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Volume 40(6); November 2007
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Review
Why Do Health Inequalities Matter?.
Young Jeon Shin, Myoung Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):419-421.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.419
  • 4,235 View
  • 87 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to introduce the concept of health inequalities, and to discuss the underlying assumptions and ethical backgrounds associated with the issue, as well as the theoretical and practical implications of health inequalities. METHODS: Based on a review of the literature, we summarize the concepts of health inequalities and inequities and discuss the underlying assumptions and ethical backgrounds associated with these issues from the view of social justice theory. We then discuss the theoretical and practical implications of health inequalities. RESULTS: Health inequality involves ethical considerations, such as judgments on fairness, and it could provide a sensitive barometer to reflect the fairness of social arrangements. Discussion on health inequalities could deepen our understanding of the social etiology of health and provide a basis for the development of comprehensive and integrative social policies. CONCLUSIONS: Health equity is not a social goal in and of itself, but should be considered as a part of a broader effort to seek social justice.
Summary

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  • A Study on Factors Affecting Cancer Mortality in Busan
    Su-Kyung Song, Hye-Sook Kim, Kyoung-Min Lim
    The Korean Journal of Health Service Management.2014; 8(4): 81.     CrossRef
Historical Article
Historical Advances in Health Inequality Research.
Young Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):422-430.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.422
  • 4,813 View
  • 109 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The socioeconomic inequalities in health have recently become an important public health concern in South Korea, and the issue has gained increasing attention from many South Korean researchers due to the increasing income inequality and widening social polarization following its economic crisis in the late 1990s. However, despite the mounting literature on health inequalities published in recent years, the history of research on health inequality in South Korea is premature in comparison to the long histories in several Western countries. Understanding the historical background underlying the issue of health inequality research may aid in establishing and accumulating scientifically solid evidence in South Korea. It may also direct the South Korean research community to develop research agendas that are more politically and academically appropriate for South Korean society. This paper describes the historical development of health inequality research in the West and introduces several important issues contributing to the advancement of health inequality research. Specifically, the major studies conducted before and after the UK Black Report are presented. In addition, the history and current status of health inequality research in South Korea are documented and evaluated. Finally, several research agendas for the quantitative and qualitative improvement of health inequality research in South Korea are proposed.
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  • The Gap in Community Sports: Utilization of Sports Facilities in South Korea
    Minuk Kang, Youngjik Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(8): 4495.     CrossRef
  • Regional Disparity of Cardiovascular Mortality and Its Determinants
    Hyeon Jin Kang, Soonman Kwon
    Health Policy and Management.2016; 26(1): 12.     CrossRef
  • The association between income inequality and all-cause mortality across urban communities in Korea
    Jong Park, So-Yeon Ryu, Mi-ah Han, Seong-Woo Choi
    BMC Public Health.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Study on Factors Affecting Cancer Mortality in Busan
    Su-Kyung Song, Hye-Sook Kim, Kyoung-Min Lim
    The Korean Journal of Health Service Management.2014; 8(4): 81.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic inequalities in health status in Korea
    Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Yu-Mi Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2013; 56(3): 167.     CrossRef
  • Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges
    Young-Ho Khang, Sang-il Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2012; 27(Suppl): S33.     CrossRef
Review
Health Inequalities in Korea: Current Conditions and Implications.
Yu Mi Kim, Myoung Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):431-438.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.431
  • 5,287 View
  • 140 Download
  • 24 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to summarize the current conditions and implications of health inequalities in South Korea. METHODS: Through a literature review of empirical studies and supplementary analysis of the data presented in the 1998, 2001, and 2005 KNHANEs, we evaluated the extent and trends of socioeconomic inequalities in both health risk factors, such as smoking, physical activity, and obesity, and outcomes, such as total mortality, subjective poor health status by self-reports and metabolic syndrome. Relative risks and odds ratios were used to measure differences across socioeconomic groups, and the relative index of inequality was used to evaluate the changes in inequalities over time. RESULTS: We found clear inequalities to various degrees in most health indicators. While little change was observed in mortality differences over time, the socioeconomic gaps in risk factors and morbidity have been widening, with much larger differences among the younger population. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequalities are pervasive across various health indicators, and some of them are increasing. The trends in socioeconomic inequalities in health should be carefully monitored, and comprehensive measures to alleviate health inequalities are needed, especially for young populations.
