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Original Articles
Vaccination Status and In-hospital Mortality Among Adults With COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia: A Retrospective Hospital-based Cohort Study
Hotma Martogi Lorensi Hutapea, Pandji Wibawa Dhewantara, Anton Suryatma, Raras Anasi, Harimat Hendarwan, Mondastri Korib Sudaryo, Dwi Gayatri
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(6):542-551.   Published online October 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.360
  • 922 View
  • 76 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Prospective studies on vaccination status and mortality related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in low-resource settings are still limited. We assessed the association between vaccination status (full, partial, or none) and in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients at most hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia during the Delta predomination wave.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective cohort study among hospitalized COVID-19 patients who met the study criteria (>18 years old and admitted for inpatient treatment because of laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection). We linked individual-level data in the hospital admission database with vaccination records. Several socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were also analyzed. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to explore the association between vaccination status and in-hospital mortality in this patient group.
Results
In total, 40 827 patients were included in this study. Of these, 70% were unvaccinated (n=28 543) and 19.3% (n=7882) died during hospitalization. The mean age of the patients was 49 years (range, 35-59), 53.2% were female, 22.0% had hypertension, and 14.2% were treated in the intensive care unit, and the median hospital length of stay across the group was 9 days. Our study showed that the risk of in-hospital mortality among fully and partially vaccinated patients was lower than among unvaccinated adults (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.47 and aHR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.77, respectively).
Conclusions
Vaccinated patients had fewer severe outcomes among hospitalized adults during the Delta wave in Jakarta. These features should be carefully considered by healthcare professionals in treating adults within this patient group.
Summary
Key Message
During the COVID-19 pandemic the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 was dominating and challenging. Vaccination is one of many approaches to control the pandemic. We assessed the association between vaccination status and in-hospitalized mortality in COVID-19 patients. We found that vaccination status was associated with lower mortality, and fully vaccinated patients experienced lower risk of in-hospitalized mortality compared to partially vaccinated ones.
Adverse Events Following Immunizations in Infants Under 1 Year of Age in Lorestan Province, Western Iran
Anbari khatereh, Ghanadi Koruosh, Toulabipour Alireza, Jamebozuorghi Daryuosh, Baharvand Parastoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(2):172-179.   Published online March 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.540
  • 1,362 View
  • 93 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Vaccination is an important intervention for preventing disease and reducing disease severity. Universal vaccination programs have significantly reduced the incidence of many dangerous diseases among children worldwide. This study investigated the side effects after immunization in infants under 1 year of age in Lorestan Province, western Iran.
Methods
This descriptive analytical study included data from all children <1 year old in Lorestan Province, Iran who were vaccinated according to the national schedule in 2020 and had an adverse event following immunization (AEFI). Data were extracted from 1084 forms on age, sex, birth weight, type of birth, AEFI type, vaccine type, and time of vaccination. Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage) were calculated, and the chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to assess differences in AEFIs according to the abovelisted variables.
Results
The most frequent AEFIs were high fever (n=386, 35.6%), mild local reaction (n=341, 31.5%), and swelling and pain (n=121, 11.2%). The least common AEFIs were encephalitis (n=1, 0.1%), convulsion (n=2, 0.2%), and nodules (n=3, 0.3%). Girls and boys only showed significant differences in mild local reactions (p=0.044) and skin allergies (p=0.002). The incidence of lymphadenitis (p<0.001), severe local reaction (p<0.001), mild local reaction (p=0.007), fainting (p=0.032), swelling and pain (p=0.006), high fever (p=0.005), and nodules (p<0.001) showed significant differences based on age at vaccination.
Conclusions
Immunization is a fundamental public health policy for controlling vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Although vaccines such as the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, oral poliovirus vaccine, and pentavalent vaccine are well-researched and reliable, AEFIs are inevitable.
Summary
Hepatitis A Outbreak in a Facility for the Disabled, Gyeonggi Province, Korea: An Epidemiological Investigation
Yeonhwa Chang, Chanhee Kim, Nayoung Kim, Joon Jai Kim, Heeyoung Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(5):370-375.   Published online September 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.349
  • 2,902 View
  • 101 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The number of cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections has sharply increased in Korea, especially among young adults. In this study, an HAV outbreak in a facility for disabled people was investigated, and we found epidemiological differences both between 2 different generations and between generally abled and disabled groups.
