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Volume 56(3); May 2023
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Special Article
National Cancer Control Plan of the Korea: Current Status and the Fourth Plan (2021-2025)
Kyu-Tae Han, Jae Kwan Jun, Jeong-Soo Im
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):205-211.   Published online May 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.115
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Cancer management has become a major policy goal for the government of the Korea. As such, the government introduced the National Cancer Control Plan (NCCP) to reduce the individual and social burdens caused by cancer and to promote national health. During the past 25 years, 3 phases of the NCCP have been completed. During this time, the NCCP has changed significantly in all aspects of cancer control from prevention to survival. The targets for cancer control are increasing, and although some blind spots remain, new demands are emerging. The government initiated the fourth NCCP in March 2021, with the vision of “A Healthy Country with No Concerns about Cancer Anywhere at Any Time,” which aims to build and disseminate high-quality cancer data, reduce preventable cancer cases, and reduce gaps in cancer control. Its main strategies include (1) activation of cancer big data, (2) advancement of cancer prevention and screening, (3) improvement in cancer treatment and response, and (4) establishment of a foundation for balanced cancer control. The fourth NCCP has many positive expectations, similar to the last 3 plans; however, cross-domain support and participation are required to achieve positive results in cancer control. Notably, cancer remains the leading cause of death despite decades of management efforts and should continue to be managed carefully from a national perspective.
Summary
Korean summary
- 기존 1~3차 국가암관리계획의 전반적인 성과를 소개합니다. - 제4차 국가암관리계획의 목표 및 내용을 기존 계획과 비교하여 설명합니다.

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  • Association between Socioecological Status, Nutrient Intake, and Cancer Screening Behaviors in Adults Aged 40 and Over: Insights from the Eighth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2019)
    Seungpil Jeong, Yean-Jung Choi
    Nutrients.2024; 16(7): 1048.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Characteristics of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Hospitalized Children Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Thailand
Wilawan Chaiut, Ratana Sapbamrer, Sauwaluk Dacha, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Ida Parwati, Anton Sumarpo, Rungnapa Malasao
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):212-220.   Published online March 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study compared the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of patients hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at a tertiary care hospital in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.
Methods
This retrospective observational study utilized data from all cases of laboratory-confirmed RSV infection at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from January 2016 to December 2021. Differences in the clinical presentation of RSV infection before (2016 to 2019) and during (2020 to 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed and compared.
Results
In total, 358 patients hospitalized with RSV infections were reported from January 2016 to December 2021. During the COVID-19 pandemic, only 74 cases of hospitalized RSV infection were reported. Compared to pre-pandemic levels, the clinical presentations of RSV infection showed statistically significant decreases in fever on admission (p=0.004), productive cough (p=0.004), sputum (p=0.003), nausea (p=0.03), cyanosis (p=0.004), pallor (p<0.001), diarrhea (p<0.001), and chest pain (p<0.001). Furthermore, vigilant measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including lockdowns, also interrupted the RSV season in Thailand from 2020 to 2021.
Conclusions
The incidence of RSV infection was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, which also changed the clinical presentation and seasonal pattern of RSV infection in children.
Summary

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  • Retrospective Analysis of Clinical Patterns and Antibiotic Utilization in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pneumonia at a Recently Established General Hospital
    Hyejin So, Kyung Min Kim, Eun Young Cho
    Pediatric Infection & Vaccine.2024; 31(1): 75.     CrossRef
  • Predominance of ON1 and BA9 genotypes of human respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory infection in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2020–2021
    Rungnapa Malasao, Wilawan Chaiut, Wanwisa Tantipetcharawan, Ratchanu Tongphung, Nicha Charoensri, Piyawan Takarn, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Niwat Maneekarn
    Journal of Infection and Public Health.2023; 16(9): 1418.     CrossRef
COVID-19 Vaccination and Clinical Outcomes at a Secondary Referral Hospital During the Delta Variant-dominant Period in West Sumatra, Indonesia
Didan Ariadapa Rahadi, Elfira Yusri, Syandrez Prima Putra, Rima Semiarty, Dian Pertiwi, Cimi Ilmiawati
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):221-230.   Published online May 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.077
  • 1,631 View
  • 112 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in Indonesia, during which the Delta variant predominated, took place after a vaccination program had been initiated in the country. This study was conducted to assess the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on unfavorable clinical outcomes including hospitalization, severe COVID-19, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death using a real-world model.
Methods
This single-center retrospective cohort study involved patients with COVID-19 aged ≥18 years who presented to the COVID-19 emergency room at a secondary referral teaching hospital between June 1, 2021 and August 31, 2021. We used a binary logistic regression model to assess the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on unfavorable clinical outcomes, with age, sex, and comorbidities as confounding variables.
Results
A total of 716 patients were included, 32.1% of whom were vaccinated. The elderly participants (≥65 years) had the lowest vaccine coverage among age groups. Vaccination had an effectiveness of 50% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25 to 66) for preventing hospitalization, 97% (95% CI, 77 to 99) for preventing severe COVID-19, 95% (95% CI, 56 to 99) for preventing ICU admission, and 90% (95% CI, 22 to 99) for preventing death. Interestingly, patients with type 2 diabetes had a 2-fold to 4-fold elevated risk of unfavorable outcomes.
Conclusions
Among adults, COVID-19 vaccination has a moderate preventive impact on hospitalization but a high preventive impact on severe COVID-19, ICU admission, and death. The authors suggest that relevant parties increase COVID-19 vaccination coverage, especially in the elderly population.
Summary

