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Brief Report
Utilization of the Unlinked Case Proportion to Control COVID-19: A Focus on the Non-pharmaceutical Interventional Policies of the Korea and Japan
Yeri Jeong, Sanggu Kang, Boeun Kim, Yong Jin Gil, Seung-sik Hwang, Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(4):377-383.   Published online June 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.056
  • 1,947 View
  • 70 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Korea and Japan have managed the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using markedly different policies, referred to as the “3T” and “3C” strategies, respectively. This study examined these differences to assess the roles of active testing and contact tracing as non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We compared the proportion of unlinked cases (UCs) and test positivity rate (TPR) as indicators of tracing and testing capacities.
Methods
We outlined the evolution of NPI policies and investigated temporal trends in their correlations with UCs, confirmed cases, and TPR prior to the Omicron peak. Spearman correlation coefficients were reported between the proportion of UCs, confirmed cases, and TPR. The Fisher r-to-z transformation was employed to examine the significance of differences between correlation coefficients.
Results
The proportion of UCs was significantly correlated with confirmed cases (r=0.995, p<0.001) and TPR (r=0.659, p<0.001) in Korea and with confirmed cases (r=0.437, p<0.001) and TPR (r=0.429, p<0.001) in Japan. The Fisher r-to-z test revealed significant differences in correlation coefficients between the proportion of UCs and confirmed cases (z=16.07, p<0.001) and between the proportion of UCs and TPR (z=2.12, p=0.034) in Korea and Japan.
Conclusions
Higher UCs were associated with increases in confirmed cases and TPR, indicating the importance of combining testing and contact tracing in controlling COVID-19. The implementation of stricter policies led to stronger correlations between these indicators. The proportion of UCs and TPR effectively indicated the effectiveness of NPIs. If the proportion of UCs shows an upward trend, more testing and contact tracing may be required.
Summary
Korean summary
“3T”전략과 “3C”전략으로 대표되는 한국과 일본의 코로나 19 유행 시기의 NPI 정책을 비교하고, 접촉자 추적 및 검사 역량의 지표로 감염경로를 알 수 없는 확진자(unlinked case)와 검사 양성률(TPR)의 역할을 평가하였다. 감염경로를 알 수 없는 확진자(UC)는 전체 확진자수 증가 및 검사 양성률의 증가와 관련이 있었으며, 이는 COVID-19 통제에 있어 검사와 접촉자 추적을 적절히 조합하는 것이 중요함을 보여준다.
Original Article
Development of a Social Contact Survey Instrument Relevant to the Spread of Infectious Disease and Its Application in a Pilot Study Among Korean Adults
Hyang Soon Oh, Youngran Yang, Mikyung Ryu
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(2):106-116.   Published online February 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.251
  • 3,889 View
  • 125 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to develop a valid social contact survey instrument and to verify its feasibility for use among Korean adults.
Methods
The Delphi technique was used to develop an instrument to assess social contacts, which was then applied in a cross-sectional pilot study. A panel of 15 medical professionals reviewed the feasibility and validity of each item. The minimum content validity ratio was 0.49. Thirty participants used the developed measure to record contacts during a 24-hour period.
Results
After a systematic review, the survey instrument (parts I and II) was developed. Part I assessed social contact patterns over a 24-hour period, and part II assessed perceptions of contacts in daily life and preventive behaviors (hand hygiene and coughing etiquette). High validity and feasibility were found. In the pilot study, the 30 participants had a combined total of 198 contacts (mean, 6.6 daily contacts per person). The participants’ age (p=0.012), occupation (p<0.001), household size (p<0.001), education (p<0.001), personal income (p=0.003), and household income (p<0.001) were significantly associated with the number of contacts. Contacts at home, of long duration, and of daily frequency were relatively likely to be physical. Assortative mixing was observed between individuals in their 20s and 50s. Contact type differed by location, duration, and frequency (p<0.001).
Conclusions
The developed social contact survey instrument demonstrated high validity and feasibility, suggesting that it is viable for implementation.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 감염접촉전파에 대한 인식과 사회적접촉을 측정 도구를 델파이 방법으로 개발하여 국내최초로 한국 성인의 사회적접촉을 측정하였다. 참여자 30명은 24시간 동안 총 198명을 접촉하였으며(6.6명/일/인), 접촉자수는 연령 (p=0.012), 직업(p<0.001), 가구수 (p<0.001), 교육수준 (p<0.001), 개인소득 (p=0.003), 가구소득 (p<0.001)에 따라 차이가 있었다. 동질성 혼합(assortative mixing)은 20대와 50대에서 보였으며, 접촉유형은 접촉장소, 접촉기간, 접촉빈도에 따라 유의하였다(p<0.001). 향후 국내 사회적 접촉 양상과 특성에 관한 전국적인 후속연구를 제언한다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A pilot study investigating the social contact patterns of Korean elderly
    Hyang Soon Oh, Sun Young Jeong, Youngran Yang
    Public Health Nursing.2021; 38(5): 926.     CrossRef
  • Prospective Diary Survey of Preschool Children's Social Contact Patterns: A Pilot Study
    Hyang Soon Oh, Mikyung Ryu
    Child Health Nursing Research.2020; 26(4): 393.     CrossRef
Perspective
A New Measure for Assessing the Public Health Response to a Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Outbreak
Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(6):277-279.   Published online November 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.069
  • 10,776 View
  • 84 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Contact monitoring is an essential component of the public health response to a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak, and is required for an effective quarantine to contain the epidemic. The timeliness of a quarantine is associated with its effectiveness. This paper provides a conceptual framework to describe the process of contact monitoring, and proposes a new measure called the “timely quarantined proportion” as a tool to assess the adequacy of a public health response.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The relationship between moral sensitivity and caring behavior among nurses in iran during COVID-19 pandemic
    Fatemeh Hajibabaee, Waliu Jawula Salisu, Elham Akhlaghi, Mansoureh Ashghali Farahani, Maryam Mohamadzadeh Nojeh Dehi, Shima Haghani
    BMC Nursing.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Ethical Perspectives on the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Epidemic in Korea
    Ock-Joo Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2016; 49(1): 18.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health