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Original Article Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Tuberculosis Preventive Behaviors among Tuberculosis Patients’ Household Contacts During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Border Areas of Northern Thailand
Nantawan Kham-ai1orcid , katekaew seangpraw1corresp_iconorcid , Parichat Ong-Artborirak2corresp_iconorcid

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.453 [Accepted]
Published online: May 1, 2024
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1University of Phayao, Phayao, Thailand
2Department of Research and Medical Innovation, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, , Bangkok, Thailand
Corresponding author:  katekaew seangpraw,
Email: eungkaew@gmail.com
Parichat Ong-Artborirak,
Email: eungkaew@gmail.com
Received: 12 October 2023   • Revised: 13 December 2023   • Accepted: 24 January 2024

Objectives
The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the rate of tuberculosis (TB) infection among close contacts of TB patients in remote regions. However, research on preventive behaviors, guided by the health belief model (HBM), among household contacts of TB cases is scarce. This study aimed to employ the HBM as a framework to predict TB preventive behaviors among household contacts of TB patients in the border areas of Northern Thailand.
Methods
A cross-sectional study with multi-stage random sampling was conducted in Chiang Rai Province. The study included 422 TB patients’ household contacts aged 18 years or older who had available chest X-ray (CXR) results. A self-administered questionnaire was used to conduct the survey.
Results
The participants’ mean age was 42.93 years. Pearson correlation analysis showed that TB preventive behavior scores were significantly correlated with TB knowledge (r=0.397), perceived susceptibility (r=0.565), perceived severity (r=0.452), perceived benefits (r=0.581), self-efficacy (r=0.526), and cues to action (r=0.179). Binary logistic regression revealed that the modeled odds of having an abnormal CXR decreased by 30.4% for each 1-point score increase in preventive behavior (OR=0.696; 95% CI, 0.610–0.794).
Conclusions
HBM constructs were able to explain preventive behaviors among TB patients’ household contacts. The HBM could be used in health promotion programs to improve TB preventive behaviors and avoid negative outcomes.

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health