2022; 61(1): 866.     CrossRef
  • Perceptions and Behaviors of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease during the COVID-19 Crisis
    Yoo Jin Lee, Kyeong Ok Kim, Min Cheol Kim, Kwang Bum Cho, Kyung Sik Park, Byeong Ik Jang
    Gut and Liver.2022; 16(1): 81.     CrossRef
  • The impact of contact tracing and testing on controlling COVID-19 outbreak without lockdown in Hong Kong: An observational study
    Hsiang-Yu Yuan, Colin Blakemore
    The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific.2022; 20: 100374.     CrossRef
  • Early warning of a COVID-19 surge on a university campus based on wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 at residence halls
    Yuke Wang, Pengbo Liu, Haisu Zhang, Makoto Ibaraki, Jamie VanTassell, Kelly Geith, Matthew Cavallo, Rebecca Kann, Lindsay Saber, Colleen S. Kraft, Morgan Lane, Samuel Shartar, Christine Moe
    Science of The Total Environment.2022; 821: 153291.     CrossRef
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    Dong-Hyuk Cho, Jimi Choi, Jun Gyo Gwon
    CardioMetabolic Syndrome Journal.2022; 2(1): 60.     CrossRef
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    J. Reis, A. Buguet, G.C. Román, P.S. Spencer
    Revue Neurologique.2022; 178(6): 499.     CrossRef
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    Eunha Shim, Wongyeong Choi, Youngji Song
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(12): 3269.     CrossRef
  • Healthcare Workforce Response to The Coronavirus Disease Outbreak in Daegu, Korea: A Multi-Center, Cross-Sectional Survey
    Hyun Hee Kwon, Hye In Kim, Ki Tae Kwon, Soyoon Hwang, Shin-Woo Kim, Yoonjung Kim, Hyun ah Kim, Miri Hyun, Hyo-Lim Hong, Min Jung Kim, Jian Hur, Kyung Soo Hong
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2022; 54(2): 298.     CrossRef
  • Religion, politics and COVID-19 risk perception among urban residents in Malawi
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    BMC Infectious Diseases.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Keun-Mi Lee, Hae-Jin Ko, Geon Ho Lee, A-Sol Kim, Dong-Wook Lee
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(11): 2329.     CrossRef
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    Chen-Yang Hsu, Ya-Mei Chen, Chiu-Wen Su, Mei-Sheng Ku, Yeol Kim, Tim Jensen, Dih-Ling Luh
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.2021; 120: S57.     CrossRef
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    Jun-Sik Lim, Eunbi Noh, Eunha Shim, Sukhyun Ryu
    Open Forum Infectious Diseases.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of Non-lockdown Social Distancing and Testing-Contact Tracing During a COVID-19 Outbreak in Daegu, South Korea, February to April 2020: A Modeling Study
    Yi-Hsuan Chen, Chi-Tai Fang, Yu-Ling Huang
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases.2021; 110: 213.     CrossRef
  • Finding disease outbreak locations from human mobility data
    Frank Schlosser, Dirk Brockmann
    EPJ Data Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Priority of the Church’s Ministry during a Pandemic
    Ardi Raharjo Sastrohartoyo, Rubin Adi Abraham, Jantje Haans, Tjahyadi Chandra
    Evangelikal: Jurnal Teologi Injili dan Pembinaan Warga Jemaat.2021; 5(2): 164.     CrossRef
  • Suppression of an Outbreak of COVID-19 without Lockdown: The Challenge of Inefficient Contact Tracing and Testing
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    Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses.2020; 14(5): 596.     CrossRef
  • Incubation period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Busan, South Korea
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  • Hajj and Umrah Mass Gatherings and COVID-19 Infection
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Original Article
Development of a Social Contact Survey Instrument Relevant to the Spread of Infectious Disease and Its Application in a Pilot Study Among Korean Adults
Hyang Soon Oh, Youngran Yang, Mikyung Ryu
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(2):106-116.   Published online February 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.251
  • 4,170 View
  • 130 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to develop a valid social contact survey instrument and to verify its feasibility for use among Korean adults.
Methods
The Delphi technique was used to develop an instrument to assess social contacts, which was then applied in a cross-sectional pilot study. A panel of 15 medical professionals reviewed the feasibility and validity of each item. The minimum content validity ratio was 0.49. Thirty participants used the developed measure to record contacts during a 24-hour period.
Results
After a systematic review, the survey instrument (parts I and II) was developed. Part I assessed social contact patterns over a 24-hour period, and part II assessed perceptions of contacts in daily life and preventive behaviors (hand hygiene and coughing etiquette). High validity and feasibility were found. In the pilot study, the 30 participants had a combined total of 198 contacts (mean, 6.6 daily contacts per person). The participants’ age (p=0.012), occupation (p<0.001), household size (p<0.001), education (p<0.001), personal income (p=0.003), and household income (p<0.001) were significantly associated with the number of contacts. Contacts at home, of long duration, and of daily frequency were relatively likely to be physical. Assortative mixing was observed between individuals in their 20s and 50s. Contact type differed by location, duration, and frequency (p<0.001).
