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Yun Chul Hong 21 Articles
BTEX Exposure and its Health Effects in Pregnant Women Following the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill.
Byung Mi Kim, Eun kyo Park, So Young LeeAn, Mina Ha, Eun Jung Kim, Hojang Kwon, Yun Chul Hong, Woo Chul Jeong, Jongil Hur, Hae Kwan Cheong, Jongheop Yi, Jong Ho Kim, Bo Eun Lee, Ju Hee Seo, Moon Hee Chang, Eun Hee Ha
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(2):96-103.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.2.96
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  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We evaluated the health effects of exposure to BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, m,p-Xylene, o-Xylene) in the Taean area after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. METHODS: We used a questionnaire survey to look for health effects among 80 pregnant women 2 to 3 months following the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Their BTEX exposures were estimated using the CALPUFF method. We then used a multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the effects of BTEX exposure on the women's health effets. RESULTS: Pregnant women who lived near the accident site reported more symptoms of eye irritation and headache than those who lived farther from the site. There was a trend of decreasing symptoms with an increase in distance from the spill site. Pregnant women exposed to higher ambient cumulative levels of Xylene were significantly more likely to report symptoms of the skin (OR 8.01 95% CI=1.74-36.76) in the first day after the accident and significantly more likely to report abdominal pain (OR 3.86 95% CI=1.02-14.59 for Ethylbenzene, OR 6.70 95% CI=1.82-24.62 for Xylene) during the 1st through 4th days following the accident. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that exposure to BTEX from an oil spill is correlated with an increased risk of health effects among pregnant women. This implies the need to take proper measures, including the development of a national policy for environmental health emergencies and a plan for studying the short- and long-term chronic health effects associated with such spills.
Summary

Citations

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    Hristina Denic-Roberts, Lawrence S. Engel, Jeanine M. Buchanich, Rachel G. Miller, Evelyn O. Talbott, Dana L. Thomas, Glen A. Cook, Tina Costacou, Jennifer A. Rusiecki
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    Fengju Lu, Shuhao Li, Boxiong Shen, Jianwei Zhang, Lijun Liu, Xiaoqian Shen, Rongxuan Zhao
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    Anchal Garg, N.C. Gupta
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    Dawoon Jung, Jung-Ah Kim, Myung-Sook Park, Un Hyuk Yim, Kyungho Choi
    Chemosphere.2017; 173: 180.     CrossRef
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    John L. Adgate, Bernard D. Goldstein, Lisa M. McKenzie
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    Lisa M. McKenzie, Roxana Z. Witter, Lee S. Newman, John L. Adgate
    Science of The Total Environment.2012; 424: 79.     CrossRef
  • Shape Selectivity in the Conversion of Methanol to Hydrocarbons: The Catalytic Performance of One-Dimensional 10-Ring Zeolites: ZSM-22, ZSM-23, ZSM-48, and EU-1
    Shewangizaw Teketel, Wegard Skistad, Sandrine Benard, Unni Olsbye, Karl Petter Lillerud, Pablo Beato, Stian Svelle
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  • Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill
    Jong Ho Kim, Byoung Kyu Kwak, Mina Ha, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Jongheop Yi
    Environmental Health and Toxicology.2012; 27: e2012008.     CrossRef
  • Acute Health Effects of the Hebei Oil Spill on the Residents of Taean, Korea
    Cheol-Heon Lee, Young-A Kang, Kyu-Jin Chang, Chang-Hoon Kim, Jong-Il Hur, Jae-Youn Kim, Jong-Koo Lee
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2010; 43(2): 166.     CrossRef
  • The Distinction of Cleanup Works of Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Peak Expiratory Flow between Pre-works and Post-works
    Im-Ju Kang, Sung-Youn Choi, Jae-Eun Lee, Mi-Hye Seo, Byoung-Kwon Ghim
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2009; 30(11): 848.     CrossRef
The Effects of Wearing Protective Devices among Residents and Volunteers Participating in the Cleanup of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill.
