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Volume 34(4); November 2001
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Original Articles
Increasing Prevalence of Obesity Related Disease for Koreans Associated with Overweight and Obesity.
Nam Soon Kim, Ok Ryun Moon, Jae Heon Kang, Sang Yi Lee, Baek Geun Jeong, Sin Jae Lee, Tae Ho Yoon, Kyung Hwa Hwang
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):309-315.
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OBJECTIVE
To develop a better understanding of the relationship between weight status and the prevalence of obesity related diseases in the Korean population. METHODS: The 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey was used and 10,880 persons who had previously taken health examinations were selected for study. The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity's classification of weight status was used. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, osteoarthritis, chronic heart disease, stroke were included as obesity related disease. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the prevalence odds ratio by obesity class adjusted for demographic and socio-economic factors and we converted the odds ratio to a prevalence ratio using the base line prevalence of disease to aid in the interpretation of the ratios. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 26.3% based on the KSSO classification (BMI> or =25). A graded increase in the prevalence ratio was observed with increasing severity of overweight and obesity for all health outcomes with the exception of chronic heart disease in men and stroke in both men and women. With normal weight individuals as the reference, for men who were younger than 50 years, the prevalence ratios were highest for hypertension BMI<23-25: 1.70(95% CI=1.41-2.05), 25 or =30: 4.83(95% CI=3.78-5.84). The prevalence ratios for dyslipidemia were as high as hypertension, but were lower than hypertension for diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis. Prevalence ratios generally were greater in younger adults. The prevalence of having 2 or more obesity related diseases increased with weight status category, except in people who were older than 50 years. CONCLUSIONS: Based on results, obesity is an increasingly important health problem in Korea and the disease burden increases according to weight status. For Korean adults, the strongest relationship was seen between weight status and hypertension and dyslipidemia. In older people the impact of excess weight and obesity is stronger than that seen in younger people. Increased efforts in the study of obesity and prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity related disease are required.
Summary
Summertime Heat Waves and Ozone : an Interaction on Cardiopulmonary Mortality? - Based on the 1994 Heat Wave in Korea -.
Joohon Sung, Ho Kim, Soo Hun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):316-322.
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OBJECTIVES
To explore the possible effect of an interaction between summertime heat waves and ozone on cardiopulmonary mortality during the 1994 heat wave in Korea. METHODS: The unusually hot summer of 1994 in Korea was defined as the heat wave in this study. We examined the associations of air pollutants with daily cardiopulmonary deaths between 1991-1995, considering the product term of the heat wave and each pollutant, weather and time trends. RESULTS: During the heat wave, while temperatures were uniformly higher than those of other summers, the within-heat-wave difference in mortality paralleled that in the regional ozone levels. In terms of the influence of the heat wave, the results of ozone were different to those of total suspended particles (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The ozone association (relative risk (RR) =1.036; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.018-1.054) was observed only under heat wave conditions, while the TSP (RR =1.006, 95% CI = 0.999-1.012) and the SO2 (RR =1.018, 95% CI = 1.011-1.024) associations were found under normal weather conditions (per interquartile increase of each pollutant; results of three pollutants model). The ozone association under heat wave was attributable to the statistical interaction between the heat wave and ozone. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the possibility of a biological synergy between the heat wave and ozone, one that is not evident between the heat wave and other major pollutants like particles or SO2.
Summary
Cohort Study on Age at Menopause and Mortality- Kangwha Cohort Study -.
