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Original Articles
Trends in Regional Disparities in Cardiovascular Surgery and Mortality in Korea: A National Cross-sectional Study
Dal-Lae Jin, Kyoung-Hoon Kim, Euy Suk Chung, Seok-Jun Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):260-268.   Published online May 30, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.057
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Regional disparities in cardiovascular care in Korea have led to uneven patient outcomes. Despite the growing need for and access to procedures, few studies have linked regional service availability to mortality rates. This study analyzed regional variation in the utilization of major cardiovascular procedures and their associations with short-term mortality to provide better evidence regarding the relationship between healthcare resource distribution and patient survival.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted using nationwide claims data for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), stent insertion, or aortic aneurysm resection in 2022. Regional variation was assessed by the relevance index (RI). The associations between the regional RI and 30-day mortality were analyzed.
Results
The RI was lowest for aortic aneurysm resection (mean, 26.2; standard deviation, 26.1), indicating the most uneven regional distribution among the surgical procedures. Patients undergoing this procedure in regions with higher RIs showed significantly lower 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 0.96; p=0.026) versus those with lower RIs. This suggests that cardiovascular surgery regional availability, as measured by RI, has an impact on mortality rates for certain complex surgical procedures. The RI was not associated with significant mortality differences for more widely available procedures like CABG (aOR, 0.96), PCI (aOR, 1.00), or stent insertion (aOR, 0.91).
Conclusions
Significant regional variation and underutilization of cardiovascular surgery were found, with reduced access linked to worse mortality for complex procedures. Disparities should be addressed through collaboration among hospitals and policy efforts to improve outcomes.
Summary
Korean summary
심혈관 관련 수술을 대상으로 지역적 불균형을 분석한 결과, 관상동맥우회술, 경피적 관상동맥중재술, 스텐트 삽입술은 전국적으로 광범위하게 분포되었다. 반면에 대동맥류 절제술은 지역적 불균형이 발생하였고, 사망률 또한 유의한 차이가 있었다. 따라서 의료 격차 해소를 위해 병원 간 협력체계 구축, 지역 균형적 의료자원 확충 등 정책적 노력이 필요하다
Key Message
An analysis of regional disparities in cardiovascular surgeries revealed that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and stent insertion procedures were widely distributed nationwide. However, there was a regional imbalance in aortic aneurysm resection (AAR) surgeries, which also showed significant differences in mortality rates. Therefore, policy efforts are needed to bridge the healthcare gap, such as establishing collaborative systems among hospitals and ensuring a balanced distribution of medical resources across regions.
Mental Health Among Healthcare Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Vietnam
Nhan Phuc Thanh Nguyen, Ha Phan Ai Nguyen, Cao Khoa Dang, Minh Tri Phan, Huynh Ho Ngoc Quynh, Van Tuan Le, Chinh Van Dang, Tinh Huu Ho, Van Trong Phan, Thang Van Dinh, Thang Phan, Thi Anh Thu Dang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):37-46.   Published online December 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.327
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The objective of this study was to characterize mental health issues among Vietnamese healthcare workers (HCWs) and to identify related factors.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 990 HCWs in 2021. Their mental health status was measured using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale.
Results
In total, 49.9%, 52.3%, and 29.8% of respondents were found to have depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. The multivariable linear regression model revealed that factors associated with increased anxiety scores included depression scores (β, 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.51) and stress scores (β, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.52). Factors associated with increased depression scores included being frontline HCWs (β, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.10), stress scores (β, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.56), and anxiety scores (β, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.47), while working experience was associated with reduced depression scores (β, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.01). Factors associated with increased stress scores included working experience (β, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.16), personal protective equipment interference with daily activities (β, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.07 to 1.00), depression scores (β, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.59), and anxiety scores (β, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.50), while age was associated with reduced stress scores (β, -0.12; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.05).
Conclusions
Specific interventions are necessary to enhance and promote the mental health of HCWs so they can successfully cope with the circumstances of the pandemic.