Methods
We analyzed the incubation period and attack rate of an HAV outbreak and investigated the prevalence of HAV antibodies among the staff and residents of a facility for the disabled. We performed a retrospective cohort study during the HAV outbreak, which lasted from February 8 to 25, 2019, including examinations of HAV antibody tests and post-exposure HAV vaccination for the staff or residents of the facility.
Results
There were 9 confirmed cases in 2 staff members and 7 residents. Among 53 people (30 staff and 23 residents), except for the 9 confirmed cases and 1 staff member with a known history of HAV infection, HAV seroprevalence was seen in 16.7% of the staff under 40 years of age and 95.2% of those over 40 years of age, while the corresponding rates in the residents were 0.0% and 58.8%, respectively.
Conclusions
This result implies that it is necessary to prioritize HAV vaccination for vulnerable groups and workers of residential care facilities.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 장애인 거주시설에서 발생한 A형간염 유행 사례를 다루고 있다. 그 결과 거주시설 소속의 장애인들은 종사자들보다 높은 발병률(attack rate)을 나타냈을 뿐만 아니라, 비슷한 연령의 일반 인구집단보다 낮은 항체유병률을 나타내는 것으로 확인되었다. 거주시설 소속의 장애인들과 같이 취약한 인구집단은 예방접종 이력을 확인하기 어려울 뿐만 아니라 병원체에 자연스럽게 노출 기회가 적을 수밖에 없기 때문에, 예방접종 정책 수립 시 우선 접종의 대상으로 고려될 필요가 있다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Shifting Epidemiology of Hepatitis A in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region
    Nina G. Gloriani, Sheriah Laine M. de Paz-Silava, Robert D. Allison, Yoshihiro Takashima, Tigran Avagyan
    Vaccines.2024; 12(2): 204.     CrossRef
  • A Study on the Detection Rate of Hepatitis A from Gastroenteritis Patients and the Genotype Analysis of Hepatitis A Virus in Busan
    Sun Hee Park, Chanhee Kim, Summi Lee, Jihye Jeong, Junghye Choi, Seung Ju Lee
    Journal of Bacteriology and Virology.2023; 53(2): 74.     CrossRef
  • A Study on the Detection Rate of Hepatitis A from Gastroenteritis Patients and the Genotype Analysis of Hepatitis A Virus in Busan
    Sun Hee Park, Chanhee Kim, Summi Lee, Jihye Jeong, Junghye Choi, Seung Ju Lee
    Journal of Bacteriology and Virology.2023; 53(2): 74.     CrossRef
Factors Influencing Vaccination in Korea: Findings From Focus Group Interviews
Bomi Park, Eun Jeong Choi, Bohyun Park, Hyejin Han, Su Jin Cho, Hee Jung Choi, Seonhwa Lee, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(4):173-180.   Published online May 25, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.063
  • 10,350 View
  • 256 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Immunization is considered one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions protecting communities from preventable infectious diseases. The Korean government set up a dedicated workforce for national immunization in 2003, and since then has made strides in improving vaccination coverage across the nation. However, some groups remain relatively vulnerable and require intervention, and it is necessary to address unmet needs to prevent outbreaks of communicable diseases. This study was conducted to characterize persistent challenges to vaccination.
Methods
The study adopted a qualitative method in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research checklist. Three focus group interviews were conducted with 15 professionals in charge of vaccination-related duties. The interviews were conducted according to a semi-structured guideline, and thematic analysis was carried out. Data saturation was confirmed when the researchers agreed that no more new codes could be found.
Results
A total of 4 main topics and 11 subtopics were introduced regarding barriers to vaccination. The main topics were vaccine hesitancy, personal circumstances, lack of information, and misclassification. Among them, vaccine hesitancy was confirmed to be the most significant factor impeding vaccination. It was also found that the factors hindering vaccination had changed over time and disproportionately affected certain groups.