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  • Changes in the intrinsic severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 according to the emerging variant: a nationwide study from February 2020 to June 2022, including comparison with vaccinated populations
    Boyeong Ryu, Eunjeong Shin, Dong Hwi Kim, HyunJu Lee, So Young Choi, Seong-Sun Kim, Il-Hwan Kim, Eun-Jin Kim, Sangwon Lee, Jaehyun Jeon, Donghyok Kwon, Sungil Cho
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Determinant Factors of Mortality in Pre-elderly and Elderly Patients With COVID-19 in Jakarta, Indonesia
Thresya Febrianti, Ngabila Salama, Inggariwati , Dwi Oktavia
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):231-237.   Published online May 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality in pre-elderly and elderly individuals in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Methods
We employed a case-control study design, utilizing secondary data from the Epidemiology Surveillance, Immunization Prevention, and Disease Control Sections of the DKI Jakarta Provincial Health Office, collected from December 2020 to January 2021. The study included 188 cases and an equal number of controls. Cases were COVID-19 patients confirmed to have died, as reported by hospitals and communities and subsequently verified by healthcare workers. Control subjects were patients who completed a 14-day isolation period and had been officially declared recovered by healthcare professionals. The dependent variable was the mortality of COVID-19 patients in the January 2021 period. The independent variables consisted of demographic data (age and sex), clinical symptoms (cough, runny nose, anosmia, diarrhea, headaches, abdominal pain, muscle pain, and nausea/vomiting), and comorbidities (hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes). Multivariate analysis was conducted using multiple logistic regression.
Results
The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed several factors associated with COVID-19 fatalities in Jakarta: age of 60 years or older (odds ratio [OR], 4.84; 95% CI, 3.00 to 7.80), male (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.41 to 3.68), dyspnea (OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.04 to 7.55), anosmia (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.46), and heart disease (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.04 to 18.46).
Conclusions
The control and prevention of COVID-19 among elderly individuals require particular vigilance. When a COVID-19 case is detected within this demographic, prompt treatment and medication administration are crucial to mitigate the presenting symptoms.
Summary

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  • Tuberculosis Coinfection among COVID-19 Patients: Clinical Presentation and Mortality in a Tertiary Lung Hospital in Indonesia
    Heni Muflihah, Fajar A. Yulianto, Rina, Edi Sampurno, Astri Ferdiana, Santun B. Rahimah
    The International Journal of Mycobacteriology.2024; 13(1): 58.     CrossRef
A Peer-support Mini-counseling Model to Improve Treatment in HIV-positive Pregnant Women in Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
Artha Camellia, Plamularsih Swandari, Gusni Rahma, Tuti Parwati Merati, I Made Bakta, Dyah Pradnyaparamita Duarsa
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):238-247.   Published online April 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.516
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Low adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of virus transmission from mother to newborn. Increasing mothers’ knowledge and motivation to access treatment has been identified as a critical factor in prevention. Therefore, this research aimed to explore barriers and enablers in accessing HIV care and treatment services.
Methods
This research was the first phase of a mixed-method analysis conducted in Kupang, a remote city in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Samples were taken by purposive sampling of 17 people interviewed, consisting of 6 mothers with HIV, 5 peer facilitators, and 6 health workers. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, observations, and document review. Inductive thematic analysis was also performed. The existing data were grouped into several themes, then relationships and linkages were drawn from each group of informants.
Results
Barriers to accessing care and treatment were lack of knowledge about the benefits of ARV; stigma from within and the surrounding environment; difficulty in accessing services due to distance, time, and cost; completeness of administration; drugs’ side effects; and the quality of health workers and HIV services.
Conclusions
There was a need for a structured and integrated model of peer support to improve ARV uptake and treatment in pregnant women with HIV. This research identified needs including mini-counseling sessions designed to address psychosocial barriers as an integrated approach to support antenatal care that can effectively assist HIV-positive pregnant women in improving treatment adherence.
Summary