Summary
Key Message
A cross-sectional study of 990 Vietnamese healthcare workers in Vietnam, 2021 revealed significant mental health issues: 49.9 % suffered from depression, 52.3 % from anxiety, and 29.8 % from stress. The study found a correlation between these conditions, with frontline workers being particularly vulnerable to depression. These findings highlight the critical need for targeted mental health interventions for healthcare workers, particularly those new to the field and working on the front lines, in order to better manage pandemic-related stressors.
Sleep Quality and Poor Sleep-related Factors Among Healthcare Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Vietnam
Thang Phan, Ha Phan Ai Nguyen, Cao Khoa Dang, Minh Tri Phan, Vu Thanh Nguyen, Van Tuan Le, Binh Thang Tran, Chinh Van Dang, Tinh Huu Ho, Minh Tu Nguyen, Thang Van Dinh, Van Trong Phan, Binh Thai Dang, Huynh Ho Ngoc Quynh, Minh Tran Le, Nhan Phuc Thanh Nguyen
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(4):319-326.   Published online May 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.528
  • 2,597 View
  • 272 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased the workload of healthcare workers (HCWs), impacting their health. This study aimed to assess sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and identify factors associated with poor sleep among HCWs in Vietnam during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods
In this cross-sectional study, 1000 frontline HCWs were recruited from various healthcare facilities in Vietnam between October 2021 and November 2021. Data were collected using a 3-part self-administered questionnaire, which covered demographics, sleep quality, and factors related to poor sleep. Poor sleep quality was defined as a total PSQI score of 5 or higher.
Results
Participants’ mean age was 33.20±6.81 years (range, 20.0-61.0), and 63.0% were women. The median work experience was 8.54±6.30 years. Approximately 6.3% had chronic comorbidities, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. About 59.5% were directly responsible for patient care and treatment, while 7.1% worked in tracing and sampling. A total of 73.8% reported poor sleep quality. Multivariate logistic regression revealed significant associations between poor sleep quality and the presence of chronic comorbidities (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 5.24), being a frontline HCW directly involved in patient care and treatment (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.16), increased working hours (OR, 1.84; 95% CI,1.37 to 2.48), and a higher frequency of encountering critically ill and dying patients (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.95).
Conclusions
The high prevalence of poor sleep among HCWs in Vietnam during the COVID-19 pandemic was similar to that in other countries. Working conditions should be adjusted to improve sleep quality among this population.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A cross‐sectional study of sleep disturbance among middle‐aged cancer patients at Vietnam National Cancer Hospital
    Anh Tuan Pham, Mai Tuyet Do, Huong Thi Thanh Tran
    Cancer Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Poor sleep quality and associated factors among healthcare professionals at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
    Winta Tesfaye, Ayechew Adera Getu, Baye Dagnew, Alemu Lemma, Yigizie Yeshaw
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Annual Endovascular Thrombectomy Case Volume and Thrombectomy-capable Hospitals of Korea in Acute Stroke Care
Eun Hye Park, Seung-sik Hwang, Juhwan Oh, Beom-Joon Kim, Hee-Joon Bae, Ki-Hwa Yang, Ah-Rum Choi, Mi-Yeon Kang, S.V. Subramanian
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(2):145-153.   Published online March 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.318
  • 1,979 View
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Although it is difficult to define the quality of stroke care, acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with moderate-to-severe neurological deficits may benefit from thrombectomy-capable hospitals (TCHs) that have a stroke unit, stroke specialists, and a substantial endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) case volume.
Methods
From national audit data collected between 2013 and 2016, potential EVT candidates arriving within 24 hours with a baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥6 were identified. Hospitals were classified as TCHs (≥15 EVT case/y, stroke unit, and stroke specialists), primary stroke hospitals (PSHs) without EVT (PSHs-without-EVT, 0 case/y), and PSHs-with-EVT. Thirty-day and 1-year case-fatality rates (CFRs) were analyzed using random intercept multilevel logistic regression.
Results
Out of 35 004 AIS patients, 7954 (22.7%) EVT candidates were included in this study. The average 30-day CFR was 16.3% in PSHs-without-EVT, 14.8% in PSHs-with-EVT, and 11.0% in TCHs. The average 1-year CFR was 37.5% in PSHs-without-EVT, 31.3% in PSHs-with-EVT, and 26.2% in TCHs. In TCHs, a significant reduction was not found in the 30-day CFR (odds ratio [OR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.12), but was found in the 1-year CFR (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.96).