Jae Seok Hong, Sang Wook Yi, Sun Ha Jee, Tae Yong Sohn, Heechoul Ohrr
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):323-330.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To examine the association between age at menopause and mortality in a population-based sample of women in Kangwha, Korea. METHODS: From the Kangwha Cohort, followed-up from 1985 to 1999, the data of the over 55 year old female group(n=3,596) was used in this study to examine the association between age at menopause and mortality. We calculated the all causes mortality risk ratio and the cancer mortality risk ratio by age at menopause grouping using the Cox Proportional Hazards Model with adjustments for age, BMI, smoking, education, chronic disease, self-rated health status, alcohol consumption and age at first birth. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: Compared to women who had menopause at 45-49 years, the all causes mortality risk ratio was 1.24 for women with menopause at less than 40 years(95% CI=1.01-1.53) and 1.05 for women with menopause at over 50 years(95% CI=0.92-1.20). Also, compared to women who had menopause at 45-49 years, the cancer mortality risk ratio was 1.53 for women with menopause at less than 40 years(95% CI=0.78-2.98) and 1.17 for women with menopause at over 50 years(95% CI=0.77-1.80).
Summary
Prevalence and Related Factors of Knee Osteoarthritis in Rural Woman.
Sung Ho Yun, Pock Soo Kang, Seok Beom Kim, Kyeong Soo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):331-336.
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OBJECTIVES
To assess the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis through proper diagnosis in a rural community and to elucidate the relevant factors of this health problem in order to develop educational methods for the prevention of female knee osteoarthritis as well to provide basic data for prospective research. METHODS: Over a period of three months starting from August, 2000, 432 women over the age of 40 and living in a rural area were selected by a multistage cluster sampling method in order to investigate the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis and the related factors. The study utilized interviews and radiological examination. The criteria of knee osteoarthritis used was the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for osteoarthritis of the knee(1995). RESULTS: The adjusted prevalence of knee osteoarthritis among the subjects was 55.0%, and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio(OR) of knee osteoarthritis among subjects 50-59 years of age and subjects older than 60 years of age as compared to subjects 40-49 years of age were 2.43(95% CI: 1.30-4.70) and 4.40(95% CI: 2.47-7.83), respectively. The OR of knee osteoarthritis among factory workers or farmers as compared to others was 1.79(95% CI: 1.03-3.12). The OR of knee osteoarthritis among subjects who had a family history and subjects who had knee injury or surgical history against those subjects had neither were 2.56(95% CI: 1.42-4.63) and 4.70(95% CI:1.45-15.19), respectively. The OR of knee osteoarthritis among smokers against non smokers was 0.47(95% CI: 0.22-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Related factors of knee osteoarthritis included age, occupation, family history, smoking, knee injury and history of surgery. In order to prevent knee osteoarthritis in high risked rural woman, education concerning self-care methods and safety guideline must be provided at the work place by the public and private health sectors. Additionally, these women should be continually encouraged to exercise, including jogging and swimming regularly.
Summary
Inter-hospital Comparison of Cesarean Section Rates after Risk Adjustment.
Sang Il Lee, Young Ho Khang, Beom Man Ha, Moo Song Lee, Weechang Kang, Hee Jo Koo, Chang Yup Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):337-346.
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OBJECTIVE
To determine the clinical risk factors associated with the mode of delivery decision and to compare cesarean section rates after adjusting for risk factors identified among Korean hospitals. METHODS: Data were collected from 9 general hospitals in two provincial regions by medical record abstraction during February 2000. A total of 3,467 cases were enrolled and analyzed by stepwise logistic regression. Performance of the risk-adjustment model (discrimination and calibration) was evaluated by the C statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Crude rates, predicted rates with 95% confidence intervals, and adjusted rates of cesarean section were calculated and compared among the hospitals. RESULTS: The average crude cesarean section rate was 53.2%, ranging from 39.4% to 65.7%. Several risk factors such as maternal age, previous history of cesarean section, placenta previa, placental abruption, malpresentation, amniotic fluid abnormality, gestational anemia, infant body weight, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and chorioamnionitis were found to have statistically significant effects on the mode of delivery. It was confirmed that information about most of these risk factors was able to be collected through the national health insurance claims database in Korea. Performance of the risk-adjustment model was good (c statistic=0.815, Hosmer-Lemeshow test=0.0621). Risk factor adjustment did lead to some change in the rank of hospital cesarean section rates. The crude rates of three hospitals were beyond 95% confidence intervals of the predicted rates. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that cesarean section rates in Korean hospitals are too high, it is apparent that some policy interventions need to be introduced. The concept and methodology of risk adjustment should be used in the process of health policy development to lower the cesarean section rate in Korea.