Conclusions
The study identified ongoing unmet needs and barriers to vaccination despite the accomplishments of the National Immunization Program. The results have implications for establishing tailored interventions that target context- and group-specific barriers to improve timely and complete vaccination coverage.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Twenty Years of Progress and the Way Forward: Immunization Registry Information System in Korea
    Junghee Kim, Minju Song, Seohyeon Ahn, Seunghyun Lewis Kwon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    BongKyoo Choi, Hyunjeong Cho, Younchul Shin, Eun-Kyoung Lee
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    Chen‐I Kuan
    Sociology of Health & Illness.2022; 44(3): 692.     CrossRef
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    Ye Jin Jeon, Youngrong Lee, Ji Su Yang, Young Su Park, Sun Jae Jung
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022064.     CrossRef
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    Abram L. Wagner, Zhuoying Huang, Jia Ren, Megan Laffoon, Mengdi Ji, Leah C. Pinckney, Xiaodong Sun, Lisa A. Prosser, Matthew L. Boulton, Brian J. Zikmund-Fisher
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine.2021; 60(1): S77.     CrossRef
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    Sangho Sohn, Kwan Hong, Hari Hwang, Byung Chul Chun
    Vaccine.2021; 39(7): 1096.     CrossRef
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    Dongwon Yoon, Juhwan Kim, Juyoung Shin
    Vaccines.2021; 9(6): 653.     CrossRef
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    Vivian Colón-López, Diana T. Medina-Laabes, Roxana Soto Abreu, Olga L. Díaz Miranda, Ana P. Ortiz, María E. Fernández, Pamela C. Hull
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Leong Hoe Nam, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Jung Yeon Heo, Margaret Ip, Ki-Suck Jung, Robert Menzies, Rodney Pearce, Philippe Buchy, Jing Chen, Michael Nissen, Kyu-Bin Oh
    Expert Review of Vaccines.2021; 20(12): 1603.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies among Healthcare Workers in Two Korean Hospitals in 2019
    Yee Gyung Kwak, Je Eun Song, Gang-Bok Oh, In Hye Jeong, Chong Rae Cho, Namhee Kim, Hyeon Mi Yoo, Gyeong Min Yoo, Myung Jin Lee, Baek-Nam Kim
    Infection & Chemotherapy.2020; 52(1): 93.     CrossRef
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    Sıddıka Songül Yalçin, Ayça Gelgeç Bakacak, Osman Topaç
    BMC Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Alexandre de Figueiredo, Clarissa Simas, Emilie Karafillakis, Pauline Paterson, Heidi J Larson
    The Lancet.2020; 396(10255): 898.     CrossRef
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    Jeong Hee Yu, Hang jin Jeong, Seon Ju Kim, Jae Young Lee, Young June Choe, Eun Hwa Choi, En Hi Cho
    Vaccines.2020; 9(1): 2.     CrossRef
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    Kyujin Chang, Soon Young Lee
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Brief Report
Knowledge and Perceptions of Influenza Vaccinations Among College Students in Vietnam and the United States
Akiko Kamimura, Ha N. Trinh, Shannon Weaver, Alla Chernenko, Maziar M. Nourian, Nushean Assasnik, Hanh Nguyen
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(4):268-273.   Published online May 25, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.061
  • 10,342 View
  • 226 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Influenza is a significant worldwide public health issue. Knowledge and perceptions regarding the flu vaccination are associated with whether individuals obtain the vaccination. The purpose of this study was to examine how such perceptions were related to knowledge and self-efficacy regarding influenza and the flu vaccination in Vietnam and the US. Methods: College students (n=932) in Vietnam (n=495) and the US (n=437) completed a self-administered survey regarding knowledge and perceptions of influenza vaccinations in September and October 2016. Results: Vietnamese participants reported significantly lower levels of awareness about flu risk, higher levels of negative attitudes toward flu vaccination, lower levels of knowledge about the flu and vaccination, and lower levels of self-efficacy than US participants. Higher levels of flu and flu vaccination knowledge and self-efficacy regarding general responsible health practices were associated with lower levels of negative perceptions of flu risk and attitudes toward vaccination. At the same time, self-efficacy regarding responsible health practices was associated with higher levels of awareness of flu risk and lower levels of negative attitudes toward vaccination. Self-efficacy regarding exercise was associated with lower levels of perceptions of flu risk and higher levels of negative attitudes toward vaccination. Conclusions: Vietnam could benefit from influenza education based on this comparison with the US. In both countries, knowledge and self-efficacy were found to be important factors influencing perceptions of influenza risk and vaccination.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    En-Jung Shon, Lena Lee
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    Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica.2021; 100(6): 997.     CrossRef
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Original Article
Epidemiology of Animal Bites and Factors Associated With Delays in Initiating Post-exposure Prophylaxis for Rabies Prevention Among Animal Bite Cases: A Population-based Study
Firooz Esmaeilzadeh, Abdolhalim Rajabi, Sajad Vahedi, Mohammad Shamsadiny, Mousa Ghelichi Ghojogh, Nahid Hatam
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(3):210-216.   Published online May 10, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.027
  • 7,988 View
  • 245 Download
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
One way to prevent deaths due to rabies is the timely utilization of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Therefore, in addition to an understanding of the epidemiological distribution of animal bites, it is necessary to explore the factors leading to delays in PEP initiation.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran in 2011, and included 7097 cases of animal bites recorded at the Rabies Treatment Center of the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences using the census method. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with delays in PEP.