Conclusions
The developed social contact survey instrument demonstrated high validity and feasibility, suggesting that it is viable for implementation.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 감염접촉전파에 대한 인식과 사회적접촉을 측정 도구를 델파이 방법으로 개발하여 국내최초로 한국 성인의 사회적접촉을 측정하였다. 참여자 30명은 24시간 동안 총 198명을 접촉하였으며(6.6명/일/인), 접촉자수는 연령 (p=0.012), 직업(p<0.001), 가구수 (p<0.001), 교육수준 (p<0.001), 개인소득 (p=0.003), 가구소득 (p<0.001)에 따라 차이가 있었다. 동질성 혼합(assortative mixing)은 20대와 50대에서 보였으며, 접촉유형은 접촉장소, 접촉기간, 접촉빈도에 따라 유의하였다(p<0.001). 향후 국내 사회적 접촉 양상과 특성에 관한 전국적인 후속연구를 제언한다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A pilot study investigating the social contact patterns of Korean elderly
    Hyang Soon Oh, Sun Young Jeong, Youngran Yang
    Public Health Nursing.2021; 38(5): 926.     CrossRef
  • Prospective Diary Survey of Preschool Children's Social Contact Patterns: A Pilot Study
    Hyang Soon Oh, Mikyung Ryu
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Perspectives
Introduction of Phylodynamics for Controlling the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Korea
Jong-Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):326-328.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.150
  • 4,687 View
  • 76 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
As over 1000 new cases of HIV/AIDS occur in Korea annually, preventive health programs against HIV/AIDS are urgently needed. Since phylodynamic studies have been suggested as a way to understand how infectious diseases are transmitted and evolve, phylodynamic inferences can be a useful tool for HIV/AIDS research. In particular, phylodynamic models are helpful for dating the origins of an epidemic and estimating its basic reproduction number. Thus, the introduction of phylodynamics would be a highly valuable step towards controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
국내 HIV/AIDS 신환자가 지속적으로 발생하고 있는 상황에서, 다른 나라에서는 HIV 감염관리에 계통역동학을 적용하고 있다. 이는 감염원과 감염경로를 알아내고, 기본재생산지수를 산출하도록 해주기 때문이다. 따라서 국내 HIV/AIDS 관리를 위해 계통역동학 적용을 적극 제안한다.”
A New Measure for Assessing the Public Health Response to a Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Outbreak
Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(6):277-279.   Published online November 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.069
  • 11,049 View
  • 84 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Contact monitoring is an essential component of the public health response to a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak, and is required for an effective quarantine to contain the epidemic. The timeliness of a quarantine is associated with its effectiveness. This paper provides a conceptual framework to describe the process of contact monitoring, and proposes a new measure called the “timely quarantined proportion” as a tool to assess the adequacy of a public health response.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    BMC Infectious Diseases.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Original Article
Statistical Algorithm in Genetic Linkage Based on Haplotypes.
Jinheum Kim, Dae Ryong Kang, Yun Kyung Lee, Sun Mi Shin, Il Suh, Chung Mo Nam
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):366-372.   Published online November 30, 2004
  • 2,050 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to propose a new transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) to test the linkage between genetic markers and diseasesusceptibility genes based on haplotypes. Simulation studies were performed to compare the proposed method with that of Zhao et al. in terms of type I error probability and powers. METHODS: We estimated the haplotype frequencies using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm with parents' genotypes taken from a trio dataset, and then constructed a two-way contingency table containing estimated frequencies to all possible pairs of parents' haplotypes. We proposed a score test based on differences between column marginals and their corresponding row marginals. The test also involved a covariance structure of marginal differences and their variances. In simulation, we considered a coalescent model with three genetic markers of biallele to investigate the performance of the proposed test under six different configurations. RESULTS: The haplotype-based TDT statistics, our test and Zhao et al.'s test satisfied a type I error probability, but the TDT test based on single locus showed a conservative trend. As expected, the tests based on haplotypes also had better powers than those based on single locus. Our test and that of Zhao et al. were comparable in powers. CONCLUSION: We proposed a TDT statistic based on haplotypes and showed through simulations that our test was more powerful than the single locus-based test. We will extend our method to multiplex data with affected and/or unaffected sibling (s) or simplex data having only one parent's genotype.
Summary
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Differential Parental Transmission of Markers in BCL3 among Korean Cleft Case-parent Trios.