Summary
Changes in Quality of Care for Cesarean Section after Implementation of Diagnosis-Related Groups/Prospective Payment System.
Jun Yim, Young Hun Kwon, Du Ho Hong, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):347-353.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To determine the impacts of Diagnosis-Related Groups/Prospective Payment System (DRG/PPS) on the quality of care in cases of Cesarean section and to describe the policy implications for the early stabilization of DRG/PPS in Korea. METHODS: Data was collected from the medical records of 380 patients who had undergone Cesarean sections in 40 hospitals participating in the DRG/PPS Demonstration Program since 1999. Cesarean sections were performed in 122 patients of the FFS(Fee-For-Service) group and 258 patients of the DRG/PPS group. Measurements of quality used included essential tests of pre- and post-operation, and the PPI(Physician Performance Index) score. The PPI was developed by two obstetricians. RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated significant differences in PPI scores according to the payment systems. With respect to the mean of PPI scores, a higher score was found in the DRG/PPS group than in the FFS group. However, the adjusted effect did not show significant differences between the FFS group and the DRG/PPS group. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that the problem of poor quality may not be related to the implementation of DRG/PPS in Cesarean section. However, this study did not consider the validity and reliability of the process measurement, and it did not exclude the possibility of data omission in medical records.
Summary
Burden of Disease in Korea: Years of Life Lost due to Premature Deaths.
Hyejung Chang, Jae Il Myoung, Youngsoo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):354-362.
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OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of disease through an analysis of Years of Life Lost due to premature deaths, one component of the Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY). In addition, the cause of death statistics were adjusted to improve validity, and the results were compared with those of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). METHODS: In closely following the approach taken in the original GBD study, most of the explicit assumptions and the value judgments were not changed. However, the statistics for some problematic concerns such as deaths of infants or those due to senility, were adjusted. Deaths, standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL), and potential years of life lost (PYLL) were computed using vital registration data compiled by the National Statistical Office. RESULTS: The burden for males is 1.8 and 2.3 times higher than that for females, according to SEYLL and PYLL, respectively. The proportions of deaths due to Group I, II, and III causes are 5.4%, 80.4%, and 14.3%, respectively, for PYLL, but in a major shift from Group II to III they are 6.3%, 66.2%, and 27.5%, respectively, for SEYLL. The proportion of Group III causes in Korea, 27.5%, is extremely high when compared to 10.1% for the world, 7.6% for developed countries, and 10.7% for developing countries. CONCLUSIONS: Estimation results showed that the total burden due to premature deaths is smaller than that for the entire world but larger than that for developed countries. The disease structure of Korea has changed to resemble that of developed countries. Also, an overly large portion of the total burden in Korea stems from injuries arising from car accidents.
Summary
Factors Associated with the Degree of Quality Improvement Implementation.
Sun Hee Lee, Kui Son Choi, Hye Young Kang, Woo Hyun Cho, Yoo Mi Chae
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):363-371.
