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Brief Report
Utilization of the Unlinked Case Proportion to Control COVID-19: A Focus on the Non-pharmaceutical Interventional Policies of the Korea and Japan
Yeri Jeong, Sanggu Kang, Boeun Kim, Yong Jin Gil, Seung-sik Hwang, Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(4):377-383.   Published online June 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.056
  • 1,947 View
  • 70 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Korea and Japan have managed the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using markedly different policies, referred to as the “3T” and “3C” strategies, respectively. This study examined these differences to assess the roles of active testing and contact tracing as non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We compared the proportion of unlinked cases (UCs) and test positivity rate (TPR) as indicators of tracing and testing capacities.
Methods
We outlined the evolution of NPI policies and investigated temporal trends in their correlations with UCs, confirmed cases, and TPR prior to the Omicron peak. Spearman correlation coefficients were reported between the proportion of UCs, confirmed cases, and TPR. The Fisher r-to-z transformation was employed to examine the significance of differences between correlation coefficients.
Results
The proportion of UCs was significantly correlated with confirmed cases (r=0.995, p<0.001) and TPR (r=0.659, p<0.001) in Korea and with confirmed cases (r=0.437, p<0.001) and TPR (r=0.429, p<0.001) in Japan. The Fisher r-to-z test revealed significant differences in correlation coefficients between the proportion of UCs and confirmed cases (z=16.07, p<0.001) and between the proportion of UCs and TPR (z=2.12, p=0.034) in Korea and Japan.
Conclusions
Higher UCs were associated with increases in confirmed cases and TPR, indicating the importance of combining testing and contact tracing in controlling COVID-19. The implementation of stricter policies led to stronger correlations between these indicators. The proportion of UCs and TPR effectively indicated the effectiveness of NPIs. If the proportion of UCs shows an upward trend, more testing and contact tracing may be required.
Summary
Korean summary
“3T”전략과 “3C”전략으로 대표되는 한국과 일본의 코로나 19 유행 시기의 NPI 정책을 비교하고, 접촉자 추적 및 검사 역량의 지표로 감염경로를 알 수 없는 확진자(unlinked case)와 검사 양성률(TPR)의 역할을 평가하였다. 감염경로를 알 수 없는 확진자(UC)는 전체 확진자수 증가 및 검사 양성률의 증가와 관련이 있었으며, 이는 COVID-19 통제에 있어 검사와 접촉자 추적을 적절히 조합하는 것이 중요함을 보여준다.
COVID-19: Original Article
Did the Timing of State Mandated Lockdown Affect the Spread of COVID-19 Infection? A County-level Ecological Study in the United States
Megh M. Trivedi, Anirudha Das
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(4):238-244.   Published online July 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.071
  • 3,270 View
  • 113 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Previous pandemics have demonstrated that several demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors may play a role in increased infection risk. During this current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, our aim was to examine the association of timing of lockdown at the county level and aforementioned risk factors with daily case rate (DCR) in the United States.
Methods
A cross-sectional study using publicly available data was performed including Americans with COVID-19 infection as of May 24, 2020. The United States counties with >100 000 population and >50 cases per 100 000 people were included. The independent variable was the days required from the declaration of lockdown to reach the target case rate (50/100 000 cases) while the dependent (outcome) variable was the DCR per 100 000 on the day of statistical calculation (May 24, 2020) after adjusting for multiple confounding socio-demographic, geographic, and health-related factors. Each independent factor was correlated with outcome variables and assessed for collinearity with each other. Subsequently, all factors with significant association to the outcome variable were included in multiple linear regression models using stepwise method. Models with best R2 value from the multiple regression were chosen.
Results
The timing of mandated lockdown order had the most significant association on the DCR per 100 000 after adjusting for multiple socio-demographic, geographic and health-related factors. Additional factors with significant association with increased DCR include rate of uninsured and unemployment.
