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Original Articles
Epidemiology of Suicide by Hanging in Fars Province, Iran (2011-2019): A Population-based Cross-sectional Study
Leila Moftakhar, Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Sanaz Amiri, Fariba Rezaei, Habibollah Azarbakhsh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):264-271.   Published online April 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.519
  • 1,296 View
  • 78 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Hanging is a common method of attempted suicide. This study investigated the epidemiological profile of attempted and completed suicides by hanging in southern Iran.
Methods
This cross-sectional study was performed on 1167 suicide attempts by hanging between 2011 and 2019. All data related to suicide attempts by hanging were collected from the Fars Suicide Surveillance System. The trends in suicide cases and the mean age of attempted and completed suicides were plotted. The chi-square test was used to identify suicide-related factors. Crude rates of incidence, mortality, and standardized fatality during the study period were calculated. Finally, logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of death in individuals who attempted suicide.
Results
The mean age of those who attempted suicide was 33.21±16.82 years; the majority were male (80.5%). The rate of attempted and completed suicide by hanging were 3.50 and 2.79 per 100 000 people, respectively. The case-fatality rate was calculated as 79.34%. The results of our study indicated an increasing trend in suicide attempts by hanging. The likelihood of death was 2.28 times higher in individuals with a previous history of suicide attempts and 1.85 times higher in those with a psychological disorder.
Conclusions
The findings of this study suggest an increasing trend in attempted and completed suicide by hanging, especially among individuals with a history of suicide attempts and psychological disorders. It is necessary to take action to reduce the rate of suicide attempts and identify the underlying causes of suicide attempts by hanging.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Assessing the knot in a noose position by thyrohyoid and cervical spine fracture patterns in suicidal hangings using machine learning algorithms: A new insight into old dilemmas
    Aleksa Leković, Arso Vukićević, Slobodan Nikolić
    Forensic Science International.2024; 357: 111973.     CrossRef
Annual Endovascular Thrombectomy Case Volume and Thrombectomy-capable Hospitals of Korea in Acute Stroke Care
Eun Hye Park, Seung-sik Hwang, Juhwan Oh, Beom-Joon Kim, Hee-Joon Bae, Ki-Hwa Yang, Ah-Rum Choi, Mi-Yeon Kang, S.V. Subramanian
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(2):145-153.   Published online March 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.318
  • 1,803 View
  • 109 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Although it is difficult to define the quality of stroke care, acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with moderate-to-severe neurological deficits may benefit from thrombectomy-capable hospitals (TCHs) that have a stroke unit, stroke specialists, and a substantial endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) case volume.
Methods
From national audit data collected between 2013 and 2016, potential EVT candidates arriving within 24 hours with a baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥6 were identified. Hospitals were classified as TCHs (≥15 EVT case/y, stroke unit, and stroke specialists), primary stroke hospitals (PSHs) without EVT (PSHs-without-EVT, 0 case/y), and PSHs-with-EVT. Thirty-day and 1-year case-fatality rates (CFRs) were analyzed using random intercept multilevel logistic regression.
Results
Out of 35 004 AIS patients, 7954 (22.7%) EVT candidates were included in this study. The average 30-day CFR was 16.3% in PSHs-without-EVT, 14.8% in PSHs-with-EVT, and 11.0% in TCHs. The average 1-year CFR was 37.5% in PSHs-without-EVT, 31.3% in PSHs-with-EVT, and 26.2% in TCHs. In TCHs, a significant reduction was not found in the 30-day CFR (odds ratio [OR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.12), but was found in the 1-year CFR (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.96).
Conclusions
The 1-year CFR was significantly reduced when EVT candidates were treated at TCHs. TCHs are not defined based solely on the number of EVTs, but also based on the presence of a stroke unit and stroke specialists. This supports the need for TCH certification in Korea and suggests that annual EVT case volume could be used to qualify TCHs.
Summary
Korean summary
급성 허혈성 뇌졸중 환자에서 “혈관 내 혈전제거술(endovascular treatment, EVT)”의 치료효과는 여러 연구를 통해 증명되었으나, EVT 후보군에서 EVT를 제공하기 위한 의료서비스 연구는 부족한 실정이다. 5~7차 뇌졸중 적정성 평가 자료를 활용하여 연간 EVT 시행횟수와 EVT후보군의 30일, 1년 후 치명률 간의 연관성을 다수준 분석을 통해 확인하였다. 연간 15회 이상 EVT를 시행하면서 뇌졸중 전문치료실과 뇌줄중 관련 전문분과(신경과, 신경외과, 재활의학과) 전문의가 모두 있는 병원(TCHs)에서 치료받은 환자는 EVT를 시행하지 않는 병원(PSHs-without-EVT)에서 치료받는 환자에 비해 치명률이 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 이는 뇌졸중 치료체계에서 EVT가능병원을 정의할 필요성을 잘 보여주고, “연간 EVT 시행횟수”는 TCHs를 정의하는 중요한 지표로 사용될 수 있을 것이다.
Characteristics of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Hospitalized Children Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Thailand
Wilawan Chaiut, Ratana Sapbamrer, Sauwaluk Dacha, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Ida Parwati, Anton Sumarpo, Rungnapa Malasao
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):212-220.   Published online March 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.019
  • 2,435 View
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study compared the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of patients hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at a tertiary care hospital in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.
Methods
This retrospective observational study utilized data from all cases of laboratory-confirmed RSV infection at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from January 2016 to December 2021. Differences in the clinical presentation of RSV infection before (2016 to 2019) and during (2020 to 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed and compared.
Results
In total, 358 patients hospitalized with RSV infections were reported from January 2016 to December 2021. During the COVID-19 pandemic, only 74 cases of hospitalized RSV infection were reported. Compared to pre-pandemic levels, the clinical presentations of RSV infection showed statistically significant decreases in fever on admission (p=0.004), productive cough (p=0.004), sputum (p=0.003), nausea (p=0.03), cyanosis (p=0.004), pallor (p<0.001), diarrhea (p<0.001), and chest pain (p<0.001). Furthermore, vigilant measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including lockdowns, also interrupted the RSV season in Thailand from 2020 to 2021.
Conclusions
The incidence of RSV infection was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, which also changed the clinical presentation and seasonal pattern of RSV infection in children.
Summary