Seung Min Lee, Mina Ha, Eun Jung Kim, Woo Chul Jeong, Jongil Hur, Seok Gun Park, Hojang Kwon, Yun Chul Hong, Eun Hee Ha, Jong Seung Lee, Bong Chul Chung, Jeongae Lee, Hosub Im, Yeyong Choi, Yong Min Cho, Hae Kwan Cheong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(2):89-95.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.2.89
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  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To assess the protective effects of wearing protective devices among the residents and volunteers who participated in the cleanup of the Hebei Spirit oil spill. METHODS: A total of 288 residents and 724 volunteers were surveyed about symptoms, whether they were wearing protective devices and potential confounding variables. The questionnaires were administered from the second to the sixth week following the accident. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for metabolites of 4 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 2 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 6 heavy metals. The association between the wearing of protective devices and various symptoms was assessed using a multiple logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. A multiple generalized linear regression model adjusted for the covariates was used to test for a difference in least-square mean concentration of urinary biomarkers between residents who wore protective devices and those who did not. RESULTS: Thirty nine to 98% of the residents and 62-98% of volunteers wore protective devices. Levels of fatigue and fever were higher among residents not wearing masks than among those who did wear masks (odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval 1.23-19.86). Urinary mercury levels were found to be significantly higher among residents not wearing work clothes or boots (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Because the survey was not performed during the initial high-exposure period, no significant difference was found in metabolite levels between people who wore protective devices and those who did not, except for mercury, whose biological half-life is more than 6 weeks.
Summary

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  • Cancer Incidence Trend in the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Area, from 1999 to 2014: An Ecological Study
    Kyung-Hwa Choi, Myung-Sook Park, Mina Ha, Jong-Il Hur, Hae-Kwan Cheong
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2018; 15(5): 1006.     CrossRef
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    Seol-Hee Kim, Jong-Geol Kim, Man-Young Jung, So-Jeong Kim, Joo-Han Gwak, Woon-Jong Yu, Seong Woon Roh, Yang-Hoon Kim, Sung-Keun Rhee
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    Chemosphere.2017; 173: 180.     CrossRef
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    Blanca Laffon, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B.2016; 19(3-4): 105.     CrossRef
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    Jena Webb, Oliver T. Coomes, Nancy Ross, Donna Mergler
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    Geunbae Kim, Tack Shin Kang, Mira Yoon, Hyejung Jo, Youngkyung Joo, Seung Do Yu, Bo Eun Lee
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    Samuel O. Akporido, Percy C. Onianwa
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    Moonjin Lee, Jung-Yeul Jung
    Marine Pollution Bulletin.2015; 100(1): 297.     CrossRef
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    Mina Ha, Hojang Kwon, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Sinye Lim, Seung Jin Yoo, Eun-Jung Kim, Seok Gun Park, Jeongae Lee, Bong Chul Chung
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  • Changes of Eating Habits of the Residents of Taean, Korea after the Herbei Oil Spill Accident Based on Focus Group Interviews
    Ji Hyun Park, Sung Ok Kwon, Woo Cheol Jeong, Jong Il Huh, Se-Young Oh
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2011; 16(4): 466.     CrossRef
  • Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Exposure and Subjective Symptoms in Residents Participating in Clean-Up Activities
    Hae-Kwan Cheong, Mina Ha, Jong Seong Lee, Hojang Kwon, Eun-Hee Ha, Yun-Chul Hong, Yeyong Choi, Woo-Chul Jeong, Jongil Hur, Seung-Min Lee, Eun-Jung Kim, Hosub Im
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    Im-Ju Kang, Sung-Youn Choi, Jae-Eun Lee, Mi-Hye Seo, Byoung-Kwon Ghim
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2009; 30(11): 848.     CrossRef
Psychological Health in Residents Participating in Clean-up Works of Hebei Spirit Oil Spill.
Minkyo Song, Yun Chul Hong, Hae Kwan Cheong, Mina Ha, Hojang Kwon, Eun Hee Ha, Yeyong Choi, Woo Chul Jeong, Jongil Hur, Seung Min Lee, Eun Jung Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(2):82-88.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.2.82
  • 5,361 View
  • 84 Download
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Our objective was to examine and evaluate the psychological health of the residents of Taean during the cleanup of the Hebei Spirit (HS) oil spill and to review some factors associated with the results. METHODS: A community survey of 71 men and women was conducted 8 weeks after the HS oil spill. Questionnaires used were the PWI (Psychological Well-being Index) scale for psychosocial distress, the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) scale for depressive symptoms, and a questionnaire created to assess suicidal impulses. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of high-risk psychosocial distress among the study group was 64.2%. The percentages of respondents with scores on the CES-D Scale above 16 and above 21 were 77.6% and 62.7%, respectively. The percentage of respondents categorized as having suicidal impulses was 18.3%. When compared with unexposed groups in the general population taken from various sources, the residents of Taean were 6.5 times as likely to have high stress and 9.4-9.7 times as likely to be depressed. No significant difference in the rate of suicidal impulse was found between the residents of Taean and the general population. Factors associated with high stress, depression, and suicidal impulses were age, a change in income, educational level, number of days working on the cleanup, and positive responses to questions about "affected daily activity" and "hospital visit due to work on cleanup." CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the HS oil spill had a significant impact on the psychological health of residents of Taean, but the comparability of the unexposed groups is a limitation of the study.