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  • Analysis of Major Factors Affecting the Quality of Life of the Elderly in Korea in Preparation for a Super-Aged Society
    Bo-Ram Kim, Hyang-Hee Hwang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(15): 9618.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of energy intakes, physical activities and metabolic syndrome according to the income level in Korean elderly people: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016‒2018
    Eun-Sook Sung, Sijin Lee, Youngjun Lee, Seunghee Lee, Jonghoon Park
    Physical Activity and Nutrition.2022; 26(2): 028.     CrossRef
  • Effect of socioeconomic deprivation on outcomes of diabetes complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide population-based cohort study of South Korea
    Dong-Woo Choi, Sang Ah Lee, Doo Woong Lee, Jae Hong Joo, Kyu-Tae Han, SeungJu Kim, Eun-Cheol Park
    BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2020; 8(1): e000729.     CrossRef
  • Interactions between Ambient Air Particles and Greenness on Cause-specific Mortality in Seven Korean Metropolitan Cities, 2008–2016
    Sera Kim, Honghyok Kim, Jong-Tae Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(10): 1866.     CrossRef
  • Recent Trends in Blood Pressure According to Economic Status: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey From 2005 to 2015
    Hyun-Young Shin, Hee-Taik Kang
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2018; 30(3): 266.     CrossRef
  • The Association between Socioeconomic Status and Adherence to Health Check-up in Korean Adults, Based on the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Hyun-Young Shin, Hee-Taik Kang, Jae Woo Lee, Hyoung-Ji Lim
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2018; 39(2): 114.     CrossRef
  • Health Inequality in Health Checkups
    Jungun Lee
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2018; 39(2): 65.     CrossRef
  • Anemia after gastrectomy in long-term survivors of gastric cancer: A retrospective cohort study
    Ji-Hye Jun, Jung Eun Yoo, Jung Ah Lee, Young Sik Kim, Sung Sunwoo, Bum Soo Kim, Jeong-Hwan Yook
    International Journal of Surgery.2016; 28: 162.     CrossRef
  • Physical activity disparities by socioeconomic status among metabolic syndrome patients: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Hyo Lee, Byung-Hoon Kim
    Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation.2016; 12(1): 10.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic Inequality in mortality using 12-year follow-up data from nationally representative surveys in South Korea
    Young-Ho Khang, Hye-Ryun Kim
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Differences between middle-aged and older people in association between income level and remaining teeth
    Sun-Yi Kim, Jeong-Keun Lee, Yun-Hwan Lee, Ki-Hong Chun
    Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health.2016; 40(1): 9.     CrossRef
  • Health inequalities in hypertension and diabetes management among the poor in urban areas: a population survey analysis in south Korea
    Young-Jee Jeon, Chung Reen Kim, Joo-Sung Park, Kyung-Hyun Choi, Myoung Joo Kang, Seung Guk Park, Young-Jin Park
    BMC Public Health.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Influences of ParentalEducation Level on Oral Health
    Ji Hye Kim, Mee Hee Lee, Hye Youn Kim
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(2): 1182.     CrossRef
  • Health behavior affecting on the regional variation of standardized mortality
    Jin A Han, Soo Jeong Kim, Se Rom Kim, Ki Hong Chun, Yun Hwan Lee, Soon Young Lee
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2015; 32(3): 23.     CrossRef
  • Working conditions and leisure‐time physical activity among waged workers in South Korea: A cross‐sectional study
    Chungah Kim, Youngtae Cho
    Journal of Occupational Health.2015; 57(3): 259.     CrossRef
  • Trend of Suicide Rates According to Urbanity among Adolescents by Gender and Suicide Method in Korea, 1997–2012
    Kyung-Hwa Choi, Dong-Hyun Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2015; 12(5): 5129.     CrossRef
  • Trends in income-related health inequalities in self-assessed health in Korea, 1998–2011
    Jong Won Min
    Global Public Health.2014; 9(9): 1053.     CrossRef
  • Widening social disparities in alcohol-attributable deaths among Korean men aged 40–59 years during the transitional period of the economic crisis (1995–2005)
    Eunyoung Shim, Youngtae Cho
    International Journal of Public Health.2013; 58(4): 521.     CrossRef
  • Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges
    Young-Ho Khang, Sang-il Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2012; 27(Suppl): S33.     CrossRef
  • National Screening Program for Transitional Ages in Korea: A New Screening for Strengthening Primary Prevention and Follow-up Care
