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Original Article Predictors and Prevalence of Alcohol and Cannabis Co-use Among Filipino Adolescents: Evidence From a School-based Student Health Survey
Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi1corresp_iconorcid , Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III2orcid , Jerico B. Ogaya3orcid , Melchor M. Magramo4orcid , Victor C. Cañezo Jr.5orcid , Omar Kasimieh6orcid , Francis Ann R. Sy7orcid , Ann Rosanie Yap-Tan8orcid , Florante E. Delos Santos9orcid , Roland A. Niez10orcid

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.052 [Accepted]
Published online: May 9, 2024
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1College of Social Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
2Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
3Department of Medical Technology, Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines
4John B.Lacson Foundation Maritime University, Iloilo, Philippines
5Biliran Province State University, Leyte, Philippines
6University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines
7Southern Leyte State University, Sogod, Philippines
8St. Paul University Iloilo, Iloilo, Philippines
9University of Makati, Makati, Philippines
10Biliran Province State University, Leyte, Philippines
Corresponding author:  Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi,
Email: adebisiyusuff23@yahoo.com
Received: 28 January 2024   • Revised: 27 April 2024   • Accepted: 29 April 2024

Objectives
This study explored the prevalence and predictors of alcohol and cannabis co-use among 9263 Filipino adolescents, using data from the 2019 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS).
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the GSHS, targeting adolescents aged 13-17 years and excluding cases with incomplete data on alcohol and cannabis use. Our analysis employed the bivariate chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression using Stata version 18 to identify significant predictors of co-use, with a p-value threshold set at 0.05.
Results
The weighted prevalence of co-users was 4.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 5.3). Significant predictors included male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.50; 95% CI, 3.31 to 6.10; p<0.001) and being in a lower academic year, specifically grade 7 (aOR, 4.08; 95% CI, 2.39 to 6.99; p<0.001) and grade 8 (aOR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.72; p=0.003). Poor sleep quality was also a significant predictor (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.44; p<0.001), as was a history of attempted suicide (aOR, 5.31; 95% CI, 4.00 to 7.06; p<0.001). Physical inactivity was associated with lower odds of co-use (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.62; p<0.001). Additionally, non-attendance of physical education classes (aOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.05; p=0.021), infrequent unapproved parental checks (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.80; p=0.024), and lower parental awareness of free-time activities (aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.87; p=0.005) were associated with higher odds of co-use. Factors not significantly linked to co-use included age group, being in grade 9, always feeling lonely, having no close friends, being bullied outside school, and whether a parent or guardian understood the adolescent's worries.
Conclusions
The findings highlight the critical need for comprehensive interventions in the Philippines, addressing not only physical inactivity and parental monitoring but also focusing on gender, academic grade, participation in physical education classes, sleep quality, and suicide attempt history, to effectively reduce alcohol and cannabis co-use among adolescents.

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