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  • Letter to the Editor: Supporting the Sick and the Vulnerable
    Fides A. del Castillo
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(4): 392.     CrossRef
  • Author Response: Supporting the Sick and the Vulnerable
    Artha Camellia, Gusni Rahma
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(4): 394.     CrossRef
Trends in the Quality of Primary Care and Acute Care in Korea From 2008 to 2020: A Cross-sectional Study
Yeong Geun Gwon, Seung Jin Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):248-254.   Published online April 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.015
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Measuring the quality of care is paramount to inform policies for healthcare services. Nevertheless, little is known about the quality of primary care and acute care provided in Korea. This study investigated trends in the quality of primary care and acute care.
Methods
Case-fatality rates and avoidable hospitalization rates were used as performance indicators to assess the quality of primary care and acute care. Admission data for the period 2008 to 2020 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Claims Database. Case-fatality rates and avoidable hospitalization rates were standardized by age and sex to adjust for patients’ characteristics over time, and significant changes in the rates were identified by joinpoint regression.
Results
The average annual percent change in age-/sex-standardized case-fatality rates for acute myocardial infarction was -2.3% (95% confidence interval, -4.6 to 0.0). For hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, the age-/sex-standardized case-fatality rates were 21.8% and 5.9%, respectively in 2020; these rates decreased since 2008 (27.1 and 8.7%, respectively). The average annual percent change in age-/sex-standardized avoidable hospitalization rates ranged from -9.4% to -3.0%, with statistically significant changes between 2008 and 2020. In 2020, the avoidable hospitalization rates decreased considerably compared with the 2019 rate because of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
Conclusions
The avoidable hospitalization rates and case-fatality rates decreased overall during the past decade, but they were relatively high compared with other countries. Strengthening primary care is an essential requirement to improve patient health outcomes in the rapidly aging Korean population.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 급성심근경색증과 뇌졸중 치명률, 외래진료 민감질환의 예방 가능한 입원율을 사용하여 한국의 의료 질 수준을 분석하였다. 2008~2020년 동안 치명률과 예방 가능한 입원율은 감소하는 추세이다. 그러나, 예방 가능한 입원율은 다른 국가에 비해 상대적으로 높아 환자의 건강결과 향상을 위하여 일차의료 강화가 요구된다.
Associations Between Indoor Air Pollutants and Risk Factors for Acute Respiratory Infection Symptoms in Children Under 5: An Analysis of Data From the Indonesia Demographic Health Survey
Ichtiarini Nurullita Santri, Yuniar Wardani, Yohane Vincent Abero Phiri, Gunchmaa Nyam, Tyas Aisyah Putri, Khoiriyah Isni, Dyah Suryani, Grace Sambo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):255-263.   Published online April 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.470
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The study investigated the association between indoor air pollution (IAP) and risk factors for acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms in children under 5 years of age.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted using data derived from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey in 2017. Binary logistic regression modeling was employed to examine each predictor variable associated with ARI among children under 5 years of age in Indonesia.
Results
The study included a total of 4936 households with children. Among children under 5 years old, 7.2% reported ARI symptoms. The presence of ARI symptoms was significantly associated with the type of residence, wealth index, and father’s smoking frequency, which were considered the sample’s socio-demographic characteristics. In the final model, living in rural areas, having a high wealth index, the father’s smoking frequency, and a low education level were all linked to ARI symptoms.
Conclusions
The results revealed that households in rural areas had a substantially higher level of reported ARI symptoms among children under 5 years old. Furthermore, the father’s smoking frequency and low education level were associated with ARI symptoms.
Summary
Epidemiology of Suicide by Hanging in Fars Province, Iran (2011-2019): A Population-based Cross-sectional Study
Leila Moftakhar, Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Sanaz Amiri, Fariba Rezaei, Habibollah Azarbakhsh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):264-271.   Published online April 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.519
  • 1,389 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Hanging is a common method of attempted suicide. This study investigated the epidemiological profile of attempted and completed suicides by hanging in southern Iran.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was performed on 1167 suicide attempts by hanging between 2011 and 2019. All data related to suicide attempts by hanging were collected from the Fars Suicide Surveillance System. The trends in suicide cases and the mean age of attempted and completed suicides were plotted. The chi-square test was used to identify suicide-related factors. Crude rates of incidence, mortality, and standardized fatality during the study period were calculated. Finally, logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of death in individuals who attempted suicide.
Results
The mean age of those who attempted suicide was 33.21±16.82 years; the majority were male (80.5%). The rate of attempted and completed suicide by hanging were 3.50 and 2.79 per 100 000 people, respectively. The case-fatality rate was calculated as 79.34%. The results of our study indicated an increasing trend in suicide attempts by hanging. The likelihood of death was 2.28 times higher in individuals with a previous history of suicide attempts and 1.85 times higher in those with a psychological disorder.
Conclusions
The findings of this study suggest an increasing trend in attempted and completed suicide by hanging, especially among individuals with a history of suicide attempts and psychological disorders. It is necessary to take action to reduce the rate of suicide attempts and identify the underlying causes of suicide attempts by hanging.
Summary