    Hyun Su Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Won Chul Lee, Young Taek Kim, Belong Cho
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2012; 27(Suppl): S70.     CrossRef
  • Difference in Health-related Quality of Life among Social Classes and Related Factors in Korea
    Gyeong-Tae Lim, In-Sun Kwon, Soon-Young Kim, Young-Chae Cho, Hea-Sung Nam
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2012; 13(5): 2189.     CrossRef
  • Health status and epidemiological capacity and prospects: WHO Western Pacific Region
    Tony Blakely, Frank Pega, Yosikazu Nakamura, Robert Beaglehole, Liming Lee, Colin Fonotau Tukuitonga
    International Journal of Epidemiology.2011; 40(4): 1109.     CrossRef
  • Analysis for the Impact of Adulthood and Childhood Socioeconomic Positions and Intergenerational Social Mobility on Adulthood Health
    Jae-Hee Seo, Ho Kim, Young-Jeon Shin
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2010; 43(2): 138.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic Inequity in Self-Rated Health Status and Contribution of Health Behavioral Factors in Korea
    Minkyung Kim, Woojin Chung, Seungji Lim, Soojin Yoon, Jakyoung Lee, Eunkyung Kim, Lanju Ko
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2010; 43(1): 50.     CrossRef
English Abstracts
Introduction of Health Impact Assessment and Healthy Cities as a Tool for Tackling Health Inequality.
Weon Seob Yoo, Keon Yeop Kim, Kwang Wook Koh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):439-446.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.439
  • 4,168 View
  • 60 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to reduce the health inequalities within a society changes need to be made in broad health determinants and their distribution in the population. It has been expected that the Health impact assessment(HIA) and Healthy Cities can provide opportunities and useful means for changing social policy and environment related with the broad health determinants in developed countries. HIA is any combination of procedures or methods by which a proposed 4P(policy, plan, program, project) may be judged as to the effects it may have on the health of a population. Healthy city is one that is continually creating and improving those physical and social environments and expanding those community resources which enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the functions of life and in developing to their maximum potential. In Korea, social and academic interest regarding the HIA and Healthy Cities has been growing recently but the need of HIA and Healthy Cities in the perspective of reducing health inequality was not introduced adequately. So we reviewed the basic concepts and methods of the HIA and Healthy Cities, and its possible contribution to reducing health inequalities. We concluded that though the concepts and methods of the HIA and Healthy Cities are relatively new and still in need of improvement, they will be useful in approaching the issue of health inequality in Korea.
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  • Trends, Issues and Future Directions of Urban Health Impact Assessment Research: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis
    Wenbing Luo, Zhongping Deng, Shihu Zhong, Mingjun Deng
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(10): 5957.     CrossRef
  • Engaging Diverse Community Groups to Promote Population Health through Healthy City Approach: Analysis of Successful Cases in Western Pacific Region
    Albert Lee, Keiko Nakamura
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(12): 6617.     CrossRef
  • Rapid Growth—What’s Next for Gender Mainstreaming? Analyzing the Gender Impact Assessment System in Korea
    Dool-Soon Kim, Minah Kang
    Journal of Women, Politics & Policy.2016; 37(2): 168.     CrossRef
  • Demonstrative development of City Health Profile in Healthy City Project
    Baek-Vin Lim, Kwang-Wook Koh, Hee-Suk Kim, Yong-Hyun Shin
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2014; 31(3): 109.     CrossRef
  • Health Impact Assessment of Free Immunization Program in Jinju City, Korea
    Keon Yeop Kim, So Youn Jeon, Man Joong Jeon, Kwon Ho Lee, Sok Goo Lee, Dongjin Kim, Eunjeong Kang, Sang Geun Bae, Jinhee Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2012; 45(4): 267.     CrossRef
  • Health Impact Assessment as a Strategy for Intersectoral Collaboration
    Eunjeong Kang, Hyun Jin Park, Ji Eun Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2011; 44(5): 201.     CrossRef
  • The Characteristics of Healthy City Project in Korea
    Gil-Ho Jung, Keon-Yeop Kim, Bak-Ju Na
    Journal of agricultural medicine and community health.2009; 34(2): 155.     CrossRef
The Proposal of Policies Aimed at Tackling Health Inequalities in Korea.
