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Volume 49(2); March 2016
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Editorial
Our Valuable Contributors: Reviewers of 2015
Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):79-79.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.033
  • 5,664 View
  • 78 Download
PDF
Summary
Special Article
Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits
Sun Goo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):80-96.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.002
  • 8,555 View
  • 144 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Attribution of Cancer Origins to Endogenous, Exogenous, and Preventable Mutational Processes
    Vincent L. Cannataro, Jeffrey D. Mandell, Jeffrey P. Townsend, Melissa Wilson
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Review Article
Epstein-Barr Virus and Gastric Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis With Meta-regression of Case-control Studies
Jong-Myon Bae, Eun Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):97-107.   Published online March 4, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.068
  • 13,697 View
  • 197 Download
  • 46 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Research on how the risk of gastric cancer increases with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is lacking. In a systematic review that investigated studies published until September 2014, the authors did not calculate the summary odds ratio (SOR) due to heterogeneity across studies. Therefore, we include here additional studies published until October 2015 and conduct a meta-analysis with meta-regression that controls for the heterogeneity among studies.
Methods
Using the studies selected in the previously published systematic review, we formulated lists of references, cited articles, and related articles provided by PubMed. From the lists, only case-control studies that detected EBV in tissue samples were selected. In order to control for the heterogeneity among studies, subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed.
Results
In the 33 case-control results with adjacent non-cancer tissue, the total number of test samples in the case and control groups was 5280 and 4962, respectively. In the 14 case-control results with normal tissue, the total number of test samples in case and control groups was 1393 and 945, respectively. Upon meta-regression, the type of control tissue was found to be a statistically significant variable with regard to heterogeneity. When the control tissue was normal tissue of healthy individuals, the SOR was 3.41 (95% CI, 1.78 to 6.51; I-squared, 65.5%).
Conclusions
The results of the present study support the argument that EBV infection increases the risk of gastric cancer. In the future, age-matched and sex-matched case-control studies should be conducted.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Original Articles
The Association Between Smoking Tobacco After a Diagnosis of Diabetes and the Prevalence of Diabetic Nephropathy in the Korean Male Population
Hyungseon Yeom, Jung Hyun Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):108-117.   Published online March 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.062
  • 9,233 View
  • 142 Download
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Smoking is known to be associated with nephropathy in patients with diabetes. The distinct effects of smoking before and after diabetes has been diagnosed, however, are not well characterized. We evaluated the association of cigarette smoking before and after a diagnosis of diabetes with the presence of diabetic nephropathy.
Methods
We analyzed data from the 2011-2013 editions of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 629 male patients diagnosed with diabetes were classified as non-smokers (90 patients), former smokers (225 patients), or continuing smokers (314 patients). A “former smoker” was a patient who smoked only before receiving his diagnosis of diabetes. A “continuing smoker” was a patient who smoked at any time after his diabetes had been diagnosed. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as the presence of albuminuria (spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g) or low estimated glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association after adjusting for age, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, medication for hypertension, and medication for dyslipidemia. Female patients were excluded from the study due to the small proportion of females in the survey who smoked.
Results
Compared to non-smokers, continuing smokers had significantly higher odds ratio ([OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.83) of suffering from diabetic nephropathy. The corresponding OR (95% CI) for former smokers was 1.26 (0.70 to 2.29).
Conclusions
Smoking after diagnosis of diabetes is significantly associated with the presence of diabetic nephropathy in the Korean male population.
Summary

Citations

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Enrollment in Private Medical Insurance and Utilization of Medical Services Among Children and Adolescents: Data From the 2009-2012 Korea Health Panel Surveys
Dong Hee Ryu, Sin Kam, Young-Taek Doo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):118-128.   Published online March 24, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.003
  • 9,423 View
  • 107 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purposes of this study were to examine the status of children and adolescents with regard to enrollment in private medical insurance (PMI) and to investigate its influence on their utilization of medical services.
Methods
The present study assessed 2973 subjects younger than 19 years of age who participated in five consecutive Korea Health Panel surveys from 2009 to 2012.
Results
At the initial assessment, less than 20% of the study population had not enrolled in any PMI program, but this proportion decreased over time. Additionally, the number of subjects with more than two policies increased, the proportions of holders of indemnity-type only (‘I’-only) and of fixed amount+indemnity-type (‘F+I’) increased, whereas the proportion of holders with fixed amount-type only (‘F’-only) decreased. Compared with subjects without private insurance, PMI policyholders were more likely to use outpatient and emergency services, and the number of policies was proportionately related to inpatient service utilization. Regarding out-patient care, subjects with ‘F’-only PMI used these services more often than did uninsured subjects (odds ratio [OR], 1.69), whereas subjects with ‘I’-only PMI or ‘F+I’ PMI utilized a broad range of inpatient, outpatient, and emergency services relative to uninsured subjects (ORs for ‘I’-only: 1.39, 1.63, and 1.38, respectively; ORs for ‘F+I’: 1.67, 2.09, and 1.37, respectively).
Conclusions
The findings suggest public policy approaches to standardizing PMI contracts, reform in calculation of premiums in PMI, re-examination regarding indemnity insurance products, and mutual control mechanisms to mediate between national health insurance services and private insurers are required.
Summary