Conclusions
The 1-year CFR was significantly reduced when EVT candidates were treated at TCHs. TCHs are not defined based solely on the number of EVTs, but also based on the presence of a stroke unit and stroke specialists. This supports the need for TCH certification in Korea and suggests that annual EVT case volume could be used to qualify TCHs.
Summary
Korean summary
급성 허혈성 뇌졸중 환자에서 “혈관 내 혈전제거술(endovascular treatment, EVT)”의 치료효과는 여러 연구를 통해 증명되었으나, EVT 후보군에서 EVT를 제공하기 위한 의료서비스 연구는 부족한 실정이다. 5~7차 뇌졸중 적정성 평가 자료를 활용하여 연간 EVT 시행횟수와 EVT후보군의 30일, 1년 후 치명률 간의 연관성을 다수준 분석을 통해 확인하였다. 연간 15회 이상 EVT를 시행하면서 뇌졸중 전문치료실과 뇌줄중 관련 전문분과(신경과, 신경외과, 재활의학과) 전문의가 모두 있는 병원(TCHs)에서 치료받은 환자는 EVT를 시행하지 않는 병원(PSHs-without-EVT)에서 치료받는 환자에 비해 치명률이 감소하는 경향을 보였다. 이는 뇌졸중 치료체계에서 EVT가능병원을 정의할 필요성을 잘 보여주고, “연간 EVT 시행횟수”는 TCHs를 정의하는 중요한 지표로 사용될 수 있을 것이다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Trends in Regional Disparities in Cardiovascular Surgery and Mortality in Korea: A National Cross-sectional Study
    Dal-Lae Jin, Kyoung-Hoon Kim, Euy Suk Chung, Seok-Jun Yoon
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2024; 57(3): 260.     CrossRef
Inequality in Private Health Care Expenditures: A 36-Year Trend Study of Iranian Households
Ehsan Aghapour, Mehdi Basakha, Seyed Hossein Mohaqeqi Kamal, Abolghasem Pourreza
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(4):379-388.   Published online June 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.123
  • 2,485 View
  • 80 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Throughout history, societies have been impacted by inequality. Many studies have been conducted on the topic more broadly, but only a few have investigated inequalities in out-of-pocket health payments (OHP). This study measures OHP inequality trends among the Iranian households.
Methods
This study used data from the Iranian Statistics Center on Iranian household income and expenditures. The analysis included a total of 995 300 households during the 36 years from 1984 to 2019. The Gini coefficient, Atkinson index, and Theil index were calculated for Iranian OHP.
Results
Average Iranian household OHP increased from 33 US dollar (USD) in 1984 to 47 USD in 2019. During this 36-year span, the average±standard deviation Gini coefficient for OHP was 0.73±0.04, and the Atkinson and Theil indexes were 0.68±0.05 and 1.14±0.29, respectively. The Gini coefficients for the subcategories of OHP of outpatient diagnostic services, medical assistant accessories, hospital inpatient services, and addiction cessation were 0.70, 0.61, 0.84, and 0.64, respectively.
Conclusions
In this study, we scrutinized trends of inequality in the OHP of Iranian households. Inequality in OHP decreased slightly over the past four decades. An analysis of trends among different subgroups revealed that affluent households, such as households with insurance coverage and households in higher income deciles, experienced higher inequality. Therefore, lower inequality in health care expenditures may be related to restricted access to health care services in Iran.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Decomposition of Healthcare Utilization Inequality in Iran: The Prominent Role of Health Literacy and Neighborhood Characteristics
    Neda Soleimanvandiazar, Seyed Hossein Mohaqeqi Kamal, Mehdi Basakha, Salah Eddin Karimi, Sina Ahmadi, Gholamreza Ghaedamini Harouni, Homeira Sajjadi, Ameneh Setareh Forouzan
    INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Special Article
Well-being Index Scores and Subjective Health Status of Korean Healthcare Workers
Yoonhee Shin, Bohyun Park, Nam-eun Kim, Eun Jeong Choi, Minsu Ock, Sun Ha Jee, Sue K. Park, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(3):226-233.   Published online May 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.114
  • 2,985 View
  • 123 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective level of health-related quality of life of Korean healthcare workers using various quality-of-life instruments.