Citations

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  • Retrospective Analysis of Clinical Patterns and Antibiotic Utilization in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pneumonia at a Recently Established General Hospital
    Hyejin So, Kyung Min Kim, Eun Young Cho
    Pediatric Infection & Vaccine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Predominance of ON1 and BA9 genotypes of human respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory infection in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2020–2021
    Rungnapa Malasao, Wilawan Chaiut, Wanwisa Tantipetcharawan, Ratchanu Tongphung, Nicha Charoensri, Piyawan Takarn, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Niwat Maneekarn
    Journal of Infection and Public Health.2023; 16(9): 1418.     CrossRef
Projection of Cancer Incidence and Mortality From 2020 to 2035 in the Korean Population Aged 20 Years and Older
Youjin Hong, Sangjun Lee, Sungji Moon, Soseul Sung, Woojin Lim, Kyungsik Kim, Seokyung An, Jeoungbin Choi, Kwang-Pil Ko, Inah Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):529-538.   Published online October 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.128
  • 3,109 View
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to identify the current patterns of cancer incidence and estimate the projected cancer incidence and mortality between 2020 and 2035 in Korea.
Methods
Data on cancer incidence cases were extracted from the Korean Statistical Information Service from 2000 to 2017, and data on cancer-related deaths were extracted from the National Cancer Center from 2000 to 2018. Cancer cases and deaths were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. For the current patterns of cancer incidence, age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) and age-standardized mortality rates were investigated using the 2000 mid-year estimated population aged over 20 years and older. A joinpoint regression model was used to determine the 2020 to 2035 trends in cancer.
Results
Overall, cancer cases were predicted to increase from 265 299 in 2020 to 474 085 in 2035 (growth rate: 1.8%). The greatest increase in the ASIR was projected for prostate cancer among male (7.84 vs. 189.53 per 100 000 people) and breast cancer among female (34.17 vs. 238.45 per 100 000 people) from 2000 to 2035. Overall cancer deaths were projected to increase from 81 717 in 2020 to 95 845 in 2035 (average annual growth rate: 1.2%). Although most cancer mortality rates were projected to decrease, those of breast, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer among female were projected to increase until 2035.
Conclusions
These up-to-date projections of cancer incidence and mortality in the Korean population may be a significant resource for implementing cancer-related regulations or developing cancer treatments.
Summary
Korean summary
최근 고령화 시대로 접어들고 암의 위험요인들에 대한 노출률이 변화함에 따라 암의 발생률 및 사망률에 대해서 관찰하는 것은 중요한 일이 되었다. 따라서, 본 연구는 한국인에서 2035년까지의 암에 대한 발생률과 사망률을 Joinpoint regression 모델을 이용하여 예측하였다. 남성에서는 전립선암, 여성에서는 유방암이 연령표준화 발생률이 가장 높았으며 대부분의 연령표준화 사망률은 감소하는 것으로 예상되지만 여성의 유방암, 췌장암, 난소암이 증가될 것으로 예상된다.

