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Korean Journal of Preventive Medicine 2001;34(4): 379-388.
Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Predicting Cervix Cancer Screening Behavior.
Kun Sei Lee, Yong Ik Kim, Chang Yup Kim, Young Soo Shin
1Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Kon-Kuk University, Korea.
2Department of Health Policy and Management, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.
ABSTRACT
BACKRGROUND: Cervix cancer is the most common form of cancer among Korea women. In spite of proof that cervical cancer screening could reduce death rates substantially, the screening rates reported by previous Korean studies remain stubbornly very low. Behavioral studies to increase the cervix cancer screening rate are essential in order to develop the cancer screening program. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors which are related to the intention and behavior for cervix cancer screening using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). METHODS: The survey was conducted from July 21st to 26th in 1998. Of 3,218 women, 393(12.2%) between 30 and 65 years old, voluntarily participated in the survey in the 3 Myeons in Choongju city. Charge-free cervix cancer screening was provided for the subjects 3 months later. RESULTS: The R-square of both TPB and TRA to the intention (30% and 42%, respectively) was greater than the actual behavior (21% and 13%, respectively. TPB and TRA were found to provide an appropriate framework for the study of cervix cancer screening behavior. However, TRA was more powerful in explaining the intention, not only because the perceived behavioral control component exhibited lower reliability and validity than other components(attitude and subjective norm), but also because there may have been a few limitations in this study design. Consequently, the use of TRA is preferred in attempting to explain intention and actual behavior in this study. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a successful intervention program should focus on changing attitudes and reducing psychologic barriers, rather than on just providing information. Physician recommendations, and the support of family members and friends are also very important factors in cervix cancer program participation. Physicians, friends, family members, and opinion leaders in rural areas, all of whom could affect the individual subjective norm, may all have the potential to play great roles as facilitators.
Key words: Cancer screening; Pap test; Health behavior
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