Summary

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  • Who has sustained psychological symptoms nine years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill?: The Health Effect Research on Hebei Spirit oil spill (HEROS) study
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  • Acute Health Effects of the Hebei Oil Spill on the Residents of Taean, Korea
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Environmental Health Surveillance of Low Birth Weight in Seoul using Air Monitoring and Birth Data.
Ju Hee Seo, Eun Hee Ha, Ok Jin Kim, Byung Mi Kim, Hye Sook Park, Jong Han Leem, Yun Chul Hong, Young Ju Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):363-370.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.5.363
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The principal objective of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal exposure to air pollution and low birth weight and to propose a possible environmental health surveillance system for low birth weight. METHODS: We acquired air monitoring data for Seoul from the Ministry of Environment, the meteorological data from the Korean Meteorological Administration, the exposure assessments from the National Institute of Environmental Research, and the birth data from the Korean National Statistical Office between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2003. The final birth data were limited to singletons within 37~44 weeks of gestational age. We defined the Low Birth Weight (LBW) group as infants with birth weights of less than 2500g and calculated the annual LBW rate by district. The air monitoring data were measured for CO, SO2, NO2, and PM10 concentrations at 27 monitoring stations in Seoul. We utilized two models to evaluate the effects of air pollution on low birth weight: the first was the relationship between the annual concentration of air pollution and low birth weight (LBW) by individual and district, and the second involved a GIS exposure model constructed by Arc View 3.1. RESULTS: LBW risk (by Gu, or district) was significantly increased to 1.113(95% CI=1.111~1.116) for CO, 1.004 (95% CI=1.003~1.005) for NO2, 1.202(95% CI=1.199~ 1.206) for SO2, and 1.077(95% CI=1.075~1.078) for PM10 with each interquartile range change. Personal LBW risk was significantly increased to 1.081(95% CI=1.002~1.166) for CO, 1.145(95% CI=1.036~1.267) for SO2, and 1.053(95% CI=1.002~1.108) for PM10 with each interquartile range change. Personal LBW risk was increased to 1.003(95% CI=0.954~1.055) for NO2, but this was not statistically significant. The air pollution concentrations predicted by GIS positively correlated with the numbers of low birth weights, particularly in highly polluted regions. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental health surveillance is a systemic, ongoing collection effort including the analysis of data correlated with environmentally-associated diseases and exposures. In addition, environmental health surveillance allows for a timely dissemination of information to those who require that information in order to take effective action. GIS modeling is crucially important for this purpose, and thus we attempted to develop a GIS-based environmental surveillance system for low birth weight.
Summary

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Effects of Oxidative DNA Damage and Genetic Polymorphism of the Glutathion Peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and 8-Oxoguanine Glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) on Lung Cancer.
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J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(2):130-134.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Oxidative DNA damage is a known risk factor of lung cancer. The glutathione peroxidase (GPX) antioxidant enzyme that reduces hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides plays a significant role in protecting cells from the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate effects of oxidative stress and genetic polymorphisms of the GPX1 genes and the interaction between them in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer. METHODS: Two hundreds patients with lung cancer and 200 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Every subject was asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their smoking habits and their environmental exposure to PAHs. The genotypes of the GPX1 and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) genes were examined and the concentrations of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 2-naphthol and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) were measured. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking was a significant risk factor for lung cancer. The levels of urinary 8-OH-dG were higher in the patients (p<0.001), whereas the urinary 1-OHP and 2-naphthol levels were higher in the controls. The GPX1 codon 198 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Individuals carrying the Pro/Leu or Leu/Leu genotype of GPX1 were at a higher risk for lung cancer (adjusted OR=2.29). In addition, these individuals were shown to have high urinary 8-OH-dG concentrations compared to the individuals with the GPX1 Pro/Pro genotype. On the other hand, the polymorphism of the hOGG1 gene did not affect the lung cancer risk and the oxidative DNA damage. CONCLUSIONS: These results lead to a conclusion that individuals with the GPX1 Pro/Leu or Leu/Leu genotype would be more susceptible to the lung cancer induced by oxidative stress than those individuals with the Pro/Pro genotype.
