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Brief Report
Utilization of the Unlinked Case Proportion to Control COVID-19: A Focus on the Non-pharmaceutical Interventional Policies of the Korea and Japan
Yeri Jeong, Sanggu Kang, Boeun Kim, Yong Jin Gil, Seung-sik Hwang, Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(4):377-383.   Published online June 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.056
  • 1,947 View
  • 70 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Korea and Japan have managed the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using markedly different policies, referred to as the “3T” and “3C” strategies, respectively. This study examined these differences to assess the roles of active testing and contact tracing as non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We compared the proportion of unlinked cases (UCs) and test positivity rate (TPR) as indicators of tracing and testing capacities.
Methods
We outlined the evolution of NPI policies and investigated temporal trends in their correlations with UCs, confirmed cases, and TPR prior to the Omicron peak. Spearman correlation coefficients were reported between the proportion of UCs, confirmed cases, and TPR. The Fisher r-to-z transformation was employed to examine the significance of differences between correlation coefficients.
Results
The proportion of UCs was significantly correlated with confirmed cases (r=0.995, p<0.001) and TPR (r=0.659, p<0.001) in Korea and with confirmed cases (r=0.437, p<0.001) and TPR (r=0.429, p<0.001) in Japan. The Fisher r-to-z test revealed significant differences in correlation coefficients between the proportion of UCs and confirmed cases (z=16.07, p<0.001) and between the proportion of UCs and TPR (z=2.12, p=0.034) in Korea and Japan.
Conclusions
Higher UCs were associated with increases in confirmed cases and TPR, indicating the importance of combining testing and contact tracing in controlling COVID-19. The implementation of stricter policies led to stronger correlations between these indicators. The proportion of UCs and TPR effectively indicated the effectiveness of NPIs. If the proportion of UCs shows an upward trend, more testing and contact tracing may be required.
Summary
Korean summary
“3T”전략과 “3C”전략으로 대표되는 한국과 일본의 코로나 19 유행 시기의 NPI 정책을 비교하고, 접촉자 추적 및 검사 역량의 지표로 감염경로를 알 수 없는 확진자(unlinked case)와 검사 양성률(TPR)의 역할을 평가하였다. 감염경로를 알 수 없는 확진자(UC)는 전체 확진자수 증가 및 검사 양성률의 증가와 관련이 있었으며, 이는 COVID-19 통제에 있어 검사와 접촉자 추적을 적절히 조합하는 것이 중요함을 보여준다.
Original Articles
The Impact of Public Transfer Income on Catastrophic Health Expenditures for Households With Disabilities in Korea
Eun Jee Chang, Sanggu Kang, Yeri Jeong, Sungchan Kang, Su Jin Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(1):67-76.   Published online January 16, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.183
  • 1,397 View
  • 73 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Previous studies have reported that people with disabilities are more likely to be impoverished and affected by excessive medical costs than people without disabilities. Public transfer income (PTI) reduces financial strain in low-income households. This study examined the impact of PTI on catastrophic health expenditures (CHE), focusing on low-income households and households with Medical Aid beneficiaries that contained people with disabilities.
Methods
We constructed a panel dataset by extracting data on registered households with disabilities from the Korea Welfare Panel Study 2012-2019. We then used a generalized estimating equation model to estimate the impacts of PTI on CHE. A subgroup analysis was carried out to assess the moderating effects of family income levels and health insurance types.
Results
As PTI increased, the odds ratio (OR) of CHE in households that contained people with disabilities decreased significantly (OR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 0.94; p<0.001). In particular, PTI effectively reduced the likelihood of CHE for low-income households (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.89; p<0.001) and those who received medical benefits (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.89; p<0.001).
Conclusions
This study highlights the positive effect of PTI on decreasing CHE. Household income and the health insurance type were significant effect modifiers, but economic barriers seemed to persist among low-income households with non-Medical Aid beneficiaries. Federal policies or programs should consider increasing the total amount of PTI targeting low-income households with disabilities that are not covered by the Medical Aid program.
Summary
Korean summary
장애인은 비장애인에 비해 소득수준이 낮고 빈곤율이 높으며, 저소득 장애인 가구일수록 소득원천 비중에서 공적이전소득 의존성이 높다. 본 연구는 공적이전소득이 장애인 가구의 재난적 의료비 발생 확률(Odds ratio)을 효과적으로 낮춘다는 점을 밝혔으며, 특히 저소득층 및 의료급여 수급 가구에서 의료비 부담 완화 효과가 큰 것을 확인하였다. 향후 의료급여 적용대상에서 제외되어 건강보험에 가입해 있는 저소득 장애인 가구를 대상으로 추가적인 맞춤형 지원 정책이 필요하다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence and Determinants of Catastrophic Healthcare Expenditures in Iran From 2013 to 2019
    Abdoreza mousavi, Farhad lotfi, Samira Alipour, Aliakbar Fazaeli, Mohsen Bayati
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2024; 57(1): 65.     CrossRef
The Impact of Household Economic Deterioration Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic and Socioeconomic Status on Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study Using 2020 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey Data
Sanggu Kang, Yeri Jeong, Eun Hye Park, Seung-sik Hwang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(5):455-463.   Published online September 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.241
  • 2,399 View
  • 113 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Economic hardship has a serious impact on adolescents’ mental health. The financial impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was more severe for low-income families, and this also impacted adolescents. This study aimed to examine the associations of economic deterioration (ED) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and low socioeconomic status (SES) with adolescents’ suicidal behaviors.
Methods
This study analyzed data from the 2020 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, which included 54 948 middle and high school students. Odds ratios (ORs) of suicidal ideation, suicidal planning, and suicide attempts related to ED and SES were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. We calculated relative excess risks due to interaction to assess additive interactions.
Results
The ORs for suicidal ideation, suicidal planning, and suicide attempts related to combined severe ED and low SES were 3.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.13 to 4.23), 3.88 (95% CI, 3.09 to 4.88), and 4.27 (95% CI, 3.21 to 5.69), respectively.
Conclusions
ED and low SES were significantly associated with suicidal behaviors in adolescents. Although no significant additive interaction was found, the ORs related to suicidal ideation, suicidal planning, and suicide attempts were highest among adolescents from low-income families with severe ED. Special attention is needed for this group, considering the increased impact of economic inequality due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Summary
Korean summary
청소년의 정신건강은 가정의 경제상황에 크게 영향을 받는다. 청소년건강행태조사(KYRBS)(2020)에 참여한 54948명의 중고등학생을 대상으로 가정의 기존 경제적 형편과 코로나19로 인한 가정경제 악화가 자살위험에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 그 결과 자살사고, 자살계획, 자살시도 모두 코로나19로 인한 경제상황 악화 정도가 심한 저소득층 가정 청소년에서 위험이 제일 높은 것으로 확인되었다. 코로나19(COVID-19)로 인해 심화된 경제적 불평등이 청소년 정신건강 불평등으로 이어지지 않게 하기 위한 개입이 필요하다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Letter to the Editor: Addressing Children’s Mental Health Issues Related to Economic Changes Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Dalmacito A. Cordero
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(1): 95.     CrossRef
  • Effects of COVID-19 outbreak on Korean adolescents: Impact of altered economic perception on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and stress levels in an age-, gender-, and BMI-matched study
    Jisu Kim, In-Whi Hwang, Jeong-Hui Park, Youngdeok Kim, Jung-Min Lee, Sandra Celina Fernandes Fonseca
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(11): e0294270.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health