Tae Ho Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):447-453.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.447
  • 4,887 View
  • 48 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Although the New National Health Promotion Plan 2010 target to reduce health inequalities, whether the program will be effective for reducing the health inequalities in Korea remains quite unclear. More and more developed countries have been started to concentrate on comprehensive policies for reducing health inequalities. The health policies of the UK, Netherlands, and Sweden are the most wellknown. I propose that a comprehensive blueprint for tackling health inequalities in Korea should be made and that it must contain five domains: a target, structure and process, life-course approach, area-based approach, and reorganization of health care resources. The target should be based on determinants of health and more attention should be paid to socioeconmic factors. The structure and process require changes from the national health care policy based on medical services to the national health policy that involves the establishment of a Social Deputy Prime Minister and the strengthening multidisciplinary action. A life-course approach especially focused on the early childhood years. Area-based approach such as the establishment of healthy communities, healthy schools, or healthy work-places which are focused on deprived areas or places is also required. Finally, health care resources should be a greater investment on public resources and strengthening primary care to reduce health inequalities. The policy or intervention studies for tackling health inequalities should be implemented much more in Korea. In addition, it is essential to have political will to encoruage policy action.
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  • The Effect of Health Coaching Programs on Self-Efficacy, Health Behaviors, and Quality of Life in Hypertensive People Living in Poverty
    Sun Ok Eom, Insook Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2017; 47(3): 380.     CrossRef
  • Health Behaviors, Health Status, and Utilization Patterns of Health Care Institutions for homeless shelter residents: Comparison of Younger and Older male residents
    Hee Sang Yoon, Young Ran Han, Mi Sook Song
    Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing.2013; 27(3): 578.     CrossRef
  • Current status of policy developments in tackling health inequalities and the next steps to be taken in Korea
    Myoung-Hee Kim, Joohee Lee
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2013; 56(3): 206.     CrossRef
  • Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges
    Young-Ho Khang, Sang-il Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2012; 27(Suppl): S33.     CrossRef
  • Task Analysis of Managers in the Customized Visiting Health Services
    Young Ran Han, Young Rye Park, Young Hee Kim, Hee Chung Choi, Mi Ja Chung
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2012; 23(2): 165.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of a Health Promotion Program through Multi-level Health Promotion
    Gyung-Hee Kim, Hee Sang Yoon
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2010; 21(1): 92.     CrossRef
The Association between Sleep and Obesity in Korean Adults.
Young Jun Park, Won Chul Lee, Hyeon Woo Yim, Young Moon Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):454-460.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.454
  • 6,548 View
  • 93 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Obesity is currently an epidemic in Korea, and sleep duration is thought to be one of the risk factors for obesity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that short sleep duration is associated with obesity in Korean adults. METHODS: The data from the 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey were used, and 6,174 subjects aged 18~80 years were included in the analysis. Sleep duration was measured using information obtained from self-reported questionnaires. Obesity, the main outcome variable, was measured according to body mass index. Multiple regression modeling was used to adjust for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: The study results revealed a negative association between sleep duration and body mass index among Korean adults. These associations persisted after controlling for the potential confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is associated with obesity in Korean adults. In addition, these observations support earlier experimental sleep studies and provide a basis for future studies on weight control intervention by increasing the amount of sleep.