Results
Among the patients studied, 5387 (75.9%) were males. The prevalence of animal bites in Fars province was 154.4 per 100 000 people. Dogs were the most frequent source of exposure (67.1%), and the most common bitten part of the body was the hands (45.5%). A delay in the initiation of PEP was found among 6.8% of the studied subjects. This delay was more likely in housewives (odds ratio [OR], 4.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.12 to 10.23) and less likely in people with deep wounds (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.97).
Conclusions
Although all animal bite victims received complete PEP, in some cases, there were delays. Further, the type of animal involved, the depth of the bite, and the patient’s occupation were the major factors associated with a delay in the initiation of PEP for rabies prevention.
Summary

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  • Epidemiology of Animal Bites and Associated Factors with Delay in Post-Exposure Prophylaxis; A Cross-Sectional Study
    Salman Khazaei, Manoochehr Karami, Yousef Veisani, Manoochehr Solgi, Shahram Goodarzi
    Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma.2018; 6(3): 239.     CrossRef
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    Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi, Farbod Alinezhad, Ivan Kuzmin, Charles Rupprecht
    Veterinary Sciences.2018; 5(3): 67.     CrossRef
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Review
Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature
Malcolm A. Moore
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(4):183-200.   Published online July 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.4.183
  • 15,036 View
  • 177 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.
Summary

Citations

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English Abstracts
Epidemiological Investigation of a Measles Outbreak in a Preschool in Incheon, Korea, 2006.
Jae Sung So, Un Yeong Go, Dong Han Lee, Koang Suk Park, Jong Koo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(3):153-158.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.3.153
  • 4,972 View
  • 62 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study describes a plan that was designed to prevent a measles outbreak that showed a changed outbreak pattern. This study is based on the epidemiological investigation of a measles outbreak in a preschool in Incheon, Korea, 2006. METHODS: The subjects were 152 students at a preschool where a measles outbreak occurred. A questionnaire survey was conducted and serological testing for measlesspecific IgM was preformed. RESULTS: Of the fifteen confirmed, identified cases, eleven patients had been vaccinated with one dose, one patient had received two doses and three patients were unvaccinated. The three unvaccinated cases consisted of one 5-year-old child, one 3-year-old child and one 16-month-old infant. For the cases with one dose of the vaccination, there were 11 cases, which consisted of six 5-year-old children, two 4-year-old children, two 3-year-old children and one 2-year-old child. The case with two doses of the vaccination was one 4-year-old child. The attack rate of measles was 100% in the 0-dose group, 11.2% in the 1-dose group and 2.0% in the 2-dose group. The vaccine's efficacy was 88.8% in the 1-dose group and 98.0% in the 2-dose group. The vaccine effectiveness for the 2-dose group was higher than that of the 1-dose group. CONCLUSIONS: High coverage with a 2-dose vaccination should be maintained, and the vaccination should be given at the suitable time to prevent a measles outbreak with a changed outbreak pattern.