Citations

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Brief Reports
Citation Discovery Tools for Conducting Adaptive Meta-analyses to Update Systematic Reviews
Jong-Myon Bae, Eun Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):129-133.   Published online March 14, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.074
  • 9,433 View
  • 109 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The systematic review (SR) is a research methodology that aims to synthesize related evidence. Updating previously conducted SRs is necessary when new evidence has been produced, but no consensus has yet emerged on the appropriate update methodology. The authors have developed a new SR update method called ‘adaptive meta-analysis’ (AMA) using the ‘cited by’, ‘similar articles’, and ‘related articles’ citation discovery tools in the PubMed and Scopus databases. This study evaluates the usefulness of these citation discovery tools for updating SRs.
Methods
Lists were constructed by applying the citation discovery tools in the two databases to the articles analyzed by a published SR. The degree of overlap between the lists and distribution of excluded results were evaluated.
Results
The articles ultimately selected for the SR update meta-analysis were found in the lists obtained from the ‘cited by’ and ‘similar’ tools in PubMed. Most of the selected articles appeared in both the ‘cited by’ lists in Scopus and PubMed. The Scopus ‘related’ tool did not identify the appropriate articles.
Conclusions
The AMA, which involves using both citation discovery tools in PubMed, and optionally, the ‘related’ tool in Scopus, was found to be useful for updating an SR.
Summary

Citations

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Month and Season of Birth as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Nationwide Nested Case-control Study
Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Riitta Ahonen, Marjaana Koponen, Piia Lavikainen, Maija Purhonen, Heidi Taipale, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Miia Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):134-138.   Published online March 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.018
  • 7,538 View
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  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Season of birth, an exogenous indicator of early life environment, has been related to higher risk of adverse psychiatric outcomes but the findings for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been inconsistent. We investigated whether the month or season of birth are associated with AD.
Methods
A nationwide nested case-control study including all community-dwellers with clinically verified AD diagnosed in 2005 to 2012 (n=70 719) and up to four age- sex- and region of residence-matched controls (n=282 862) residing in Finland. Associations between month and season of birth and AD were studied with conditional logistic regression.
Results
Month of birth was not associated with AD (p=0.09). No strong associations were observed with season (p=0.13), although in comparison to winter births (December-February) summer births (June-August) were associated with higher odds of AD (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.05). However, the absolute difference in prevalence in winter births was only 0.5% (prevalence of those born in winter were 31.7% and 32.2% for cases and controls, respectively).
Conclusions
Although our findings do not support the hypothesis that season of birth is related to AD/dementia risk, they do not invalidate the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis in late-life cognition. It is possible that season does not adequately capture the early life circumstances, or that other (postnatal) risk factors such as lifestyle or socioeconomic factors overrule the impact of prenatal and perinatal factors.
Summary

Citations

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Correspondences
A Comment on “Quaternary Prevention in Public Health” by Dr. Jong-Myon Bae
Marc Jamoulle
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):139-140.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.031
  • 6,610 View
  • 109 Download
  • 2 Crossref
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Summary

Citations

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  • Ethical, pedagogical, socio-political and anthropological implications of quaternary prevention
    Marc Jamoulle, Michel Roland, Jong-Myon Bae, Bruno Heleno, Giorgio Visentin, Gustavo Diniz Ferreira Gusso, Maciek Godycki-Ćwirko, Miguel Pizzanell, Patrick Ouvrard, Ricardo La Valle, Luis Filipe Gomes, Daniel Widmer, Jorge Bernstein, Mariana Mariño, Hamil
    Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade.2018; 13(40): 1.     CrossRef
  • Attitudes, perceptions and awareness concerning quaternary prevention among family doctors working in the Social Security System, Peru: a cross-sectional descriptive study
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The Author Reply: A Comment on “Quaternary Prevention in Public Health”
Jong-Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):141-141.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.032
  • 5,678 View
  • 102 Download
  • 1 Crossref
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Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Primary Care Physicians’ Action Plans for Responding to Results of Screening Tests Based on the Concept of Quaternary Prevention
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health