Citations

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  • Assessing the knot in a noose position by thyrohyoid and cervical spine fracture patterns in suicidal hangings using machine learning algorithms: A new insight into old dilemmas
    Aleksa Leković, Arso Vukićević, Slobodan Nikolić
    Forensic Science International.2024; 357: 111973.     CrossRef
Postpartum Depression in Young Mothers in Urban and Rural Indonesia
Alifa Syamantha Putri, Tri Wurisastuti, Indri Yunita Suryaputri, Rofingatul Mubasyiroh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):272-281.   Published online May 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.534
  • 2,474 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Young mothers are vulnerable to postpartum depression due to role transition-related stress. Understanding the causes underlying these stressors is essential for developing effective interventions.
Methods
This study analyzed the 2018 Indonesian Basic Health Research data. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess postpartum depression symptoms in mothers aged 15-24 years with infants aged 0-6 months. In 1285 subjects, the risk factors for postpartum depression were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression.
Results
The overall prevalence of depression in the 6 months postpartum was 4.0%, with a higher prevalence in urban areas (5.7%) than in rural areas (2.9%). Urban and rural young mothers showed distinct postpartum depression risk factors. In urban areas, living without a husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24 to 11.76), experiencing preterm birth (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.50 to 14.50), having pregnancy complications (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.20 to 7.66), and having postpartum complications (OR, 5.23; 95% CI, 1.98 to 13.80) were associated with a higher risk of postpartum depression. In rural areas, postpartum depression was significantly associated with a smaller household size (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.00 to 10.38), unwanted pregnancy (OR, 4.40; 95% CI, 1.15 to 16.86), and pregnancy complications (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.31 to 8.88).
Conclusions
In both urban and rural contexts, postpartum depression relates to the availability of others to accompany young mothers throughout the postpartum period and offer support with reproductive issues. Support from the family and the healthcare system is essential to young mothers’ mental health. The healthcare system needs to involve families to support young mothers’ mental health from pregnancy until the postpartum period.
Summary

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  • Qualitative Study of Perinatal Mental Health Services: Experiences and Perspectives of Health Workers and Patients
    Evi Diliana Rospia, Dwi Kartika Cahyaningtyas, Siti Mardiyah WD, Cahaya Indah Lestari
    EMBRIO.2023; 15(2): 216.     CrossRef
Effect Modification of Kidney Function on the Non-linear Association Between Serum Calcium Levels and Cardiovascular Mortality in Korean Adults
Jung-Ho Yang, Sun-Seog Kweon, Young-Hoon Lee, Seong-Woo Choi, So-Yeon Ryu, Hae-Sung Nam, Hye-Yeon Kim, Min-Ho Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):282-290.   Published online May 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.068
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to evaluate the potential interaction between kidney function and the non-linear association between serum calcium levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.
Methods
This study included 8927 participants enrolled in the Dong-gu Study. Albumin-corrected calcium levels were used and categorized into 6 percentile categories: <2.5th, 2.5-25.0th, 25.0-50.0th, 50.0-75.0th, 75.0-97.5th, and >97.5th. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to examine the non-linear association between calcium levels and CVD mortality. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality according to serum calcium categories. All survival analyses were stratified by the estimated glomerular filtration rate.
Results
Over a follow-up period of 11.9±2.8 years, 1757 participants died, of whom 219 died from CVD. A U-shaped association between serum calcium and CVD mortality was found, and the association was more evident in the low kidney function group. Compared to the 25.0-50.0th percentile group for serum calcium levels, both low and high serum calcium tended to be associated with CVD mortality (<2.5th: HR, 6.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 33.56; >97.5th: HR, 2.56; 95% CI, 0.76 to 8.66) in the low kidney function group. In the normal kidney function group, a similar association was found between serum calcium levels and CVD mortality (<2.5th: HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.58 to 3.27; >97.5th: HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 0.70 to 3.93).
Conclusions
We found a non-linear association between serum calcium levels and CVD mortality, suggesting that calcium dyshomeostasis may contribute to CVD mortality, and kidney function may modify the association.
Summary
Korean summary
- 혈중 칼슘 농도와 심혈관 질환에 의한 사망은 U자형의 비선형 연관성을 보였다. - 혈중 칼슘 농도와 심혈관 질환에 의한 사망의 비선형 연관성은 신기능이 정상인 그룹보다 신기능이 낮은 그룹에서 더 유의하게 나타났다.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health