Summary

Citations

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  • Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in children
    Carlo Di Pietrantonj, Alessandro Rivetti, Pasquale Marchione, Maria Grazia Debalini, Vittorio Demicheli
    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in children
    Carlo Di Pietrantonj, Alessandro Rivetti, Pasquale Marchione, Maria Grazia Debalini, Vittorio Demicheli
    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Measles Elimination Activities in the Western Pacific Region: Experience from the Republic of Korea
    Young June Choe, Youngmee Jee, Myoung-don Oh, Jong-Koo Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2015; 30(Suppl 2): S115.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological Investigation of a Measles Outbreak in Seoul, 2013~2014
    Heejin Ham, Jungim Jang, Changho Han
    Journal of Bacteriology and Virology.2015; 45(4): 372.     CrossRef
  • Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children
    Vittorio Demicheli, Alessandro Rivetti, Maria Grazia Debalini, Carlo Di Pietrantonj
    Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal.2013; 8(6): 2076.     CrossRef
  • Reemergence of Measles in South Korea: Implications for Immunization and Surveillance Programs
    Young-Joon Park, Hye Suk Eom, Eun Seong Kim, Young June Choe, Geun-Ryang Bae, Duk-Hyoung Lee
    Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases.2013; 66(1): 6.     CrossRef
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    Hyo Jin Kwon, Jae-Wook Lee, Nak-Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Hack-Ki Kim, Jin Han Kang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2012; 27(1): 78.     CrossRef
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    Young June Choe, Geun-Ryang Bae
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics.2012; 55(12): 455.     CrossRef
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    Eun Seong Kim, Young June Choe, Heeyeon Cho, You-Jin Kim, Hee Sook Yoon, Jeong-Sun Yang, Kisoon Kim, Geun-Ryang Bae, Duk-hyoung Lee
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    Vittorio Demicheli, Alessandro Rivetti, Maria Grazia Debalini, Carlo Di Pietrantonj
    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2012;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of an Expanded Case Definition for Vaccine-Modified Measles in a School Outbreak in South Korea in 2010
    Young June Choe, Jae Kyung Hu, Kyung Min Song, Heeyeon Cho, Hee Sook Yoon, Seung Tae Kim, Han Jung Lee, Kisoon Kim, Geun-Ryang Bae, Jong-Koo Lee
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Information Sources and Knowledge on Infant Vaccination according to Online Communities.
Inyoung Choi, Mieun Chung, Soon Choy, Sukil Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(4):291-296.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.4.291
  • 4,084 View
  • 56 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To explore the information sources and knowledge on infant vaccinations of pro-vaccination community members and anti- accination community members on the internet. METHODS: An online survey of 245 parents from three pro-vaccination communities and 92 parents from one antivaccination community was conducted from June 7 to June 23, 2006. RESULTS: Parents from pro-vaccination communities usually gained the information regarding vaccination efficacy and risk mainly from healthcare providers (49.8%) and mass media (47.7%). Pro-vaccination community members considered healthcare providers as the most credible sources of information on vaccination, whereas the anti-vaccination community members usually gained their information regarding vaccine efficiency and risk from Internet child-care cafes and online vaccination communities. Parents of the anti-vaccination community considered the internet as the most credible information source (77.6% for efficacy, 94.8% for risk). In addition, the major reason why anti-vaccination community members didn't vaccinate and, will not vaccinate, was concern about possible side effects of the vaccine. The knowledge level on infant vaccination, education and economic status was higher in the anti-vaccination community. CONCLUSIONS: On-line communities concerned with vaccination are getting popular. The influence of antivaccination parents on the Internet is expected to be high. The government and healthcare providers need to increase their efforts to improve the credibility of information about vaccination. Our findings suggest that online communication regarding vaccinations needs to be considered as a means to increase vaccination rates.
Summary

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  • Factors Influencing Vaccination in Korea: Findings From Focus Group Interviews
    Bomi Park, Eun Jeong Choi, Bohyun Park, Hyejin Han, Su Jin Cho, Hee Jung Choi, Seonhwa Lee, Hyesook Park
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    Korean Journal of Health Policy and Administration.2008; 18(3): 58.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Evaluation of Measles Vaccine Effectiveness in a Community Outbreak.
Byung Chan Park, Hae Kwan Cheong, Sue Kyung Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(1):33-40.