Methods
This study included 992 participants, who were doctors and nurses. A survey was conducted between November 28 and December 4, 2019. Data from 954 participants divided into 3 groups (physicians, residents, and nurses) were analyzed. Four measurement tools (29 questions) were used in the survey to evaluate subjective health status and well-being.
Results
In the Mayo Well-being Index, burnout during work (88.5%) and emotional difficulties caused by work (84.0%) were frequently cited by the respondents. Regarding questions on burnout and emotional difficulties, residents and nurses had the highest scores (91.0 and 89.6%, respectively). Emotional problems, such as anxiety, depression, and irritability, accounted for a high percentage (73.1%) of the total, while 82.2% of respondents reported that their work schedules interfered with their leisure and family time. There was no significant difference among the groups in subjective health status. However, 10.1% of the residents experienced very low quality of life, which was a higher proportion than that of physicians (2.7%) and nurses (5.2%).
Conclusions
The level of well-being that Korean medical workers experienced in relation to work was lower than the results of the United States healthcare workers surveyed using the same tool. This study was unique in that it conducted a subjective quality-of-life survey on Korean healthcare workers.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구의 목적은 다양한 삶의 질 도구를 사용하여 한국 의료종사자들의 건강과 관련된 삶의 질에 대한 주관적인 수준을 평가하는 것이다. 피로와 정서적 어려움, 업무로 인한 일상생활의 방해 등 한국 의료종사자의 일부 삶의 질 점수가 낮았다. 의료 종사자의 소진 경험이 환자의 치료에 부정적인 영향을 미친다는 것을 고려할 때 의료 종사자들의 삶의 질을 향상시키는 정책이 마련되어야하며, 건강과 관련된 직업적 위험요인 연구도 추가적으로 필요하다.
Original Articles
A Regionalization Model to Increase Equity of Access to Maternal and Neonatal Care Services in Iran
Zahra Mohammadi Daniali, Mohammad Mehdi Sepehri, Farzad Movahedi Sobhani, Mohammad Heidarzadeh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(1):49-59.   Published online December 28, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.401
  • 3,115 View
  • 145 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Access to maternal and neonatal care services (MNCS) is an important goal of health policy in developing countries. In this study, we proposed a 3-level hierarchical location-allocation model to maximize the coverage of MNCS providers in Iran.
Methods
First, the necessary criteria for designing an MNCS network were explored. Birth data, including gestational age and birth weight, were collected from the data bank of the Iranian Maternal and Neonatal Network national registry based on 3 service levels (I, II, and III). Vehicular travel times between the points of demand and MNCS providers were considered. Alternative MNCS were mapped in some cities to reduce access difficulties.
Results
It was found that 130, 121, and 86 MNCS providers were needed to respond to level I, II, and III demands, respectively, in 373 cities. Service level III was not available in 39 cities within the determined travel time, which led to an increased average travel time of 173 minutes to the nearest MNCS provider.
Conclusions
This study revealed inequalities in the distribution of MNCS providers. Management of the distribution of MNCS providers can be used to enhance spatial access to health services and reduce the risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity. This method may provide a sustainable healthcare solution at the policy and decision-making level for regional, or even universal, healthcare networks.
