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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health



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2 "Non-communicable diseases"
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The Burden of Stroke in Kurdistan Province, Iran From 2011 to 2017
Shahram Moradi, Ghobad Moradi, Bakhtiar Piroozi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(2):103-109.   Published online February 1, 2021
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  • 138 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this study was to calculate the burden of stroke in Kurdistan Province, Iran between 2011 and 2017.
Incidence data extracted from the hospital information system of Kurdistan Province and death data extracted from the system of registration and classification of causes of death were used in a cross-sectional study. The World Health Organization method was used to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).
The burden of stroke increased from 2453.44 DALYs in 2011 to 5269.68 in 2017, the years of life lost increased from 2381.57 in 2011 to 5109.68 in 2017, and the years of healthy life lost due to disability increased from 71.87 in 2011 to 159.99 in 2017. The DALYs of ischaemic stroke exceeded those of haemorrhagic stroke. The burden of disease, new cases, and deaths doubled during the study period. The age-standardised incidence rate of ischaemic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke in 2017 was 21.72 and 20.72 per 100 000 population, respectively.
The burden of stroke is increasing in Kurdistan Province. Since health services in Iran are based on treatment, steps are needed to revise the current treatment services for stroke and to improve the quality of services. Policy-makers and managers of the health system need to plan to reduce the known risk factors for stroke in the community. In addition to preventive interventions, efficient and up-to-date interventions are recommended for the rapid diagnosis and treatment of stroke patients in hospitals. Along with therapeutic interventions, preventive interventions can help reduce the stroke burden.
Preventable Lifestyle Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in the Pakistan Adolescents Schools Study 1 (PASS-1)
Ali Khan Khuwaja, Saleem Khawaja, Komal Motwani, Adeel Akbar Khoja, Iqbal Syed Azam, Zafar Fatmi, Badar Sabir Ali, Muhammad Masood Kadir
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(5):210-217.   Published online September 28, 2010
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  • 97 Download
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

The rising burden of preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among adolescents is a major public health challenge worldwide. We identified the preventable risk factors for NCDs in adolescents.


In a school-based study, pre-tested structured questionnaires were completed by 414 adolescents (14 to 17 years) at six schools in three cities in Pakistan. The chi-squared test and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated in a multinomial logistic regression analysis.


Over 80% of the adolescents had unhealthy diets, and 54% were physically inactive. Most adolescents were exposed to passive smoking, and 14% were also current smokers. More than one-third of participants chewed betel nut, and one-quarter used oral tobacco. More girls were physically inactive (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.69 to 6.17), whereas a greater proportion of boys were current smokers (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.91), exposed to passive smoking (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.72 to 3.83), and using betel nut (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34 to 3.06). Only 3.1% of the participants were without any preventable lifestyle risk factor for NCDs, and over 80% had ≥2 factors. Co-existence of risk factors was independently associated with fathers being blue-collar workers (aOR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.07 to 11.92) and parents not treating their child fairly (aOR, 5.05; 95% CI, 1.29 to 19.78).


Most of the adolescents studied had preventable risk factors for NCDs. These results warrant comprehensive and integrated interventions to prevent lifestyle risk factors, and parents are front-line stakeholders.



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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health