Summary
Air Pollution and Respiratory Symptoms of School Children in a Panel Study in Seoul.
Bo Eun Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Hye sook Park, Ho Kim, Hyun Jung Lee, Yeon Kyoung Lee, Seung Joo Lee, Yun Chul Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):465-472.
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OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of air pollution on the daily respiratory symptoms of elementary school children in Seoul. METHODS: Using the panel study design, we collected diary data for the children's respiratory symptoms during the 1st day~15th day of April, July, October and December in 2003 among the 2nd and 3rd grade elementary school students. We merged the respiratory symptom data with the ambient air pollution data that was monitored by Ministry of Environment. Using a generalized estimate equation, we evaluated the relationship between the daily symptoms of the subjects and the exposure to air pollution after controlling for various potential confounders. RESULTS: The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure of the current day significantly increased the upper respiratory symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=1.12, 95% CI=1.01-1.24) and the lower respiratory symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=1.18, 95% CI=1.06-1.31) in the elementary school children. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in the current day was associated with the lower respiratory symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=1.12, 95% CI=1.01-1.25 for SO2; adjusted odds ratio=1.16, 95% CI=1.02-1.32 for CO). CONCLUSIONS: We found that exposure to air pollution affects the daily respiratory symptoms in children. This study suggests that the effect on children's health? due to the short term changes in air pollution levels needs to be considered as an important public health problem.
Summary
Effects of Oxidative DNA Damage Induced by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Genetic Polymorphism of the Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) Gene on Lung Cancer.
Chul Ho Lee, Kye Young Lee, Kang Hyeon Choe, Yun Chul Hong, Yong Dae Kim, Jong Won Kang, Heon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(3):345-350.
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OBJECTIVE
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are risk factors for lung cancer, have been reported to induce oxidative DNA damage. The paraoxonase (PON) plays a significant role in the detoxification of a variety of organophosphorous compounds, with paraoxonase-1 (PON1) being one of the endogenous free-radical scavenging systems in the human body. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the effects of PAH exposure, oxidative stress and the Q192R polymorphism of PON1 genes, and their interactions in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer. METHODS: One hundred and seventy seven lung cancer patients and 177 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Each subject was asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their smoking habits and environmental exposure to PAHs. The Q192R genotypes of the PON1 gene was examined, and the concentrations of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 2-naphthol and 8- hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) measured. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking was found to be a significant risk factor for lung cancer. The urinary 8-OH-dG level was higher in the patients, whereas the urinary 1-OHP and 2- naphthol levels were higher in the controls. There was a significant correlation between the urinary levels of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP in both the cases and controls. The PON1 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Individuals carrying the Q/Q genotype of the PON1 gene were found to be at higher risk of developing lung cancer. There was a significant correlation between the urinary levels of 8-OH-dG and 1-OHP in those with the PON1 Q/Q genotype. CONCLUSIONS: These results lead to the conclusion that PAHs would induce oxidative DNA damage, especially in individuals with the PON1 Q/Q genotype. Therefore, people with the PON1 Q/Q genotype would be more susceptible to lung cancer than those with the R/R or Q/R genotypes of the PON1 gene.
Summary
Placental Superoxide Dismutase, Genetic Polymorphism, and Neonatal Birth Weight.
Yun Chul Hong, Kwan Hee Lee, Moon Whan Im, Young Ju Kim, Eun Hee Ha
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):306-311.   Published online November 30, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The roles of antioxidants in the placenta and genetic susceptibility to oxidant chemicals in relation to neonatal birth weight have not been elucidated. We determined whether the level of placental manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and its genetic polymorphism plays any role in oxidative stress and neonatal birth weight. METHODS: We measured placental MnSOD and determined MnSOD genetic polymorphism among 108 pregnant women who were hospitalized for delivery and their singleton live births in Korea. Main outcome measurements are maternal urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) and birth weight. RESULTS: Maternal urinary concentrations of MDA were significantly associated with neonatal birth weight (P=0.04). The enzyme level of placental MnSOD was also significantly associated with MDA concentration (P=0.04) and neonatal birth weight (P< 0.01). We observed dose-response relationships between placental MnSOD and maternal urinary MDA, and neonatal birth weight after adjusting for maternal weight, height, age, and neonatal sex. After controlling for covariates, MnSOD variant genotype increased maternal urinary MDA concentrations (P< 0.01) and reduced birth weight by 149 gm (P=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the placental level of MnSOD during pregnancy significantly affects fetal growth by reducing oxidative stress, and that genetic polymorphism of MnSOD probably modulate the effects of oxidants on fetal growth.