Summary

Citations

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  • Epidemiology and Clinical Features of COVID-19 among 4,015 Neonates in Iran: Results of the National Study from the Iranian Maternal and Neonatal Network
    David A. Schwartz, Parisa Mohagheghi, Fereshteh Moshfegh, Nazanin Zafaranloo, Narjes Khalili, Mohammad Heidarzadeh, Abbas Habibelahi, Roya Ghafoury, Fatemeh Afrashteh
    American Journal of Perinatology.2024; 41(S 01): e1698.     CrossRef
  • Global burden and inequality of maternal and neonatal disorders: based on data from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study
    R Peng, Y Tong, M Yang, J Wang, L Yang, J Zhu, Yu Liu, H Wang, Z Shi, Ya Liu
    QJM: An International Journal of Medicine.2024; 117(1): 24.     CrossRef
  • Multi-objective mammography unit location–allocation problem: A case study
    Marcos Vinícius Andrade de Campos, Romário dos Santos Lopes de Assis, Marcone Jamilson Freitas Souza, Eduardo Camargo de Siqueira, Maria Amélia Lopes Silva, Sérgio Ricardo de Souza
    Operations Research for Health Care.2024; 41: 100430.     CrossRef
  • An optimization model for equitable accessibility to magnetic resonance imaging technology in developing countries
    João Flávio de Freitas Almeida, Samuel Vieira Conceição, Virgínia Silva Magalhães
    Decision Analytics Journal.2022; 4: 100105.     CrossRef
Identification of Unmet Healthcare Needs: A National Survey in Thailand
Sukanya Chongthawonsatid
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(2):129-136.   Published online March 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.318
  • 3,497 View
  • 150 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study examined demographic factors hampering access to healthcare at hospitals and suggests policy approaches to improve healthcare management in Thailand.
Methods
The data for the study were drawn from a health and welfare survey conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand in 2017. The population-based health and welfare survey was systematically carried out by skilled interviewers, who polled 21 519 384 individuals. The independent variables related to demographic data (age, sex, religion, marital status, education, occupation, and area of residence), chronic diseases, and health insurance coverage. The dependent variable was the degree of access to healthcare. Multiple logistic regression analysis was subsequently performed on the variables found to be significant in the univariate analysis.
Results
Only 2.5% of the population did not visit a hospital when necessary for outpatient-department treatment, hospitalization, or the provision of oral care. The primary reasons people gave for not availing themselves of the services offered by government hospitals when they were ill were—in descending order of frequency—insufficient time to seek care, long hospital queues, travel inconvenience, a lack of hospital beds, unavailability of a dentist, not having someone to accompany them, and being unable to pay for the transportation costs. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that failure to access the health services provided at hospitals was associated with demographic, educational, occupational, health welfare, and geographic factors.
Conclusions
Accessibility depends not only on health and welfare benefit coverage, but also on socioeconomic factors and the degree of convenience associated with visiting a hospital.
Summary

Citations

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  • Factors associated with poor self-rated health among chronic kidney disease patients and their health care utilization: Insights from LASI wave-1, 2017-18
    Swetalina Nayak, Soumya Ranjan Nayak, Alice Alice, Debadutta Sahoo, Srikanta Kanungo, Tanveer Rehman, Sanghamitra Pati, Subrat Kumar Palo
    Frontiers in Nephrology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The association between health costs and physical inactivity; analysis from the Physical Activity at Work study in Thailand
    Katika Akksilp, Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Yot Teerawattananon, Cynthia Chen
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Unmet Healthcare Needs among the Elderly Korean Population: Before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Hyo Lyun Roh, Sang Dol Kim
    Systems.2023; 11(9): 437.     CrossRef
  • The association of physical activity and sedentary behaviour on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study from the physical activity at work (PAW) trial
    Katika Akksilp, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider, Yot Teerawattananon, Cynthia Chen
    Journal of Activity, Sedentary and Sleep Behaviors.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The relationship between sexual and gender stigma and difficulty accessing primary and mental healthcare services among LGBTQI+ populations in Thailand: Findings from a national survey
    Soroush Moallef, Travis Salway, Nittaya Phanuphak, Katri Kivioja, Suparnee Pongruengphant, Kanna Hayashi
    International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.2022; 20(6): 3244.     CrossRef
  • The impact of the Syrian Refugee Crisis on the health access in Turkiye: A synthetic control analysis
    Hüseyin İKİZLER, Aslı DOLU, Emre YÜKSEL
    Uluslararası Ekonomi ve Yenilik Dergisi.2022; 8(2): 165.     CrossRef
Effects of the Out-of-pocket Payment Exemption in the Public Health Center on Medical Utilization of the Korean Elderly
Kiryong Nam, Eunhye Park, Yuhjin Chung, Chang-yup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(6):455-464.   Published online October 20, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.341
  • 3,184 View
  • 132 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The distribution of hospitals in Korea is unbalanced in terms of accessibility. Many local public health centers (PHCs) exempt out-of-pocket payments (OOPs) based on local government laws to increase coverage. However, this varies across administrative regions, as many make this exemption for the elderly, while others do not. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the OOP exemption at local PHCs among elderly individuals.