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  • Analysis of Lifelong for Health of Middle-Aged Men by Using Machine Learning Algorithm
    Jiyong Kim, Jisoo Lee, Minseo Park
    Journal of the Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers.2021; 47(6): 504.     CrossRef
  • Mental health according to sleep duration in stroke survivors: A population‐based nationwide cross‐sectional study
    Hye‐Mi Moon, Yoonjung Kim
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International.2020; 20(3): 223.     CrossRef
  • Association of Exposure to Artificial Light at Night While Sleeping With Risk of Obesity in Women
    Yong-Moon Mark Park, Alexandra J. White, Chandra L. Jackson, Clarice R. Weinberg, Dale P. Sandler
    JAMA Internal Medicine.2019; 179(8): 1061.     CrossRef
  • Population-Based Cross-Sectional Data From South Korean Adults Suggest That Sleep Duration Might be Associated With Periodontitis
    Tarek Elmajie
    Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice.2018; 18(2): 187.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Sleep Duration on the Risk of Unintentional Injury in Korean Adults
    Yeon-Yong Kim, Un-Na Kim, Jin-Seok Lee, Jong-Heon Park
    Journal of Preventive Medicine & Public Health.2014; 47(3): 150.     CrossRef
  • The Traditional Korean Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998–2009
    Kyung Won Lee, Mi Sook Cho
    Journal of Medicinal Food.2014; 17(1): 43.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Sleep Duration in Korean Adults: Results of a 2008 Community Health Survey in Gwangju Metropolitan City, Korea
    So Yeon Ryu, Ki Soon Kim, Mi Ah Han
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2011; 26(9): 1124.     CrossRef
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    L. S. Nielsen, K. V. Danielsen, T. I. A. Sørensen
    Obesity Reviews.2011; 12(2): 78.     CrossRef
  • Effects of poly-γ-glutamic acid on serum and brain concentrations of glutamate and GABA in diet-induced obese rats
    Hyesung Lee, Moon-Jeong Chang, Sun-Hee Kim
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2010; 4(1): 23.     CrossRef
  • South Korean Study in a Public Health -Preventive Medicine and Sports Environment-
    Dan Silviu Radut, You Jin Kim, Byung Nam Min, Ki Jeoung Cho, Jong Young Lee
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2009; 42(4): 209.     CrossRef
  • Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
    Yoon-Kyung Shin, Seung-Chul Hong
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2008; 51(3): 244.     CrossRef
Determinants of Sterilization among Married Couples in Korea.
Ju Hee Kim, Woojin Chung, Sunmi Lee, Moonhee Suh, Dae Ryong Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):461-466.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.461
  • 3,453 View
  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of sterilization in South Korea. METHODS: This study was based on the data from the Korea National Fertility Survey carried out in the year 2000 by the Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs. The subjects of the analysis were 4,604 women and their husbands who were in their first marriage, in the age group of 15-49 years. The data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Consistent with the findings of previous studies, the woman's age and the number of total children increased the likelihood of sterilization. In addition, the year of marriage had a strong positive association with sterilization. Interestingly, the number of surviving sons tended to increase the likelihood of sterilization, whereas the woman's education level and age at the time of marriage showed a negative association with sterilization. Religion, place of residence, son preference, and the husband's education level, age and type of occupation were not significant determinants of sterilization. CONCLUSIONS: The sex of previous children and lower level of education are distinct determinants of sterilization among women in South Korea. More studies are needed in order to determine the associations between sterilization rate and decreased fertility.
Summary
Multicenter Study
Cigarette Smoking and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Community-based Cohort Study in Korea.
Yeonju Kim, Aesun Shin, Jin Gwack, Jae Kwan Jun, Sue Kyung Park, Daehee Kang, Hai Rim Shin, Soung Hoon Chang, Keun Young Yoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):467-474.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.467
  • 5,607 View
  • 96 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Gastric cancer is the most common incident cancer in Korea. Although Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, cigarette smoking has also been suggested to play an important role in the development of gastric cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoking and gastric cancer risk in a Korean population. METHODS: The study population consisted of 13,785 subjects who had been enrolled in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort between 1993 and 2002. As of December 2002, 139 incident gastric cancer cases were ascertained through the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the National Death Certificate Database. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for gastric cancer were estimated using CoxZs proportional hazard model adjusted for age, education, alcohol drinking status and history of gastritis or ulcer. RESULTS: Significant dose-response relationships were observed between the duration of smoking and the risk of gastric cancer among the male subjects in comparison to non-smokers: men who smoked for 20-39 years had a 2.09- fold (95% CI 1.00-4.38) increase, and those who smoked for more than 40 years had a 3.13-fold (95% CI 1.59-6.17) increase in the risk of gastric cancer (Ptrend<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a longer duration of cigarette smoking may increase the risk of gastric cancer development in a dose-response manner in Korean men. The association between smoking and gastric cancer risk in women should be verified in future studies with a larger number of cases.