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OBJECTIVES
To assess the degree of quality improvement (QI) implementation and to identify its associated factors. METHODS: A mailed questionnaire survey of the QI staffs at hospitals with 400 beds or more was conducted between September 15 and October 30, 2000. Of the 108 hospitals eligible for inclusion in our study, 79 participated, yielding a response rate of 73.1%. After excluding 12 hospitals that did not perform any QI activities, 117 responses from 67 hospitals were used in our analysis. The degree of QI implementation was measured using the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Criteria (MBNQAC). Factors evaluated for association with the degree of QI implementation were cultural, technical, strategic, and structural factors of the hospitals. RESULTS: The average QI implementation score across the 7 dimensions of MBNQAC was 3.34 on a 5-point scale, with the highest score for the area of customer satisfaction (3.88) followed by information and analysis (3.59) and quality management (3.35). The results of regression analysis showed that hospitals with a etter information system (p<0.05) and using scientific and systematic problem solving approach (p<0.01) tended to perform a higher degree of QI implementation. While statistically insignificant, positive associations were observed for the factors of group or developmental culture, the degree of employee empowerment, and the use of prospective strategy. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that the most important factors contributing to active implementation of QI in Korean hospitals were the use of scientific skills in decision making, and having a quality information system to produce precise and valid information.
Summary
Measuring the Burden of Major Cancers in Korea Using Healthy Life-Year (HeaLY).
Yong Jun Choi, Seok Jun Yoon, Chang Yup Kim, Youngsoo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):372-378.
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OBJECTIVES
This study introduced the healthy life-year(HeaLY), a composite indicator of disease burden, and used it to estimate the burden of major cancers in Korea. METHODS: We collected data from the national death certificate database, the national health insurance claims database and the abridged life table. This data was used to create a spreadsheet and estimate the burden of major cancers by sex in terms of HeaLYs. RESULTS: The burden of 10 major cancers for males was 2,248.97 person-year in terms of HeaLYs. Stomach cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer were responsible for 75.2% of the burden of 10 major cancers The disease burden of 10 major cancers for females was estimated to be 1,567.58 person-years. About two thirds of HeaLYs lost were from stomach cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer. The rankings among 10 major cancers were somewhat different in terms of both HeaLYs and deaths as the HeaLY method considers both mortality and morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitations of the data sources, we conclude that HeaLY can aid in setting policy priorities concerning major cancers by estimating the disease burden of these cancers. Time-series analysis of the disease burden using HeaLY and DALY will elucidate the strengths and weaknesses of both methods.
Summary
Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Predicting Cervix Cancer Screening Behavior.
Kun Sei Lee, Yong Ik Kim, Chang Yup Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):379-388.
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BACKRGROUND: Cervix cancer is the most common form of cancer among Korea women. In spite of proof that cervical cancer screening could reduce death rates substantially, the screening rates reported by previous Korean studies remain stubbornly very low. Behavioral studies to increase the cervix cancer screening rate are essential in order to develop the cancer screening program. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors which are related to the intention and behavior for cervix cancer screening using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). METHODS: The survey was conducted from July 21st to 26th in 1998. Of 3,218 women, 393(12.2%) between 30 and 65 years old, voluntarily participated in the survey in the 3 Myeons in Choongju city. Charge-free cervix cancer screening was provided for the subjects 3 months later. RESULTS: The R-square of both TPB and TRA to the intention (30% and 42%, respectively) was greater than the actual behavior (21% and 13%, respectively. TPB and TRA were found to provide an appropriate framework for the study of cervix cancer screening behavior. However, TRA was more powerful in explaining the intention, not only because the perceived behavioral control component exhibited lower reliability and validity than other components(attitude and subjective norm), but also because there may have been a few limitations in this study design. Consequently, the use of TRA is preferred in attempting to explain intention and actual behavior in this study. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a successful intervention program should focus on changing attitudes and reducing psychologic barriers, rather than on just providing information. Physician recommendations, and the support of family members and friends are also very important factors in cervix cancer program participation. Physicians, friends, family members, and opinion leaders in rural areas, all of whom could affect the individual subjective norm, may all have the potential to play great roles as facilitators.
Summary
Information Searching Behavior of Health Care Consumers by Sociodemographic Characteristics.
Yoomi Chae, Sunhee Lee, Woohyun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):389-398.