  • 2,058 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
From an analysis of a community outbreak of measles in Youngju, Gyeongbuk, in March 2000, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of the measles vaccination and its determinants to provide an epidemiologic basis for the establishment of a vaccination policy. METHODS: Information was collected regarding the vaccinations from the health records of four primary schools and through a questionnaire survey of the parents of students in two middle and two high schools (N=4638). Measles cases were surveyed from the patient list of each school and from case reports in the public health center. The attack rate and vaccine effectiveness of measles was evaluated by school; grade; frequency, region, and institution of vaccination. RESULTS: The attack rate of measles, 6.3% among the total subjects, was higher in middle school students (15.8%) than in primary (2.0%, p<0.05) and high school students (8.9%, p<0.05). The attack rate of the unvaccinated group was 4.6-fold higher than the vaccinated group in primary schools (p<0.05). Vaccine effectiveness was 83.2% among lower graders of primary schools, 34.0% among higher graders of primary schools, 26.1% in middle schools, and -7.0% in high schools. In multiple logistic regression analysis, grade in school (odds ratio, 0.77; 95% CI=0.67-0.87) and frequency of vaccination (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI=0.37-0.88) were significant predictors of the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the explosive outbreak of measles in this area resulted from both inadequate vaccination coverage and secondary failure of vaccination. There was no evidence of any effect of the cold chain system on the vaccine failure.
Summary
A Survey of the Prevalence of Rubella Antibodies in Teachers of Child Bearing Age on Cheju Island .
Jong Myon Bae, Hyun Jong Yang, Seong Chul Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(3):280-284.
  • 1,940 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can be controlled by vaccination. Because rubella is typically a childhood disease, occurring predominantly in the 5 to 14 year age group, female school teachers may be a high-risk population for CRS. CONCLUSIONS: To determine the prevalence rate of rubella antibodies in school teachers of child bearing age. METHODS: The study population consisted of primary, middle and high school teachers of child bearing age. The subjects were aged 35 years and younger, and consented to immunoglobulin (Ig) level testing using the ELISA method. RESULTS: The positive rate of IgG was 77.9% in the study subjects (n=314). Sixty-three teachers (21.4%) were susceptible to rubella infection. Thirty-seven teachers (11.8%) had a history of rubella vaccination. Among the female teachers with no vaccination history, the proportion of negative IgM and IgG was 21.7%, and the proportion of positive IgM was 2.9%. Seventy-nine percent of the study subjects did not know that they should not become pregnant for three months after receiving the rubella vaccine. CONCLUSION: School teachers of child bearing age should be considered a high risk group for CRS, and should be vaccinated if they are found to be seronegative.
Summary
Effectiveness of Telephone and Postcard Reminders for the Influenza Vaccination: A Study in the Elderly Who Have Visited a Family Practice Center in a Tertiary Care Hospital.
Yun Mi Song, Joo Seop Oh, Seung Heon Han, Chul hoon Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):109-116.
  • 2,187 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Routine vaccination against influenza is recommended for all people aged 65 years or more. Without active encouragement to receive the vaccine, the rate of compliance is generally low. A study was undertaken to assess and compare the effectiveness of two reminder systems in improving the influenza vaccination rate. METHODS: A total of 2,017 patients aged 65 or over in a tertiary care hospital family practice center were randomly assigned to a control, a telephone reminder, or a postcard reminder group before the influenza season in 1998. The outcome measure, receipt of vaccination, was determined by telephone interview. Demographic and clinical characteristics were checked through the medical chart review. RESULTS: Among the 1,312 patients who actually received reminders and interviewed, the vaccination rate was 46.7% in the control group, 56.3% in the postcard reminder group, and 63.3% in the telephone reminder group. Vaccination compliance was significantly higher in people reminded by telephone (Odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-2.64) and postcard (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.18-2.02) compared to that in the control group. Of the characteristics investigated, number of high risk co-morbidity was positively associated with vaccination compliance while current smoking was negatively associated. CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests that telephone and postcard reminders can significantly improve compliance with influenza vaccination in this group of Korean elderly. However, additional strategies need to be developed to encourage vaccination among noncompliant.
Summary
Serum HBsAg and Anti-HBs Positive Rate among a City Health Center Visitors.