Summary

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    In-Seob Lee, Young-Soo Park, Jeong Hoon Lee, Ji Young Park, Hee-Sung Kim, Beom-Su Kim, Jeong-Hwan Yook, Sung-Tae Oh, Byung-Sik Kim
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    Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim, Sohee Park
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    Palanisamy Pasupathi, Ganesan Saravanan, Palanisamy Chinnaswamy, Govindaswamy Bakthavathsalam
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology.2009; 28(2): 65.     CrossRef
  • The role of TNFgenetic variants and the interaction with cigarette smoking for gastric cancer risk: a nested case-control study
    Jae Jeong Yang, Kwang-Pil Ko, Lisa Y Cho, Aesun Shin, Jin Gwack, Soung-Hoon Chang, Hai-Rim Shin, Keun-Young Yoo, Daehee Kang, Sue K Park
    BMC Cancer.2009;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Soybean Product Intake Modifies the Association between Interleukin-10 Genetic Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer Risk
    Kwang-Pil Ko, Sue K. Park, Lisa Y. Cho, Jin Gwack, Jae Jeong Yang, Aesun Shin, Cheong Sik Kim, Yeonju Kim, Daehee Kang, Soung-Hoon Chang, Hai-Rim Shin, Keun-Young Yoo
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    Palanisamy Pasupathi, Ganesan Saravanan, Palanisamy Chinnaswamy, Govindaswamy Bakthavathsalam
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Review
A Review on Socioeconomic Position Indicators in Health Inequality Research.
Yong Jun Choi, Baek Geun Jeong, Sung Il Cho, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Soong Nang Jang, Minah Kang, Young Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):475-486.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.475
  • 5,280 View
  • 125 Download
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Socioeconomic position (SEP) refers to the socioeconomic factors that influence which position an individual or group of people will hold within the structure of a society. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of various indicators of SEP, including education level, occupation-based SEP, income and wealth, area SEP, lifecourse SEP, and SEP indicators for women, elderly and youth. METHODS AND RESULTS: This report provides a brief theoretical background and discusses the measurement, interpretation issues, advantages and limitations associated with the use of each SEP indicator. We also describe some problems that arise when selecting SEP indicators and highlight the indicators that appear to be appropriate for health inequality research. Some practical information for use in health inequality research in South Korea is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: Investigation into the associations between various SEP indicators and health outcomes can provide a more complete understanding of mechanisms between SEP and health. The relationship between specific SEP indicators and specific health outcomes can vary by country due to the differences in the historical, socioeconomic, and cultural contexts of the SEP indicators.
Summary

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English Abstracts
Physician Factors Associated with the Blood Pressure Control among Hypertensive Patients.