Summary
Prenatal Exposure to PM10 and Preterm Birth between 1998 and 2000 in Seoul, Korea.
Eun Hee Ha, Bo Eun Lee, Hye Sook Park, Yun Sang Kim, Ho Kim, Young Ju Kim, Yun Chul Hong, Eun Ae Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):300-305.   Published online November 30, 2004
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OBJECTIVES
The exposure to particulate air pollution during the pregnancy has reported to result in adverse pregnancy outcome such as low birth weight, preterm birth, still birth, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). We aim to assess whether prenatal exposure of particulate matter less than 10 (m in diameter (PM10) is associated with preterm birth in Seoul, South Korea. METHODS: We included 382, 100 women who delivered a singleton at 25-42 weeks of gestation between 1998 and 2000. We calculated the average PM10 exposures for each trimester period and month of pregnancy, from the first to the ninth months, based on the birth date and gestational age. We used three different models to evaluate the effect of air pollution on preterm birth; the logistic regression model, the generalized additive logistic regression model, and the proportional hazard model. RESULTS: The monthly analysis using logistic regression model suggested that the risks of preterm birth increase with PM10 exposure between the sixth and ninth months of pregnancy and the highest risk was observed in the seventh month (adjusted odds ratio=1.07, 95% CI=1.01- 1.14). We also found the similar results using generalized additive model. In the proportional hazard model, the adjusted odds ratio for preterm births due to PM10 exposure of third trimester was 1.04 (95% CI=0.96-1.13) and PM10 exposure between the seventh month and ninth months of pregnancy was associated with the preterm births. CONCLUSIONS: We found that there were consistent results when we applied the three different models. These findings suggest that air pollution exposure during the third trimester pregnancy has an adverse effect on preterm birth in South Korea.
Summary
Air Pollution Exposure and Health Effects in Fetus.
Bo Eun Lee, Hye sook Park, Young Ju Kim, Eun Ae Park, Yun Chul Hong, Eun Hee Ha
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):291-299.   Published online November 30, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
As there have been growing concerns about the adverse effects of air pollution on birth outcome, studies for this area has been carried out in different populations and sites. We reviewed the epidemiologic studies that evaluated the effects of air pollution on birth outcome such as low birth weight and preterm births. We identified the air pollution exposure during pregnancy was related with low birth weight and preterm birth, although there are differences among studies for the critical period of vulnerability. The biological mechanisms whereby air pollution might influence health of fetus are not clearly established. The exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) during pregnancy could increase fetal carboxyhemoglobin and result in tissue hypoxia. On the other hand, ambient particles less than 10 micrometer in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) could lead to inflammation and increase blood viscosity. Controlling for potential confounders and valid assessment of exposure are the methodological issues remained in these epidemiologic studies. In the future, more studies are needed to investigate the effect of air pollution on preterm birth or stillbirths, considering the various exposure period and the biological mechanism.
Summary
Influence of Smoking on Blood Cadmium Concentration in University Students.
Joo Youn Shin, Jong Han Lim, Sin Goo Park, Jee Na Lee, Mi Jang, Chung Song Huh, Dae Hee Kang, Yun Chul Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(3):225-231.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to examine the influence of smoking on the blood cadmium concentration in university students. METHODS: The study included 300 university students. A questionnaire interview was used to collect data. The urine cotinine and blood cadmium levels were measured as biological exposure indices. The data were analyzed using t-tests ANOVA and ANCOVA. RESULTS: The median value of blood cadmium concentration was equal in both males and females (0.8microgram/liter). This level was relatively low in comparison with the reference value suggested by WHO (2001). ANCOVA showed that smoking related variables, urine cotinine and smoking amount, were significantly associated with the blood cadmium level (P=0.004, 0.015). However, the values with regard to traffic related air pollution were not significantly associated with the blood cadmium level. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is an important source of nonoccupational cadmium exposure in young people. The Blood cadmium level is at least 10% higher in active smokers than in passive or nonsmokers. The level of urine cotinine can be used as an indicator of non-occupational exposure of respirable cadmium due to smoking, as there is a good correlation bestween smoking amount and the urine cotinine level.
