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The Effects of a 7000-Step Goal and Weekly Group Walking Program for Overweight and Obese Elderly People in Sarawak, Malaysia: A Quasi-experimental Study
Mohd Fakhree Saad, Whye Lian Cheah, Helmy Hazmi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(3):199-207.   Published online April 29, 2021
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  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Physical inactivity is the fourth leading global risk factor for mortality, followed by obesity. The combination of these risk factors is associated with non-communicable diseases, impaired physical function, and declining mental function. The World Health Organization recommends physical activity to reduce the mortality rate. Thus, this study examined the effects on anthropometric measurements of a 12-week walking program for elderly people in Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia with a 7000-step goal and weekly group walking activities.
A quasi-experimental study was conducted involving 109 elderly people with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m2. BMI, body composition, and average daily steps were measured at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26.0, and repeated-measures analysis of variance with the paired t-test for post-hoc analysis was conducted.
In total, 48 participants in the intervention group and 61 participants in the control group completed the study. A significant interaction was found between time and group. The post-hoc analysis showed a significant difference between pre-intervention and post-intervention (within the intervention group). The post-intervention analysis revealed an increase in the mean number of daily steps by 3571.59, with decreases in body weight (-2.20 kg), BMI (-0.94 kg/m2), body fat percentage (-3.52%), visceral fat percentage (-1.29%) and waist circumference (-2.91 cm). Skeletal muscle percentage also showed a significant increase (1.67%).
A 12-week walking program combining a 7000-step goals with weekly group walking activities had a significant effect on the anthropometric measurements of previously inactive and overweight/obese elderly people.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Promoting Physical Activity in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes via an Anthropomorphic Conversational Agent: Development of an Evidence and Theory-Based Multi-Behavior Intervention
    Nuno Pimenta, Isa Brito Félix, Diogo Monteiro, Marta Moreira Marques, Mara Pereira Guerreiro
    Frontiers in Psychology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Intervention Programs in ASEAN Countries: Efficacy and Future Directions
    Yi-Shin Lee, Michael Chia, John Komar
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(9): 5357.     CrossRef
  • Socio-demographic Determinants of Low Physical Activity in Peruvian Adults: Results of a Population-based Survey Performed in 2017-2018
    Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2021; 54(6): 461.     CrossRef
The Association between Bone Density at Os Calcis and Body Composition in Healthy Children Aged 9-12 Years.
Eun Kyung Shin, Ki Suk Kim, Hee Young Kim, In Sook Lee, Hyo Jee Joung, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):72-79.
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  • 32 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This cross-sectional study aimed to quantify the relationship between the bone mineral density at the os calcis and the body mass composition in healthy children. METHODS: The areal bone mineral density was measured at the os calcis with peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The fat free mass, fat mass and percentage fat mass were measured using bioelectric impedance, in 237 Korean children, aged 9 to 12 years. The sexual maturity was determined by self assessment, using standardized series of the 5 Tanner stage drawings, accompanied by explanatory text. RESULTS: From multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, sexual maturity and height, the fat free mass was found to be the best predictor of the calcaneal bone mineral density in both sexes. About 15 and 20% variabilities were found in the calcaneal bone mineral densities of the boys and girls, respectively, which can be explained by the fat free mass. After weight adjustment, the percentage fat mass was negatively associated with the calcaneal bone mineral density in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the fat free mass, among the body compositions, is the major determinant of bone mineral density at the os calcis in Korean children aged 9 to 12 years. Obesity, defined as the percentage fat mass, is assumed to have a negative effect on the calcaneal bone density in children of the same weight.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health