So Young Kim, In Sook Cho, Jae Ho Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Eun Jung Lee, Jong Hyock Park, Jin Seok Lee, Yoon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):487-494.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.487
  • 4,568 View
  • 42 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Little is known about the physician-related factors that are associated with the management of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine the physician-related factors associated with blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. METHODS: We surveyed 154 physicians at 117 public health (subhealth) centers in Gyeonggi-do. Forty-one physicians completed the survey (response rates: 26.6%) and 31 physicians were finally included as the study subjects. Using the information obtained from the selfreported survey, we measured the physician-related factors associated with hypertension control, including their perception of hypertension, prescription patterns (combination prescription rates, specific antihypertensives prescription rates among patients with diabetes mellitus), and sociodemographic factors. We then collected data on blood pressure and medication use in patients seen by these physicians from the health center's information system. We compared the physicians' perceived hypertension control rates with the actual rates, and then evaluated the rate of high overestimation (overestimation by more than 25% of the median degree of hypertension control rate overestimation) among the physicians. The physicians' antihypertensive prescription patterns were also evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent association between hypertension control and physicianrelated factors. RESULTS: The physicians tended to overestimate the proportion of their patients with controlled blood pressure (79.5% perceived vs. 57.8% actual). The percentage of physicians with high overestimation was 35.5% (11 physicians). The physicians with lower control rates were more likely to highly overestimate their patients' control rates. Physicians with below-median actual control rates tended to prescribe fewer combination treatments for patients with uncontrolled blood pressure and angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors or fewer angiotensin receptor blockers for patients with diabetes mellitus. The rate of high overestimation by physicians was 1.31 times higher in patients with uncontrolled blood pressure than in patients with other conditions (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.17-1.48). CONCLUSIONS: Physicians have a tendency to overestimate the rates of hypertension control in their patients. Because physicians have a direct role in treatment outcomes, physicians' overestimation about hypertension management contributes to inadequate blood pressure control. Thus, interventions for improving physician' awareness regarding the management of patients with hypertension are needed.
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    Eboni G. Price-Haywood, Sarah Amering, Qingyang Luo, John J. Lefante
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    Kyunghee Kang
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    L. T. C. van Hulst, M. C. W. Creemers, J. Fransen, L. C. Li, R. Grol, M. E. J. L. Hulscher, P. L. C. M. van Riel
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Strengthening Causal Inference in Studies using Non-experimental Data: An Application of Propensity Score and Instrumental Variable Methods.
Myoung Hee Kim, Young Kyung Do
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):495-504.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.495
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  • 85 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study attempts to show how studies using non-experimental data can strengthen causal inferences by applying propensity score and instrumental variable methods based on the counterfactual framework. For illustrative purposes, we examine the effect of having private health insurance on the probability of experiencing at least one hospital admission in the previous year. METHODS: Using data from the 4th wave of the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study, we compared the results obtained using propensity score and instrumental variable methods with those from conventional logistic and linear regression models, respectively. RESULTS: While conventional multiple regression analyses fail to identify the effect, the results estimated using propensity score and instrumental variable methods suggest that having private health insurance has positive and statistically significant effects on hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that propensity score and instrumental variable methods provide potentially useful alternatives to conventional regression approaches in making causal inferences using non-experimental data.
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Trend of Socioeconomic Inequality in Participation in Cervical Cancer Screening among Korean Women.
Soong Nang Jang, Sung il Cho, Seung Sik Hwang, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, So Young Im, Ji Ae Lee, Minah Kang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):505-511.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.505
  • 5,036 View
  • 73 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
While cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers among women worldwide, there are a number of effective early detection tests available. However, the participation rates in cervical cancer screening among Korean women remain low. After the nationwide efforts in 1988 and thereafter to encourage participation in cervical cancer screening, few studies have investigated the effects of socioeconomic inequality on participation in cervical cancer screening. The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the level of socioeconomic disparities in receiving cervical cancer screening by age group and 2) if there was an improvement in reducing these disparities between 1995 and 2001. METHODS: Using data from the Korean National Health Status, Health Behavior and Belief Survey in 1995, and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1998 and 2001 (sample sizes of 2,297, 3,738, and 3,283), age-standardized participation rates were calculated according to education level, equivalized household income, and job status. Odds ratios and the relative inequality index (RII) were also calculated after controlling for age. RESULTS: Women with lower education levels were less likely to attend the screening test, and the disparities by education level were most pronounced among women aged 60 years and older. The RIIs among women 60 years and older were 3.64, 4.46, and 8.64 in 1995, 1998, and 2001, respectively. Higher rates of participation were reported among those in the highest income category, which was more notable among the middle aged women (40s and 50s). An inconsistent trend in the rate of participation in cervical cancer screening by occupational level was found. CONCLUSIONS: Indicators of socioeconomic position seem to have varying impacts on the inequalities in the rates of participation in cervical cancer screening according to age group. These results demonstrate the need for more aggressive and age-based interventions and policy programs to eliminate the remaining inequalities.
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health