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OBJECTIVES
To investigate the information searching behavior of health care consumers according to sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted of 1,507 persons who were selected through a multi-stage stratified area cluster sampling of the Republic of Korea, excluding the province of Jeju-do. Personal were conducted through a door-to-door survey between 27 July and 10 August 1999. RESULTS: 80.5% of respondents used more than one source of information and those 40~59 years of age, female, a housewife or student and those who claimed a religion demonstrated more active information searching behavior. A personal informer was used significantly more in those 20~39 years old, female, and those who claimed a religion. Clerical workers, those with post-secondary education and a monthly income greater than 2,000,000 won ($1500) were more actively used a public informer. Low socioeconomic status and older persons used an experimental informer when they chose a health care institution. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the sociodemographic characteristics, personal and experimental informers were the most useful source of information. Because appropriate information was not easy to obtain, the health care consumer was dependent upon word-of-mouth communication(personal informer) when using health care services.
Summary
Current Status of Hospital-based Health Promotion Programs in Korea and the Factors Influencing Their Introduction.
Sang Gyu Lee, Choon Seon Park, Myung Guen Kang, Myung Il Hahm, Soon Young Lee, Woo Hyun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):399-407.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To investigate the current status of hospital-based health promotion programs in Korea and to elucidate the factors which affect to the process of implementation. METHODS: We conducted a mail survey of all 875 hospitals in Korea from March to May 2001. In reference to 12 specific kinds of health promotion programs, hospital CEOs were asked whether their hospital have such programs, whether they are fully staffed and whether the program is paid for by the patients. Contextual factors(location, hospital type, number of beds, length of operation, public/private status, economic level of the community, the level of competition) and organizational factors (the extent of market, compatibility with vision, formalization), strategic types of the CEOs (defender/analyser/prospector) were also surveyed. The relationships between each variable and the implementation of health promotion services, activation of services, and the target groups(patient/community resident) were analyzed by univariate analysis and the independent effects of these variables were examined with multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: 106 of 125 hospitals responding (84.8%) had more than one health promotion program. However, they showed fluctuations in the adoption rate of each programs, meaning that comprehensive health promotion services were not provided. Many programs were not fully staffed and few hospitals had paid programs. In factors affecting health promotion service implementation, private hospitals showed a higher rate in implementation than public hospitals. In contrast, when the competition among nearby hospitals was intense, the level of implementation of service lowered. In the strategic type of the CEOs, the prospectors were shown to have instituted more health promotion programs in their hospitals and the analysers had a greater tendency to have programs for community residents than the defenders. CONCLUSION: Considering the above results, contextual factors may contribute greatly to the introduction of health promotion services in Korean hospital, although the CEO's personal preference and organizational factors play a larger role in the activation of services. Additionally, the CEO's personal preference may be the major influencing factor in the introduction of programs for community residents.
Summary
Quantitative Ultrasound for Osteoporosis Screening in Postmenopausal Women.
Min Ho Shin, Hee Young Shin, Eun Kyung Jung, Jung Ae Rhee, Jin Su Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):408-416.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the diagnostic value of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in the prediction of osteoporosis as defined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Questionnaires and height and weight measurements were used in the investigation of 176 postmenopausal women. QUS measurements were taken on the right calcaneus while bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were made with DEXA. The areas under the curves (AUC) of the speed of sound (SOS) for osteoporosis in the lumbar spine and femoral neck were obtained through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and evaluated. A comparison was made, for osteoporosis in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, between the AUCs of the logistic model with clinical risk factors and SOS. RESULTS: Pearson's correlation coefficients of SOS and lumbar spine BMD, and of SOS and femoral neck BMD were 0.26 and 0.37. The AUC for the logistic model in its discrimination for lumbar spine osteoporosis was 0.764, and for SOS 0.605. The AUCs for the logistic model in its discrimination for femoral neck osteoporosis and for SOS were 0.890 and 0.892, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the diagnostic value of QUS as a screening tool for osteoporosis is moderate for the femoral neck, but merely low for the lumbar spine and that the predictability provided by SOS is no better than that by the sole use of clinical risk factors in postmenopausal women.