Mal Sook Shin, Tae Yoon Hwang, Chang Yoon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(3):508-517.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection is one of the major health problems in Korea and HBsAg positive rate was known to be about 5~15% in general population. This study was conducted to identify the positive rates of serum HBsAg and anti-HBs among community population regared as having high HBV vaccination rate than in previous decade, using EIA(Enzyme immunoassay) method, in Seo-Gu, Taegu, Korea. The study subjects were 1,160 who visited Seo-Gu Health Center for check-up serologic markers of hepatitis B. The data were obtained from the serologic test for hepatitis markers and questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain the general characteristics, vaccination history, past history of hepatitis and other liver disease , and exposure history to risk factors of hepatitis of the study subjects. The positive rates of HBsAg and anti-HBs were 5.2% and 62.4% respectively. The positive rates of HBsAg for male and female were 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. The age was divided into two groups as group I(less than 15 years old), group II(more than 16years old) according to the hypothesis that these two groups might be different in HBV vaccination rate. HBV vaccination rates for group I and II were 83.1% and 52.3%. The positive rates of HBsAg for group I and II were 2.6% and 6.5%. The positive rates of HBsAg for the vaccinated people of the group I and II were 2.2% and 3.5%, the positive rates of anti-HBs for the vaccinated people of the group I and II were 70.1% and 71.1% respectively. The most significant factor in positive rate of HBsAg was 'hepatitis carrier in family'. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that 'hepatitis history' and 'hepatitis carrier in family' were significant variables for positivity of HBsAg, and 'hepatitis B vaccination' was only a significant variable for positivity of anti-HBs.
Summary
English Abstracts
Seroprevalence of Measles Antibody and its Attributable Factors in Elementary Students of Routine 2-dose Schedule Era with Vaccination Record.
Geun Ryang Bae, Hyun Sul Lim, Un Yeong Goh, Byung Guk Yang, Young Taek Kim, Jong Koo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):431-436.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We investigated the seroprevalence of the measles antibody and its attributable factors for the students who underwent routine 2-dose Schedule Era. METHODS: The subjects were 996 students of the national measles seroepidemiologic study in December 2000 who had vaccination records. We conducted a questionnaire survey and we performed serologic testing for the measles specific IgG by using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The coverage for the first dose of the MMR vaccination at 12-15 months of age was 95.1% and the coverage for the second dose of MMR at 4-6 years of age was 35.0%. The proportion of subjects undergoing 2- doses of MMR decreased as the age of the subjects increased. The seropositive rate of the measles antibody was significantly high in the second dose vaccinees (93.5% in the second dose group, 84.7% in the non-second dose group, p< 0.001) and it was 72.0% in the 0-dose group, 85.4% in the 1-dose group and 93.7% in the 2-dose group (p< 0.001). Two point eight percent of the subjects had a past history of measles infection. On the multiple logistic regression analysis, the first and second dose (odds ratio, 8.54; 95% CI.=3.05-23.91), the first dose (odds ratio, 3.06; 95% CI.=1.20-7.81) and the outbreak in the year 2000 (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% CI.=1.24-2.88) were the significant factors for the eropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining high coverage with a 2-dose vaccination program would be the decisive factor to prevent an outbreak of measles and to eliminate measles in Korea.
Summary
A Study of Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine & HBV DNA in Isolated Anti-HBc Positive Subjects.
Hee Jeong Koh, Soon Duck Kim, Ji Ho Choi, Sung Ryul Kim, Jin Soo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(2):170-174.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to a hepatitis B vaccination, and investigate the HBV DNA in subjects with isolated anti-HBc. METHODS: 34 subjects with persistent isolated anti-HBc were included in the study. 32 subjects negative for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were included as a control group. They were all vaccinated with Hepaccine at 0, 1 and 2 months, and anti-HBs titers were measured 1 month after the 1st and 3rd vaccinations (1 and 3 months). The HBV-DNA was tested by polymerase chain reaction in subjects with isolated anti-HBc. RESULTS: After the 1st & 3rd vaccinations, the anti-HBs titers > or =10mIU/ml were 70.6 & 70.6% in isolated anti-HBc group, and 34.4 & 81.2% in the control group, respectively. There were statistically significant differences after the 1st vaccination, but none after the 3rd, between the two groups. In the isolated anti-HBc and control groups, the primary, amnestic and no responses were 0 vs. 46.9%, 55.9 vs. 6.3% and 29.4 vs. 18.8%, respectively. The HBV DNA was not detected in all subjects with isolated anti-HBc. CONCLUSION: None of the subjects with isolated anti-HBc had a false positive result (primary response) ; therefore, they should be excluded from vaccination programs in Korea. To differentiate between immunity and occult infections, a single dose of vaccine, with a follow-up anti- HBs test, is preferable for subjects with isolated anti-HBc. An amnestic response indicates late immunity, and no response a suspect occult infection.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health