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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 2021;54(6): 451-460. doi: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.158
Associations Between Parental Depression and Early Childhood Development in Indonesia: A Cross-sectional Study
Ika Saptarini , Anissa Rizkianti , Prisca Petty Arfines , Suparmi , Iram Barida Maisya
Centre for Research and Development of Public Health Efforts, National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD), Jakarta, Indonesia
Corresponding Author: Ika Saptarini ,Email: dr.ikasaptarini@gmail.com
Received: March 23, 2021;  Accepted: October 24, 2021.
ABSTRACT
Objectives:
This study aimed to determine the associations between parental depression and early childhood development among children aged 36 months to 59 months in Indonesia.
Method:
From Indonesia’s Basic Health Survey (RISKESDAS) 2018, this study included 6433 children aged 36 months to 59 months and their parents. Maternal and paternal depression was examined using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview survey instrument, which was previously translated into Indonesian. The study also used the Early Child Development Index to measure child development and its 4 domains (cognitive, physical, socio-emotional, and learning). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between parental depression and early childhood development.
Results:
Overall, 10.3% of children aged 36 months to 59 months were off-track for development. After adjusting for biological, parental, and social characteristics, children born to parents with depression were found to be 4.72 times more likely to be off-track for development (95% confidence interval, 1.83 to 12.15).
Conclusions:
Children of depressed parents were more likely to be off-track for development. The findings highlight the need for early diagnosis and timely intervention for parental depression to promote early childhood development.
Key words: Parental depression, Child development, Early Child Development Index, Indonesia
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