Citations

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  • Changes in metabolic syndrome and the risk of breast and endometrial cancer according to menopause in Korean women
    Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Soyeoun Kim, Boyoung Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023049.     CrossRef
Hepatitis B, C, and D Virus Infections and AFP Tumor Marker Prevalence Among the Elderly Population in Mongolia: A Nationwide Survey
Davaalkham Dambadarjaa, Yerkyebulan Mukhtar, Enkh-Oyun Tsogzolbaatar, Ser-Od Khuyag, Angarmurun Dayan, Nandin-Erdene Oyunbileg, Oyu-Erdene Shagdarsuren, Gunchmaa Nyam, Yosikazu Nakamura, Masaharu Takahashi, Hiroaki Okamoto
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(3):263-272.   Published online May 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.573
  • 3,130 View
  • 122 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Infections with hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) are a major public health problem and lead to serious complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, anti-HDV immunoglobulin G, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and dual and triple hepatitis virus infections in Mongolia.
Methods
A total of 2313 participants from urban and rural regions were randomly recruited for this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was used to identify the risk factors for hepatitis virus infections, and the seromarkers were measured using immunoassay kits.
Results
Among all participants, the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HDV was 15.6%, 36.6%, and 14.3%, respectively. The infection rates were significantly higher in females and participants with a lower education level, rural residence, older age, and a history of blood transfusion. HBV and HCV co-infection was found in 120 (5.2%) participants and HBV, HCV, and HDV triple infection was detected in 67 (2.9%) participants. The prevalence of elevated AFP was 2.7%, 5.5%, and 2.6% higher in participants who were seropositive for HBsAg (p=0.01), anti-HCV (p<0.001), and anti-HDV (p=0.022), respectively. Elevated AFP was more prevalent in participants co-infected with HBV and HCV (5.8%, p=0.023), HBV and HDV (6.0%, p<0.001), and triple-infected with HBV, HCV, and HDV (7.5%) than in uninfected individuals.
Conclusions
Nearly half (49.8%) of the study population aged ≥40 years were infected with HBV, HCV, or HDV, and 22.4% had dual or triple infections.
Summary