Methods
This study used online data on Korean national law to gather information on individual local governments’ regulations regarding OOP exemptions. Individual-level data were gathered from the 2018 Community Health Survey and regional-level data from public online sources.
Results
The study analyzed 132 regions and 44 918 elderly people. A statistical analysis of rate differences and 2-level multiple logistic regression were carried out. The rate difference according to whether elderly individuals resided in areas with the OOP exemption was 1.97%p (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 2.88) for PHC utilization, 1.37%p (95% CI, 0.67 to 2.08) for hypertension treatment, and 2.19%p (95% CI, 0.63 to 3.74) for diabetes treatment. The regression analysis showed that OOP exemption had an effect on hypertension treatment, with a fixed-effect odds ratio of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.48).
Conclusions
The OOP exemption at PHCs can affect medical utilization in Korea, especially for hypertension treatment. The OOP exemption should be expanded to improve healthcare utilization in Korea.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Access of older people to primary health care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic scoping review
    Saydeh Dableh, Kate Frazer, Diarmuid Stokes, Thilo Kroll, Dirceu Henrique Paulo Mabunda
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(4): e0298973.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Perspective
Unconventional Answers to Unprecedented Challenges: The Swedish Experience During the COVID-19 Outbreak
Giuseppe Valeriani, Iris Sarajlic Vukovic, Richard Mollica
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(4):233-235.   Published online July 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.235
  • 5,124 View
  • 215 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Since its early stages, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed immense challenges in meeting the public health and healthcare and social care needs of migrants. In line with other reports from United Kingdom and United States, data from Sweden’s health authority show that migrants have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Following the World Health Organization’s statements, as well as the European Public Health Association’s call for action, several centres in Sweden’s most populated areas have activated tools to implement national plans for community outreach through initiatives targeting migrants and ethnic minority groups. Unconventional means should be promoted to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on migrants and the health of the public at large.
Summary

Citations

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  • Asylum Seekers’ Responses to Government COVID-19 Recommendations: A Cross-sectional Survey in a Swiss Canton
    Kevin Morisod, Marie-Anne Durand, Kevin Selby, Marie-Annick Le Pogam, Véronique S. Grazioli, Javier Sanchis Zozaya, Patrick Bodenmann, Christian von Plessen
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.2023; 25(3): 570.     CrossRef
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Original Article
Measuring Out-of-pocket Payment, Catastrophic Health Expenditure and the Related Socioeconomic Inequality in Peru: A Comparison Between 2008 and 2017
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Carlos Rojas-Roque, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández, Diego Rosselli
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(4):266-274.   Published online June 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.035
  • 4,498 View
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  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Describe out-of-pocket payment (OOP) and the proportion of Peruvian households with catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and evaluate changes in socioeconomic inequalities in CHE between 2008 and 2017.
Methods
We used data from the 2008 and 2017 National Household Surveys on Living and Poverty Conditions (ENAHO in Spanish), which are based on probabilistic stratified, multistage and independent sampling of areas. OOP was converted into constant dollars of 2017. A household with CHE was assumed when the proportion between OOP and payment capacity was ≥0.40. OOP was described by median and interquartile range while CHE was described by weighted proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). To estimate the socioeconomic inequality in CHE we computed the Erreygers concentration index.
Results
The median OOP reduced from 205.8 US dollars to 158.7 US dollars between 2008 and 2017. The proportion of CHE decreased from 4.9% (95% CI, 4.5 to 5.2) in 2008 to 3.7% (95% CI, 3.4 to 4.0) in 2017. Comparison of socioeconomic inequality of CHE showed no differences between 2008 and 2017, except for rural households in which CHE was less concentrated in richer households (p<0.05) and in households located on the rest of the coast, showing an increase in the concentration of CHE in richer households (p<0.05).