Summary
Exposure Assessment of PCDD/Fs and Monitoring of Health Effects on Workers and Residents near the Waste Incinerators in Korea.
Jong Han Leem, Yun Chul Hong, Kwan Hee Lee, Ho Jang Kwon, Jae Yeon Jang
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(4):314-322.
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OBJECTIVES
In this study, the exposure status of the hazardous substances from incinerators, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), were studied, and the relationship between the exposure of these hazardous substances and their heath effects on the workers and residents near municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators and an industrial incinerator investigated. METHODS: Between July 2001 and June 2002, 13 workers at two MSW incinerators, 16 residents from the area around the two MSW incinerators, 6 residents from the control area, and further 10 residents near an industrial incinerator, estimated to emit higher levels of hazardous substances, were interviewed. Information, including sociodemographic information, personal habits, and work history, detailed gynecologic and other medical history were collected through interviews. Blood samples were also collected from 45 subjects, and analyzed for PCDD/DFs, by high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry, using the US EPA 1613 method. In addition to the questionnaire survey, urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as oxidative injury biomarkers. The urinary concentrations of 8-OH-dG were determined by in vitro ELISA, and the MDA by HPLC, using an adduct with thiobarbituric acid. RESULTS: The PCDD/DFs concentrations in the residents near the industrial incinerator were higher than those in the controls, workers and residents near the MSW incinerators. The average TEQ (Toxic Equivalencies) concentrations of the PCDD/DFs in residents near the industrial incinerator were 53.4pg I-TEQs/g lipid. The estimated daily intakes were within the tolerable daily intake range (1-4 pg I-TEQ/Kg bw/day) suggested by WHO (1997) in only 30% to the people near the industrial incinerator. Animal studies have already shown that even a low body burden of PCDD/DFs, such as 10ng TEQ/kg bw, can cause oxidative damage in laboratory animals. Our study also showed that the same body burden of PCDD/DFs can cause oxidative damage to humans. CONCLUSIONS: The exposures to PCDD/DFs and the oxidative stress of residents near the industrial incinerator, were higher than those in the controls, workers and residents near the MSW incinerators. Proper protection strategies against these hazardous chemicals are needed. Because a lower body burden of PCDD/Fs, such as 10ng TEQ/kg bw, can cause oxidative damage, the tolerable daily intake range should be restrictedly limited to 1pg I-TEQ/kg bw/day.
Summary
Specimen Storage and Analysis for Genomic Epidemiology.
Yun Chul Hong, Kwan Hee Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):209-212.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Because of advances of technologies in the field of genomic epidemiology in the recent years, specimen collection, storage and analysis became an essential part of research methodologies. DNA is now being used in epidemiologic studies to evaluate genetic risk factors and specimens other than the fresh whole blood can be used for PCR. Therefore, All nucleated cells, such as buccal swabs and urine specimens, are suitable for DNA analysis. For an unlimited source of genomic DNA, EBV transformation of lymphocytes can be used for immortalization. However, the type of specimen collected in genomic epidemiologic studies will depend on the study where the epidemiologist play a leading role for the design. We also briefly described various kinds of analysis for SNP that is an essential part of the genomic epidemiology.
Summary
Maternal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and Pregnancy Outcome (low birth weight or preterm baby) in Prospective Cohort Study.
Bo Eun Lee, Yun Chul Hong, Hye Sook Park, Jong Tae Lee, Jeong Youn Kim, Young Joo Kim, Sang Hyun Kim, Kang Jung Goo, Joo Oh Kim, Eun Hee Ha
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):117-124.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to examine the relationship between maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and pregnancy outcomes (low birth weight or preterm baby) in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We made a pregnant women's cohort, and followed the pregnancy outcomes, between May 1st 2001 and August 31st 2002. We surveyed 2, 250 women who visited our hospital during their 35th gestational week, with a self-administered questionnaire. The final total of mother-infant pairs analyzed in this study was 1, 712. We used a multiple logistic regression analysis to analyze the effect of maternal ETS on the incidence of preterm or low birth weight, and a linear regression analysis for the birth weight and gestational age. RESULTS: Higher exposure to ETS (> or =1 hours/day) during pregnancy was more negatively associated with the gestational age and birth weight, than no exposure to ETS (no or less than 1hour). Maternal exposure to ETS was associated with preterm baby (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 3.3) and low birth weight (AOR 2.3; 95% CI 0.9, 5.5). In addition, we found that maternal ETS may reduce the birth weight by 70g after adjusting for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that maternal exposure to ETS during pregnancy may increase the frequency of low birth weights and preterm births.