Beyoung Yun Park, Jae Woong Sull, Jung Yong Park, Sun Ha Jee, Terri H Beaty
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(1):1-4.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.1.1
  • 4,693 View
  • 48 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is among the most common human birth defects, with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 700 live births. The B-Cell Leukemia/lymphoma 3 (BCL3) gene has been suggested as a candidate gene for CL/P based on association and linkage studies in some populations. This study tests for an association between markers in BCL3 and isolated, non-syndromic CL/P using a case-parent trio design, while considering parent-of-origin effects. METHODS: Forty case-parent trios were genotyped for two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BCL3 gene. We performed a transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on individual SNPs, and the FAMHAP package was used to estimate haplotype frequencies and to test for excess transmission of multi-SNP haplotypes. RESULTS: The odds ratio for transmission of the minor allele, OR (transmission), was significant for SNP rs8100239 (OR=3.50, p=0.004) and rs2965169 (OR=2.08, p=0.027) when parent-of-origin was not considered. Parent-specific TDT revealed that SNP rs8100239 showed excess maternal transmission. Analysis of haplotypes of rs2965169 and rs8100239 also suggested excess maternal transmission. CONCLUSIONS: BCL3 appears to influence risk of CL/P through a parent-of-origin effect with excess maternal transmission.
Summary

Citations

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Original Articles
Male to Female Heterosexual Transmission of HIV in Korea: Transmission Rate and Risk Factors.
Unyeong Go, Mee Kyung Kee, Byeong Sun Choi, Chun Kang, Kyoung Mee Do, Ju Hyun Lee, Joo Shil Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(2):228-235.
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  • 32 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Despite the importance of human immunodefi-ciency virus(HIV) transmission through heterosexual contact, the features of heterosexual transmission has not been well studied in Korea. So we conducted a cross sectional study to determine the transmission rates in married couples and assess risk factors for male to female heterosexual transmission of HIV. METHODS: 169 HIV-infected males and their female sex partners were recruited from 1985 to June 1998. We examined female sex partners HIV infection status and interviewed male index partners and their female sex partners about demographic characteristics and sexual practices. We analysed heterosexual transmission rate by epidemiologic characteristics, disease status and sexual practices. And we assessed risk factors for HIV infection by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: 30 female sex partners were infected at enrollment, yielding an transmission rate of 17.8%. Among couples who had used condoms consistently, none of the female sex partners was infected with HIV. In univariate analysis the significant risk factors were full blown AIDS status (OR=4.1, 95% CI: 1.49-11.43) and low CD4 T cell count of index partners at enrollment (OR=7.8, 95% CI: 2.19-27.80). In multivariate analysis HIV-1 RNA levels was significant risk factor when adjusted by CD4 T cell counts and mean sexual contacts per month (OR=19.2, 95% CI: 1.03-357.59) CONCLUSION: The risk of male to female heterosexual transmission increased with advanced stages of HIV infection in the index male partners.
Summary
The change of route of HIV transmission for the past 11 years in Korea and the projection of the HIV/AIDS cases to the year 2000.
Soon Young Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):331-346.
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Exploring the epidemiological trend of HIV/AIDS is required for making the national AIDS policy. In this study, the trend of HIV/AIDS incidence, rout of transmission and some characteristics of AIDS for the past 11 years in Korea using the reported cases from the national STD screening scheme were reviewed. Based on the results, the trend of main route of transmission according to the year was established by stage and the HIV/AIDS cases in this year was estimated and that to the year 2000 was projected by 'Epimodel' programme. The results were as follows. 1. Of the total infected persons, 76% were in their twenties and thirties, socioeconomically and sexually active age groups while the transmission by sexual contact overseas was decreasing, the infection through domestic heterosexual and homosexual contact was increasing. 2. In the middle of the 1980's, the infected persons were mainly prostitutes infected through heterosexual contact with the HIV positive foreigner in this county(stage l). And in the late of the 1980's the main source of infection was the sexual contact overseas and the domestic heterosexual contact(stage 2). Since the early of the 1990's, the infection through the heterosexual contact with non-regular sexual partner in this country has increased rapidly(stage 3), which was the evidence of the possibility of HIV epidemics. After that, it was expected that the infection through the homosexual contacts, the heterosexual contacts with commercial sex workers outside and the non-regular sexual contact inside of this county would increase continuously. In the result, the occurrence of neonatal infection by vertical transmission was expected(stage 4). 3. The number of HIV/AIDS was estimated at 572 to 2,313 and the projected number of HIV/AlDS to the year 2000 was around 5,800 including 627 AlDS patients. For the further study on the estimation and projection of HIV/AIDS, it was suggested that the sampling survey on the HIV infection rate in the high risk groups and the sentinel hospital surveillance system should be conducted.
Summary
English Abstract
Investigation of a Series of Brucellosis Cases in Gyeongsangbuk-do during 2003-2004.