Citations

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  • The values of systemic immune-inflammation index and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in predicting testicular germ cell tumors: A retrospective clinical study
    Shuo Wang, Xiao Yang, Ziyi Yu, Peng Du, Yudong Cao, Yongpeng Ji, Jinchao Ma, Yong Yang
    Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Genetic Diversity and Possible Origins of the Hepatitis B Virus in Siberian Natives
    Victor Manuylov, Vladimir Chulanov, Ludmila Bezuglova, Elena Chub, Anastasia Karlsen, Karen Kyuregyan, Yulia Ostankova, Alexander Semenov, Ludmila Osipova, Tatjana Tallo, Irina Netesova, Artem Tkachuk, Vladimir Gushchin, Sergey Netesov, Lars O. Magnius, H
    Viruses.2022; 14(11): 2465.     CrossRef
Special Articles
Application of Standardization for Causal Inference in Observational Studies: A Step-by-step Tutorial for Analysis Using R Software
Sangwon Lee, Woojoo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(2):116-124.   Published online February 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.569
  • 3,580 View
  • 233 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Epidemiological studies typically examine the causal effect of exposure on a health outcome. Standardization is one of the most straightforward methods for estimating causal estimands. However, compared to inverse probability weighting, there is a lack of user-centric explanations for implementing standardization to estimate causal estimands. This paper explains the standardization method using basic R functions only and how it is linked to the R package stdReg, which can be used to implement the same procedure. We provide a step-by-step tutorial for estimating causal risk differences, causal risk ratios, and causal odds ratios based on standardization. We also discuss how to carry out subgroup analysis in detail.
Summary
Korean summary
본 논문에서는 standardization 방법을 이용하여 risk difference, relative risk, risk ratio와 같은 인과성 효과를 R software을 이용하여 도출하는 튜토리얼을 제공합니다. 간암환자의 치료를 예시로, 합성 데이터를 이용한 치료제의 사망에 대한 인과적 효과를 탐색하는 튜토리얼을 제공합니다. 추가적으로, 인과성 관련 기본 이론을 집약적으로 설명하였고, standardization을 이용한 subgroup analysis 수행 방법이 제공됩니다.

Citations

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  • Homologous and Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination: Impact on Clinical Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Infection among Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Belgium
    Marjan Meurisse, Lucy Catteau, Joris A. F. van Loenhout, Toon Braeye, Laurane De Mot, Ben Serrien, Koen Blot, Emilie Cauët, Herman Van Oyen, Lize Cuypers, Annie Robert, Nina Van Goethem
    Vaccines.2023; 11(2): 378.     CrossRef
  • Improved Clinical Outcomes With Early Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha Therapy in Children With Newly Diagnosed Crohn’s Disease: Real-world Data from the International Prospective PIBD-SETQuality Inception Cohort Study
    Renz C W Klomberg, Hella C van der Wal, Martine A Aardoom, Polychronis Kemos, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Frank M Ruemmele, Mohammed Charrout, Hankje C Escher, Nicholas M Croft, Lissy de Ridder, Ivan D Milovanovich, James J Ashton, Paul Henderson, Oren Ledder, T
    Journal of Crohn's and Colitis.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Network Analysis in Systems Epidemiology
JooYong Park, Jaesung Choi, Ji-Yeob Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(4):259-564.   Published online July 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.190
  • 3,869 View
  • 141 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Traditional epidemiological studies have identified a number of risk factors for various diseases using regression-based methods that examine the association between an exposure and an outcome (i.e., one-to-one correspondences). One of the major limitations of this approach is the “black-box” aspect of the analysis, in the sense that this approach cannot fully explain complex relationships such as biological pathways. With high-throughput data in current epidemiology, comprehensive analyses are needed. The network approach can help to integrate multi-omics data, visualize their interactions or relationships, and make inferences in the context of biological mechanisms. This review aims to introduce network analysis for systems epidemiology, its procedures, and how to interpret its findings.
Summary
Korean summary
본 리뷰는 시스템역학연구에 활용할 수 있는 네트워크 분석의 간략한 개념과 분석 절차 그리고 결과 해석에 대하여 소개하고 있다. 기존 역학연구의 주요 한계점은 생물학적 기전과 같은 복잡한 관계를 충분히 설명하지 못한다는 것이다. 최근 역학 연구에서 대규모의 오믹스 데이터가 활용 가능하게 됨에 따라 통합적 분석의 필요성이 제기되고 있고, 네트워크 분석 기법이 이런 다중 오믹스 데이터들을 포괄적으로 분석하는데 활용 될 수 있을 것이다.