Summary
Health Effects of Ambient Particulate Pollutants.
Yun Chul Hong, Soo Hun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):103-108.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Recently, numerous studies have focused on the health effects of ambient particulate pollutants. Compared to earlier studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding the health effects of air pollution at levels common to contemporary cities. We reviewed recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and concluded that respirable particulate air pollution is an important contributing factor to acute mortality and morbidity. We observed increased respiratory and cardiovascular deaths, increased hospital admissions and visits, and decreased lung function. We also observed increased mortality and morbidity in a Korean population. Theses health effects were observed at levels below the current Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate air pollution.
Summary
A Survey for Computerized Information System of Occupational Health Management at Worksite.
Heui Sug Jo, Eun Hee Ha, Yun Chul Hong, Chul Hwan Kim, Kyung Ja June, Hye Sook Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(2):215-227.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to develop the computerized information system of occupational health management at worksite, we surveyed actual states of computer use at worksites. We used a self-administrative questionnaire to the members of Korean Association of Occupational Health Nursing(KAOHN) from July 4 to August 21 in 1997. Among the members of KAOHN, 147 members answered. The worksites where they, were employed were very diverse in aspect of jobs, locations, and size. Occupational health computerized system was used at 30(20.4%) worksites among 147 respondents. When they first introduced the computerized system the most difficult problem was the lack of support of manager. The programs that they have used mainly consist of drug management, health examination management, disease management, but the program of worksite environment management have been rarely used. Most users felt that the computerized system was effective, but there were problems in connection within programs. Many worksites have plans to take or expand the computerized information system within several years. It is necessary to develop the effective and integrated occupational health computerized system.
Summary
In Vitro Assessment of Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Rock Wool Fibers.
Yun Chul Hong, Kwan Hee Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(3):555-566.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of rock wool fibers(RWFs) such as cell division disturbance, chromosomal and DNA damage, and mutagenicity using cultured cells. RWFs were the man made mineral fibers. In order to find the correlation between the cytotoxicity of RWFs and the phagocytic capacity of cells, the phagocytic processes were observed using scanning electron microscope. Cell division disturbance by RWFs was evaluated by the formation of multinucleated giant cells. The chromosomal damage was evaluated by the micronucleus formation. For the evaluation of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) formation was measured utilizing calf thymus DNA. Mutagenicity was determined by the point mutation of HGPRT and the effect of RWFs on cell transformation was also observed. 1. Compared with the results of chrysotile, RWFs were no or little effect on the cell growth according to the results done by the tests of cell proliferation inhibition and relative plating efficiency. 2. The frequency of multinucleated giant cell formation was increased by the treatment of RWFs and it was dose-dependent. However, the effect of RWFs was weaker than that of chrysotile. 3. The number of micronuclei formed in the RWFs treated cells was between those of cells treated with chrysotile and those of untreated cells. 4. The 2 fold increase in the formation of 8-OH-dG in calf thymus DNA was observed in the cells treated with RWFs in the presence of H2O2. On the other hand, chrysotile had no effect on the 8-OH-dG formation. 5. RWFs had no effect on the HGPRT point mutation and cell transformation. These results showed that RWFs could induce chromosomal damage, cell division disturbance and oxidative DNA damage in the RWFs treated cells.
Summary
Repair of Chromate induced DNA-Protein Crosslinks in Rat Lymphocyte.