Hyun Sul Lim, Young Sun Min, Hwan Seok Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):482-488.
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OBJECTIVES
We conducted an investigation on 14 cases of brucellosis in Gyeongsangbuk-do during 2003-2004 to understand the source of infection and the transmission routes of brucellosis. METHODS: The authors visited the each of the health centers and we examined the patients, their written epidemiologic questionnaire and the occurrence of bovine brucellosis. We visited the patients' living and work areas, and we examined their occupations, the date they developed symptoms, the progress of their symptoms, whether or not they were treated, their current status, whether or not they consumed raw milk and raw meat, and if their work was related to cattle breeding and the related details. We reviewed the results of the blood tests and medical records and we examined the cattle's barn. RESULTS: There were 3 patients in 2003 and 11 patients in 2004. All of their brucella antibody titer exceeded 1: 160. The patients' symptoms were fever, myalgia, malaise, chills and an influenza-like illness, but the clinical signs were absent on the medical records. Brucella abortus were cultured from 3 of the patients' blood samples. CONCLUSIONS: When the authors discovered the transmission routes, they were divided into 4 different sorts. The first route was related to cattle birth such that patients touched the calves or placentas that were infected with the Brucella species. The second route was related to performing artificial insemination on the cattle and the semen that was used for artificial insemination. The third route was due to the ingestion of raw meat and milk. The last route was due to sexual intercourse between the patients.
Summary
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Epidemiologic Investigation on Sporadic Occurrence of Shigellosis in a Subcounty of Cheongwon County in Chungbuk Province in 2003.
Yong Jae Lee, Ue Kyoung Hwang, Jong Suk Kim, Jun Young Kim, Ja Seol Koo, Bok Kwon Lee, Jong Won Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(2):182-188.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was undertaken to investigate the source of infection and mode of transmission of shigellosis, which occurred sporadically among residents and students in a subcounty of Cheongwon county, Chungbuk province, Korea, from June 4 to July 3 2003. METHODS: 692 subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a swab for microbiological examinations, and 7 environmental specimens were examined for bacterial organisms. PFGE (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and fingerprinting were performed to find the genetic relationship among the temporally associated sporadic isolates. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients had symptoms consistent with the case definition, with 13 confirmed and 16 suspected cases. The frequency of diarrhea was 6 times or more a day (80.8%), with a duration of 1 to 4 days (88.5%) in most cases. The most common symptoms accompanying the diarrhea were fever (80.9%) followed by abdominal pain (76.9%), headache (65.4%), chill (61.5%), vomiting (46.2%) and tenesmus (15.4%). The epidemic curve was characteristic of a person-to-person transmission. The PFGE and fingerprinting demonstrated identical or similar DNA patterns among the 3 Shigella sonnei isolates (A51, A53 and A61 types) found in this outbreak. CONCLUSION: A genetically identical strain of S. sonnei was estimated to be the cause of this outbreak, and the mode of transmission was most likely person-to-person.
Summary
Original Article
A seroepidemiological Study of Hepatitis B and C Virus (HBV and HCV) Infections in the Young Population in parts of Busan, Korea.
Young Hee Ju, Hai Rim Shin, Jin Kyoung Oh, Dong IL Kim, Duk Hee Lee, Byeong Kweon Kim, Jung Il Kim, Kap Yeol Jung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(3):253-259.
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OBJECTIVES
To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections and determine the associated risk factors among young adults in Busan, Korea, which is known to have a high incidence of liver cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of volunteer participants in a health survey during 2002, which included 1, 350 students (515 males and 835 females) aged between 16 and 24 years, from three different schools in Busan. The participating students were asked to fill in a selfadministered questionnaire which included lifestyle habits and risk factors of hepatitis. Sera obtained from the participants were studied for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and Anti- HCV by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method and for liver function tests. RESULTS: Among the study subjects (N=1, 350), the seropositivities of HBsAg 7.9% (95% CI=7.8-8.0), 7.6% (95% CI=7.6-7.7) in male and 8.1% (95% CI=8.0-8.2) in female. And the seropositivity of Anti-HBs was 69.7% (95% CI=69.0- 70.4), 70.5% (95% CI=69.8-71.2) in male and 69.2% (95% CI=68.5-69.9) in female. The seropositivity of Anti-HCV was 0.4%, 0.2% in male and 0.5% in female. The seropositivity for HBsAg in the subjects not having a hepatitis B vaccination history was twice (95% CI=1.0-4.4) that of those that did. Also, the seropositivity for HBsAg in subjects having experienced sexual intercourse was 1.7 times (95% CI=0.9-3.0) that of the subjects who had not. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirmed the high prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity and sexual transmission of HBV among adolescents and young adults may occur. Further studies to evaluate the relationship between HBV vaccination and sexual transmission are required for the young population in Korea.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health