Citations

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  • A network analysis of nutritional markers and maternal perinatal mental health in the French EDEN cohort
    Bethany Knox, Cédric Galera, Anne-Laure Sutter-Dallay, Barbara Heude, Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain, Judith van der Waerden
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Applying the exposome concept to working life health
    Anjoeka Pronk, Miranda Loh, Eelco Kuijpers, Maria Albin, Jenny Selander, Lode Godderis, Manosij Ghosh, Roel Vermeulen, Susan Peters, Ingrid Sivesind Mehlum, Michelle C. Turner, Vivi Schlünssen, Marcel Goldberg, Manolis Kogevinas, Barbara N. Harding, Svetl
    Environmental Epidemiology.2022; 6(2): e185.     CrossRef
  • Reconstruction of the Temporal Correlation Network of All-Cause Mortality Fluctuation across Italian Regions: The Importance of Temperature and Among-Nodes Flux
    Guido Gigante, Alessandro Giuliani
    Entropy.2022; 25(1): 21.     CrossRef
  • Network Analysis of Demographics, Dietary Intake, and Comorbidity Interactions
    Tung Hoang, Jeonghee Lee, Jeongseon Kim
    Nutrients.2021; 13(10): 3563.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Original Article
Did the Timing of State Mandated Lockdown Affect the Spread of COVID-19 Infection? A County-level Ecological Study in the United States
Megh M. Trivedi, Anirudha Das
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(4):238-244.   Published online July 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.071
  • 3,415 View
  • 115 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Previous pandemics have demonstrated that several demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors may play a role in increased infection risk. During this current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, our aim was to examine the association of timing of lockdown at the county level and aforementioned risk factors with daily case rate (DCR) in the United States.
Methods
A cross-sectional study using publicly available data was performed including Americans with COVID-19 infection as of May 24, 2020. The United States counties with >100 000 population and >50 cases per 100 000 people were included. The independent variable was the days required from the declaration of lockdown to reach the target case rate (50/100 000 cases) while the dependent (outcome) variable was the DCR per 100 000 on the day of statistical calculation (May 24, 2020) after adjusting for multiple confounding socio-demographic, geographic, and health-related factors. Each independent factor was correlated with outcome variables and assessed for collinearity with each other. Subsequently, all factors with significant association to the outcome variable were included in multiple linear regression models using stepwise method. Models with best R2 value from the multiple regression were chosen.
Results
The timing of mandated lockdown order had the most significant association on the DCR per 100 000 after adjusting for multiple socio-demographic, geographic and health-related factors. Additional factors with significant association with increased DCR include rate of uninsured and unemployment.
Conclusions
The timing of lockdown order was significantly associated with the spread of COVID-19 at the county level in the United States.
Summary

Citations

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  • Predisposing, Enabling, and Reinforcing Factors of COVID-19 Prevention Behavior in Indonesia: A Mixed-methods Study
    Putri Winda Lestari, Lina Agestika, Gusti Kumala Dewi
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(1): 21.     CrossRef
  • Assessing the Impacts of COVID-19 and Social Isolation on Mental Health in the United States of America
    Alexander Fulk, Raul Saenz-Escarcega, Hiroko Kobayashi, Innocent Maposa, Folashade Agusto
    COVID.2023; 3(6): 807.     CrossRef
  • Understanding mental health trends during COVID-19 pandemic in the United States using network analysis
    Hiroko Kobayashi, Raul Saenz-Escarcega, Alexander Fulk, Folashade B. Agusto, Karina Cardoso Meira
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(6): e0286857.     CrossRef
  • Conspiratorial Ideation Is Associated with Lower Perceptions of Policy Effectiveness: Views from Local Governments during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Adam Mayer, Stacia Ryder
    Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of social distancing measures and lockdowns for reducing transmission of COVID-19 in non-healthcare, community-based settings
    Caitriona Murphy, Wey Wen Lim, Cathal Mills, Jessica Y. Wong, Dongxuan Chen, Yanmy Xie, Mingwei Li, Susan Gould, Hualei Xin, Justin K. Cheung, Samir Bhatt, Benjamin J. Cowling, Christl A. Donnelly
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Closures and Openings on Public Health in the Time of COVID-19: A Cross-Country and Temporal Trend Analysis
    Long Chu, R. Quentin Grafton, Tom Kompas, Mary-Louise McLaws
    SAGE Open.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association mining based approach to analyze COVID-19 response and case growth in the United States
    Satya Katragadda, Raju Gottumukkala, Ravi Teja Bhupatiraju, Azmyin Md. Kamal, Vijay Raghavan, Henry Chu, Ramesh Kolluru, Ziad Ashkar
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Special Article
Introduction to Mediation Analysis and Examples of Its Application to Real-world Data
Sun Jae Jung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(3):166-172.   Published online May 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.069
  • 8,237 View
  • 397 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Traditional epidemiological assessments, which mainly focused on evaluating the statistical association between two major components-the exposure and outcome-have recently evolved to ascertain the in-between process, which can explain the underlying causal pathway. Mediation analysis has emerged as a compelling method to disentangle the complex nature of these pathways. The statistical method of mediation analysis has evolved from simple regression analysis to causal mediation analysis, and each amendment refined the underlying mathematical theory and required assumptions. This short guide will introduce the basic statistical framework and assumptions of both traditional and modern mediation analyses, providing examples conducted with real-world data.
Summary
Korean summary
본 리뷰에서는 전통적으로 쓰여왔던 회귀분석 기반 매개요인분석방법과 인과적 매개요인분석방법에 대하여 간략히 소개하며, 또한 예시를 들어 설명하고 있다. 매개요인 분석 전에는 필요한 가정들이 맞는 지를 확인하는 것이 중요하다. 또한 분석결과를 올바르게 해석하는 것 또한 요구된다. 이러한 방법은 그동안의 노출-결과만을 다루는 단순 역학연구을 뛰어넘어, 인구집단연구에서 매커니즘을 밝히는 도구로서 유용하게 쓰일 것이다.