Hun Jae Lee, Kwan Hee Lee, Yun Chul Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(3):597-608.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Genotoxic agents can induce various DNA lesions. DNA-Protein Crosslinks(DPCs) were known as the important DNA lesions which could impair gene expression because DPCs had a high probability of resisting repair and persisting through cell cycle. This repair resistance of DPCs could have biological significance but had not been evaluated clearly yet. Most of the studies that have evaluated the repair of DPCs only compared the extent of DPCs repair with other DNA lesions. We injected K2CrO4, a genotoxic agent, into Sprague-Dawley rats intraperitoneally(5mg/kg) and isolated blood lymphocytes 12 hours later. These lymphocytes were cultured in the mitogen added growth media and mitogen free media separately. The degree of the repair of DPCs was monitored for 4 days by the K-SDS assay. 4 day later, the amount of DPCs decreased by 4.6% in the mitogen added media but in creased by 10.9% in the mitogen free media. These results showed that DPCs induced by K2CrO4 were not repaired easily and the DPCs were biologically significant DNA lesions. We thought the decrease of DPCs in the mitogen added media was not due to the repair of DPCs, but from the increase of normal cell proliferation. Therefore, it is very important to consider the proliferation of normal cells when estimating the repair of DPCs.
Summary
The Risk Factors of Industrial Low Back Pain among Shipyard Workers.
Yun Chul Hong, Eun Hee Ha, Hye Sook Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):91-102.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Low back pain patients an controls of shipyard workers were surveyed between June 1995 and september 1995 to identify risk factors of industrial low back pain. The patients were 17 male workers who had got medical treatment for over 3 days because of industrial back pain controls were 51 male workers who had not have musculoskeletal disorder for one year before the survey. By univariate analysis, the workers who did overtime work 4 times or more for the last 2 weeks showed odds ratio of 3.67 on low back pain with the workers who did less overtime work. Carrying heavy materials was also associated with the low back pain and the odds ratio increased with the increase of carrying weight. work space and work posture were not associated with the low back pain significantly. The welder had higher odds ratio than the other workers on low back pain. The duration of employment and job satisfaction did not affect the risk of low back pain. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that frequency of overtime work for the last 2 weeks and carrying heavy materials among the risk factors were associated significantly with the low back pain. We found that important risk factors of low back pain of shipyard workers are work intensity factors such as overtime work and carrying heavy weight.
Summary
Case-Control Study on Effects of Alcohol Intake and Smoking to Gastritis of Korean Adult Men.
Yun Chul Hong, Chung Yill Park, Won Chul Lee, Kang Sook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(3):238-246.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We performed case-control studies for the 1, 138 Korean adult men. According to the results of UGIS, we classified the gastritis into the erosive gastritis, superficial gastritis, and hypertrophic gastritis. And then, we selected controls among non-gastritis group after matching. Alcohol intake and smoking history was obtained by questionnaire. And we observed the effects of alcohol intake and smoking to the each gastritis. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Smokers had a risk of getting erosive gastritis more than twice (2.6) than non-smokers and there was dose-response relationships between smoking and erosive gastritis. Alcohol intake, however, had no significant relation with the erosive gastritis. 2. Both smoking and alcohol intake had no significant relations with superficial gastritis. 3. Smoking had no significant relation with hypertrophic gastritis, but dividing between those who drank more than 100gm of alcohol a week and those who drank less, we obtained the odds ratio of 3. 4 suggesting that there existed a significant relation between moderate or excessive alcohol intake and hypertrophic gastritis. 4. Among the gastritis patients, those who had erosive gastritis smoked most heavily, and those who had hypertrophic gastritis drank most excessively.
Summary
The Effect of Alcohol on the Blood Lipid Level of Korean Adult Men.
Chung Yill Park, Yun Chul Hong, Seung Han Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(1):44-52.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to evaluate the relations between alcohol intake and blood lipid level in a group of 1,138 Korean adult men, ages 20 to 69 years. Total number of each of a variety of drinks in the previous two weeks was obtained by questionnaire and converted into grams of alcohol consumed in a week. The levels of blood lipid such as Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, Triglyceride and LDL-Cholesterol were examined by enzyme method. We also observed the effects of various variables such as age, body mass index, smoking, exercise and blood pressure on blood lipid level. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Average weekly alcohol intake was 129.0+/-167.4 gm and that of 30-39 age group was the highest as 149.3+/-170.4gm. 2. Levels of Cholesterol, Triglyceride and LDL-Cholesterol tended to increase with increasing age, but level of HDL-Cholesterol showed no significant relationship with age. 3. The positive linear regressions of alcohol intake on HDL-Cholesterol and Triglyceride were noted statistically significant. 4. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the effect of alcohol on HDL-Cholesterol and Triglyceride was statistically significant and the contribution rates were 5.0% and 0.8%, respectively. And, in the case of HDL-Cholesterol, the alcohol intake was the most significant independent variable.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health