Conclusions
Although OOP and CHE reduced between 2008 and 2017, there is still socioeconomic inequality in the burden of CHE across different subpopulations. To reverse this situation, access to health resources and health services should be promoted and guaranteed to all populations.
Summary

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COVID-19: Original Article
Forecasting COVID-19 Transmission and Healthcare Capacity in Bali, Indonesia
I Md Ady Wirawan, Pande Putu Januraga
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(3):158-163.   Published online April 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.152
  • 9,132 View
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  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
In the current early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, Bali needs to prepare to face the escalation of cases, with a particular focus on the readiness of healthcare services. We simulated the future trajectory of the epidemic under current conditions, projected the impact of policy interventions, and analyzed the implications for healthcare capacity.
Methods
Our study was based on the first month of publicly accessible data on new confirmed daily cases. A susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered (SEIR) model for COVID-19 was employed to compare the current dynamics of the disease with those predicted under various scenarios.
Results
The fitted model for the cumulative number of confirmed cases in Bali indicated an effective reproduction number of 1.4. Interventions have decreased the possible maximum number of cases from 71 125 on day 86 to 22 340 on day 119, and have prolonged the doubling time from about 9 days to 21 days. This corresponds to an approximately 30% reduction in transmissions from cases of mild infections. There will be 2780 available hospital beds, and at the peak (on day 132), the number of severe cases is estimated to be roughly 6105. Of these cases, 1831 will need intensive care unit (ICU) beds, whereas the number of currently available ICU beds is roughly 446.
Conclusions
The healthcare system in Bali is in danger of collapse; thus, serious efforts are needed to improve COVID-19 interventions and to prepare the healthcare system in Bali to the greatest extent possible.
Summary

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Original Articles
Association Between Convenience of Transportation and Unmet Healthcare Needs of Rural Elderly in Korea
Youngeun Choi, Kiryong Nam, Chang-yup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(6):355-365.   Published online October 3, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.172
  • 9,437 View
  • 218 Download
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
In rural areas of Korea, where public transportation infrastructure is lacking and alternative systems are poor, the elderly experience inconveniences in using healthcare, although their need is high. This study aimed to analyze the association between the convenience of transportation and unmet healthcare needs among the rural elderly.
Methods
The data used were collected in the 2016 Community Health Survey among rural elderly individuals aged 65 or older. Dependent variable was the unmet healthcare needs, explanatory variable was the convenience of transportation. The elderly were divided into 3 groups: with no driver in the household, with a driver, and the elderly individual was the driver (the self-driving group). Covariates were classified into predisposing, enabling, and need factors. They included gender, age, education, income, economic activity, household type, motor ability, subjective health level, number of chronic diseases, anxiety/depression, and pain/discomfort. The data were analyzed using logistic regression and stratification.
Results
A significant association was found between the convenience of transportation and unmet healthcare needs. When examined unadjusted odds ratio of the group with a driver in the household, using the group with no driver as a reference, was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.68), while that of the self-driving group was 0.34 (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.38). The odds ratios adjusted for all factors were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.80) and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.91).
Conclusions
We confirmed a significant association between inconvenient transportation and unmet healthcare needs among the rural elderly even after adjustment for existing known factors. This implies that policies aimed at improving healthcare accessibility must consider the means of transportation available.
Summary
Korean summary
대중교통 인프라가 부족하고 대안적 교통수단 체계가 미흡한 농촌 지역 노인들은 의료 필요는 높으나 도보이동이나 불편한 이동수단을 이용하기 어려워 의료이용에 불편을 겪는다. 본 연구는 의료접근성 향상과 불평등한 접근성 문제에 대한 제안의 근거 마련을 목적으로 질병관리본부 지역사회건강조사 데이터를 이용하여 농촌 노인의 이동수단의 편의성과 미충족의료 경험의 연관성을 살펴보았다. 분석결과 농촌지역 노인에게 교통편 불편은 미충족의료 경험의 주된 이유로 나타났고 기존에 알려진 요인들을 보정한 후에도 이동수단의 편의성과 미충족의료 경험 사이에 유의한 관계가 있음을 확인하였다.