Summary
The Relationship between Treatment Intention and Compliance in Newly Detected Hypertensive Patients.
Sok Goo Lee, Sang Soo Bae
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):417-426.
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OBJECTIVES
To analyse the psychosocial factors associated with hypertension management(drug treatment and life style modification) of newly detected cases and to understand and assess their behavioral intention or behaviors. METHODS: The survey area was a combined urban and rural area in Chungnam province, Korea, and the sampling method was cluster sampling. Study subjects included 541 newly detected cases of hypertension rated above stage 2 by JNC-VI from a community survey. The first survey was applied to 383 of these patients in order to discern their psychosocial characteristics. A follow-up survey was given to 345 persons with an 11-month interval following monthly telephone counseling concerning medication and life style modification by trained nurses. The final study subjects for analysis comprised 271 persons after excluding cases of incomplete data and change of address. RESULTS: Among the 85(33.2%) new patients who had intended to undergo drug treatment, 30(35.3%) persons were treated with antihypertensive agent after 11- month interval, while among the patients with no intention to receive treatment, only 36(21.1%) persons were treated. Hypertensive patients with a high intention score revealed a high score in life style modification compliance as well. Seventy three percent of the variance of behavioral intention to undergo hypertension management was explained by the patients attitude toward performing the behavior and subjective norm associated with behaviors related to the theory of reasoned action in structural modeling. Actual behaviors related positively with behavioral intention. The coefficient of determination was 0.255. CONCLUSION: Improving the compliance level of hypertensive patients in respect to drug treatment or life style modification requires a build up of positive behavioral intention, and caregivers must pay more attention to eventually converting behavioral intention to actual behaviors.
Summary
Prevalence of Congenital Heart Disease from the Elementary Student Heart Disease Screening Program.
Hong Jue Lee, Myoung Hee Kim, Jo Won Jung, Seong Ho Kim, Bo Youl Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):427-436.
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OBJECTIVE
To estimate the prevalence of congenital heart disease from the 1998 student heart disease screening program. METHODS: The heart disease screening program for elementary students was conducted in Kyonggi-do, in 1998. The subjects of the present study comprised the 40,402 students who attended the schools in the catchment area of a collaborative university hospital and who participated in the primary examination. The congenital heart disease (CHD) patients were initially identified through a questionnaire about prior medical history, and further through diagnostic tests & medical examinations in the secondary & the tertiary examinations. Certain assumptions were used in the estimation of the number of CHD cases among non-participants of the secondary & tertiary examinations. The overall prevalence of CHD was estimated by adding the CHD detection rates of the participants and the estimated prevalence of the non-participants. RESULTS: Among the 40,402 primary participants, 1,655 were referred further, of whom 79.1% (1,309) participated in the secondary examination. Of these, 121 were referred to the tertiary examination, with a participation rate at this last stage of 80.2%. The positive predictive value (PPV) of the screening tools was the highest when the results of both EKG and the questionnaire were positive. Because 85.9% of the detected cases had a past history of CHD, PPV was higher when the selection criteria in the questionnaire included past CHD history than when it didnt. The CHD detection rate among the participants was 1.76 cases/1,000 and the presumed number of cases among the non-participants was 31; giving an estimated final CHD prevalence of 2.52 cases/1,000 (95% CI : 2.06-3.06). Among the identified cases of CHD, VSD (52.8%) was the most common, followed by PDA (9.7%), TOF (9.7%) & PS (9.7%). CONCLUSION: Because the characteristics of the non-participants differed from those of the participants, the estimation of prevalence was influenced by the participation rate. Of the detected cases, 85.9% had a past history of diagnosis or operation for CHD. These findings suggested that the prevalence estimated in this study may be an underestimation of the actual condition. Therefore, a birth cohort study is required in order to more accurately estimate the prevalence and the effects of the program.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health