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Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine 1994;27(2): 337-365.
Cost-Benefit Analysis on Rubella Vaccination Policy.
Young Jeon Shin, Bo Youl Choi, Hung Bae Park, Ok Ryun Moon, Bae Joong Yoon
1Department of Preventive Medicine, Hanyang University, College of Medicine, Korea.
2School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Korea.
3Department of Public Health and Emviroment, Gyenggi-Do, Korea.
ABSTRACT
Rubella is a viral disease with mild constitutional symptoms and generalized rashes ln childhood, it is an inconsequential illness, but when it occurs during early pregnant period, there are significant risks of heart defects, cataract, mental retardation to the fetus. The series of congenital defects induced by rubella is called 'congenital rubella syndrome'. Many research have been performed to find out more effective prevention program on rubella. The objectives of this study are, first, to calculate the incidence rate of acute rubella infection and congenital rubella syndrome in korea, second, to evaluate economic efficiency of several rubella vaccination policies and to offer data for the most reasonable decision on vaccination policy. Study populations are 663,312 children of one year-old in 1992. The author has performed cost-benefit analyses according to the three vaccination policies-U.S.A.'s. U.K's and Sweden's. In this study, the author got the incidence rate of acute rubella infection using the catalytic model. In the meantime, the author used 50 per 100,000 live births as the incidence rate of congenital rubella syndrome. The discount rate used in this study was 5 percent per annum. The sensitivity analyses were done with different discount rates (4%, 7%) and different incidence rate of congenital rubella syndrome (10,100 per 100,000 live births): The study results are as follows: 1. Without vaccination, lifetime expenditures per patient for acute rubella infection amount to 14,822 won and the total expenditures to about 3.1 billion won. Meanwhile, lifetime expenditures per patient for congenital rubella syndrome amount to about 91 million won and the total expenditures to about 16.3 billion won without vaccination. 2. The cost of vaccination for a child of one year old was 2,322 won and the total cost for the one year old children was about 1.5 billion won(American style). The cost for vaccination of female children at fifteen was about 339 million won (British style). And the cost of vaccination at one for both sex and female children at fifteen was about 1.9billion won (Swedish style). 3. The benefit to cost ratios of vaccination or female children at fifteen that is the british mode of rubella vaccination, was 60.0 at the level of 80 % population coverage and 48.6 at 100% coverage. It shows much higher benefit to cost ratio than those of the other two vaccination policies. 4. Both net benefits of vaccination at one (American style) and that of vaccinations at one and fifteen (Swedish style) range from about 17.0 billion to 17.8 billion won, those were larger than that of vaccinations of female children at fifteen(British style, about 16.0 billion). 5. In marginal cost-benefit analysis of only additional program or revaccination, the benefit to cost ratios were 3.6(80% coverage rate) or 0.6 (100% coverage rate). It implies that additional program was less efficient or inefficient 6. In sensitively analysis with different discount rates (4% or 7%) and different incidence rates of congenital rubella syndrome (l0 or 100 per 100,000 live births), the benefit to cost ratios has fluctuated in wide range. However, all the ratios of vaccination of female children at fifteen were higher than those of the others. Even under the most conservative assumption, the benefit to cost ratios of all the rubella vaccination policies were higher than 3.3. In conclusion all the rubella vaccination policies found to be cost-effective and particularly the vaccination of female children at fifteen was strongly recommended.
Key words: cost-benefit analysis; rubella; congenital rubella syndrome
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