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Poor People and Poor Health: Examining the Mediating Effect of Unmet Healthcare Needs in Korea
Youngsoo Kim, Saerom Kim, Seungmin Jeong, Sang Guen Cho, Seung-sik Hwang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(1):51-59.   Published online January 23, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.162
  • 6,388 View
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  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to estimate the mediating effect of subjective unmet healthcare needs on poor health. The mediating effect of unmet needs on health outcomes was estimated.
Methods
Cross-sectional research method was used to analyze Korea Health Panel data from 2011 to 2015, investigating the mediating effect for each annual dataset and lagged dependent variables.
Results
The magnitude of the effect of low income on poor health and the mediating effect of unmet needs were estimated using age, sex, education level, employment status, healthcare insurance status, disability, and chronic disease as control variables and selfrated health as the dependent variable. The mediating effect of unmet needs due to financial reasons was between 14.7% to 32.9% of the total marginal effect, and 7.2% to 18.7% in lagged model.
Conclusions
The fixed-effect logit model demonstrated that the existence of unmet needs raised the likelihood of poor self-rated health. However, only a small proportion of the effects of low income on health was mediated by unmet needs, and the results varied annually. Further studies are necessary to search for ways to explain the varying results in the Korea Health Panel data, as well as to consider a time series analysis of the mediating effect. The results of this study present the clear implication that even though it is crucial to address the unmet needs, but it is not enough to tackle the income related health inequalities.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구에서는 2011년부터 2015년까지의 한국의료패널 자료를 이용하여 미충족의료과 불건강의 관련성을 살펴보고, 불건강을 매개하는 미충족의료의 크기를 추정했다. 미충족의료는 개인고정효과를 보정하였을 때 불건강에 유의한 영향 준다는 것을 확인할 수 있었고, 미충족의료가 매개하는 저소득의 건강 효과는 저소득이 불건강에 미치는 전체 효과 중 일부에 지나지 않았으며, 효과의 크기는 분석 연도 별로 일정하지 않게 나타났다. 이는 건강불평등을 줄이기 위한 정책 개입에서 미충족의료 해소가 유의미한 정책 목표로 가치가 있지만 그 한계 또한 명확하다는 것을 의미한다.

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Effects of Iranian Economic Reforms on Equity in Social and Healthcare Financing: A Segmented Regression Analysis
Hamed Zandian, Amirhossein Takian, Arash Rashidian, Mohsen Bayati, Telma Zahirian Moghadam, Satar Rezaei, Alireza Olyaeemanesh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(2):83-91.   Published online February 6, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.050
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Objectives
One of the main objectives of the Targeted Subsidies Law (TSL) in Iran was to improve equity in healthcare financing. This study aimed at measuring the effects of the TSL, which was implemented in Iran in 2010, on equity in healthcare financing. Methods: Segmented regression analysis was applied to assess the effects of TSL implementation on the Gini and Kakwani indices of outcome variables in Iranian households. Data for the years 1977-2014 were retrieved from formal databases. Changes in the levels and trends of the outcome variables before and after TSL implementation were assessed using Stata version 13. Results: In the 33 years before the implementation of the TSL, the Gini index decreased from 0.401 to 0.381. The Gini index and its intercept significantly decreased to 0.362 (p<0.001) 5 years after the implementation of the TSL. There was no statistically significant change in the gross domestic product or inflation rate after TSL implementation. The Kakwani index significantly increased from -0.020 to 0.007 (p<0.001) before the implementation of the TSL, while we observed no statistically significant change (p=0.81) in the Kakwani index after TSL implementation. Conclusions: The TSL reform, which was introduced as part of an economic development plan in Iran in 2010, led to a significant reduction in households’ income inequality. However, the TSL did not significantly affect equity in healthcare financing. Hence, while measuring the long-term impact of TSL is paramount, healthcare decision-makers need to consider the efficacy of the TSL in order to develop plans for achieving the desired equity in healthcare financing.
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health