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COVID-19: Perspective
A Chinese Case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Did Not Show Infectivity During the Incubation Period: Based on an Epidemiological Survey
Jong-Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(2):67-69.   Published online March 2, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.048
  • 9,103 View
  • 1,081 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Controversy remains over whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus may have infectivity during the incubation period before the onset of symptoms. The author had the opportunity to examine the infectivity of COVID-19 during the incubation period by conducting an epidemiological survey on a confirmed patient who had visited Jeju Island during the incubation period. The epidemiological findings support the claim that the COVID-19 virus does not have infectivity during the incubation period.
Summary
Korean summary
잠복기 동안 제주도를 방문했던 중국인 COVID-19 확진자에 대한 역학조사를 수행하였다. 환자와 직접 접촉한 11명을 14일간 격리조치 하였는데, 이들 모두 격리해제까지 COVID-19 감염증상을 보이지 않았다. 이상의 역학조사 결과는 잠복기때는 감염력이 없다는 주장을 뒷받침한다.

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  • Sources of Infection Among Confirmed Cases of COVID-19 in Jeju Province, Korea
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Methods
Health Indicators Related to Disease, Death, and Reproduction
Jeoungbin Choi, Moran Ki, Ho Jang Kwon, Boyoung Park, Sanghyuk Bae, Chang-Mo Oh, Byung Chul Chun, Gyung-Jae Oh, Young Hoon Lee, Tae-Yong Lee, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Jung Han Park, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(1):14-20.   Published online January 23, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.250
  • 11,885 View
  • 221 Download
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
One of the primary goals of epidemiology is to quantify various aspects of a population’s health, illness, and death status and the determinants (or risk factors) thereof by calculating health indicators that measure the magnitudes of various conditions. There has been some confusion regarding health indicators, with discrepancies in usage among organizations such as the World Health Organization the, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the CDC of other countries, and the usage of the relevant terminology may vary across papers. Therefore, in this review, we would like to propose appropriate terminological definitions for health indicators based on the most commonly used meanings and/or the terms used by official agencies, in order to bring clarity to this area of confusion. We have used appropriate examples to make each health indicator easy for the reader to understand. We have included practical exercises for some health indicators to help readers understand the underlying concepts.
Summary
Korean summary
본 논문에서는 질병과 사망, 출생 관련 지표들의 개념과 종류를 설명하고, 특히 연구자들이 흔히 혼동하여 사용하는 지표들에 대한 적절한 정의를 제시하였다. 또한 지표들의 예시를 부록으로 수록하여 독자들이 지표의 개념을 보다 쉽게 습득하도록 돕고자 하였다.

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Perspectives
Introduction of Phylodynamics for Controlling the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Korea
Jong-Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(6):326-328.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.150
  • 4,549 View
  • 76 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
As over 1000 new cases of HIV/AIDS occur in Korea annually, preventive health programs against HIV/AIDS are urgently needed. Since phylodynamic studies have been suggested as a way to understand how infectious diseases are transmitted and evolve, phylodynamic inferences can be a useful tool for HIV/AIDS research. In particular, phylodynamic models are helpful for dating the origins of an epidemic and estimating its basic reproduction number. Thus, the introduction of phylodynamics would be a highly valuable step towards controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
국내 HIV/AIDS 신환자가 지속적으로 발생하고 있는 상황에서, 다른 나라에서는 HIV 감염관리에 계통역동학을 적용하고 있다. 이는 감염원과 감염경로를 알아내고, 기본재생산지수를 산출하도록 해주기 때문이다. 따라서 국내 HIV/AIDS 관리를 위해 계통역동학 적용을 적극 제안한다.”
Necessity of Epigenetic Epidemiology Studies on the Carcinogenesis of Lung Cancer in Never Smokers
Jong-Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(5):263-264.   Published online July 8, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.076
  • 5,029 View
  • 138 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Based on epidemiological and genomic characteristics, lung cancer in never smokers (LCNS) is a different disease from lung cancer in smokers. Based on current research, the main risk factor for LCNS may be air pollution. A recent case-control study in Koreans reported that nitrogen dioxide (NO2) may be a risk factor for LCNS. Additionally, a cohort study showed that exposure to NO2 was associated with significant hypomethylation. Thus, epigenetic epidemiology studies are needed in the near future to evaluate the carcinogenesis of LCNS according to chronic exposure to air pollution and/or viral infections.
Summary
Original Articles
Risk of Hemorrhage Attributed to Underlying Chronic Diseases and Uninterrupted Aspirin Therapy of Patients Undergoing Minor Oral Surgical Procedures: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Chanapong Rojanaworarit, Soontaree Limsawan
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(3):165-176.   Published online April 7, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.121
  • 6,463 View
  • 259 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to estimate the risk of bleeding following minor oral surgical procedures and uninterrupted aspirin therapy in high-risk patients or patients with existing chronic diseases compared to patients who did not use aspirin during minor oral surgery at a public hospital.
Methods
This retrospective cohort study analyzed the data of 2912 patients, aged 20 years or older, who underwent 5251 minor oral surgical procedures at a district hospital in Thailand. The aspirin group was comprised of patients continuing aspirin therapy during oral surgery. The non-aspirin group (reference) included all those who did not use aspirin during surgery. Immediate and late-onset bleeding was evaluated in each procedure. The risk ratio of bleeding was estimated using a multilevel Poisson regression.
Results
The overall cumulative incidence of immediate bleeding was 1.3% of total procedures. No late-onset bleeding was found. A significantly greater incidence of bleeding was found in the aspirin group (5.8% of procedures, p<0.001). After adjusting for covariates, a multilevel Poisson regression model estimated that the bleeding risk in the aspirin group was 4.5 times higher than that of the non-aspirin group (95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 10.0; p<0.001). However, all bleeding events were controlled by simple hemostatic measures.
Conclusions
High-risk patients or patients with existing chronic diseases who continued aspirin therapy following minor oral surgery were at a higher risk of hemorrhage than general patients who had not used aspirin. Nonetheless, bleeding complications were not life-threatening and could be promptly managed by simple hemostatic measures. The procedures could therefore be provided with an awareness of increased bleeding risk, prepared hemostatic measures, and postoperative monitoring, without the need for discontinuing aspirin, which could lead to more serious complications.
Summary
Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults
Peter D. Hart, Gabriel Benavidez, James Erickson
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(1):10-17.   Published online December 19, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.080
  • 10,556 View
  • 297 Download
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults.
Methods
A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables.
Results
Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker.
Conclusions
In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA.
Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health