Conclusions
The timing of lockdown order was significantly associated with the spread of COVID-19 at the county level in the United States.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predisposing, Enabling, and Reinforcing Factors of COVID-19 Prevention Behavior in Indonesia: A Mixed-methods Study
    Putri Winda Lestari, Lina Agestika, Gusti Kumala Dewi
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(1): 21.     CrossRef
  • Assessing the Impacts of COVID-19 and Social Isolation on Mental Health in the United States of America
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    COVID.2023; 3(6): 807.     CrossRef
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    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(6): e0286857.     CrossRef
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    Adam Mayer, Stacia Ryder
    Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Caitriona Murphy, Wey Wen Lim, Cathal Mills, Jessica Y. Wong, Dongxuan Chen, Yanmy Xie, Mingwei Li, Susan Gould, Hualei Xin, Justin K. Cheung, Samir Bhatt, Benjamin J. Cowling, Christl A. Donnelly
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    Long Chu, R. Quentin Grafton, Tom Kompas, Mary-Louise McLaws
    SAGE Open.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Satya Katragadda, Raju Gottumukkala, Ravi Teja Bhupatiraju, Azmyin Md. Kamal, Vijay Raghavan, Henry Chu, Ramesh Kolluru, Ziad Ashkar
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19: Perspective
The Pandemic League of COVID-19: Korea Versus the United States, With Lessons for the Entire World
Alwin Issac, Shine Stephen, Jaison Jacob, Vijay VR, Rakesh Vadakkethil Radhakrishnan, Nadiya Krishnan, Manju Dhandapani
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(4):228-232.   Published online May 25, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.166
  • 5,032 View
  • 193 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is inflicting a brutal blow on humankind, and no corner of the world has been exempted from its wrath. This study analyzes the chief control measures and the distinctive features of the responses implemented by Korea and the United States to contain COVID-19 with the goal of extracting lessons that can be applied globally. Even though both nations reported their index cases on the same day, Korea succeeded in flattening the curve, with 10 752 cases as of April 28, 2020, whereas the outbreak skyrocketed in the United States, which had more than 1 million cases at the same time. The prudent and timely execution of control strategies enabled Korea to tame the spread of the virus, whereas the United States paid a major price for its delay, although it is too early to render a conclusive verdict. Information pertaining to the number of people infected with the virus and measures instituted by the government to control the spread of COVID-19 was retrieved from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention websites and press releases. Drawing lessons from both nations, it is evident that the resolution to the COVID-19 pandemic lies in the prudent usage of available resources, proactive strategic planning, public participation, transparency in information sharing, abiding by the regulations that are put into place, and how well the plan of action is implemented.
Summary

Citations

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  • Why do democracies respond differently to COVID-19? A comparison of the United States and South Korea
    Yexin Mao
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Manju Dhandapani, Vijay VR, Nadiya Krishnan, Lakshmanan Gopichandran, Alwin Issac, Shine Stephen, Jaison Jacob, Thilaka Thilaka, Lakshmi Narayana Yaddanapudi, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani
    Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research.2022; : 144.     CrossRef
  • Assessing Knowledge, Preventive Practices, and Depression Among Chinese International Students and Local Korean Students in South Korea During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Online Cross-Sectional Study
    Xiaoxu Jiang, Bo Zhao, Eun Woo Nam, Fanlei Kong
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Manju Dhandapani, Sukhpal Kaur, Karobi Das, Rashmi Ranjan Guru, Manisha Biswal, Pranay Mahajan, Vipin Koushal, Goverdhan D. Puri
    Infectious Diseases.2021; 53(2): 145.     CrossRef
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    Hyun-Sook Kim
    Religious Education.2021; 116(1): 41.     CrossRef
  • The collateral fallout of COVID19 lockdown on patients with head injury from north-west India
    Madhivanan Karthigeyan, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani, Pravin Salunke, Sushanta K. Sahoo, Mandeep S. Kataria, Apinderpreet Singh, Chandrashekhar Gendle, Chirag Panchal, Rajesh Chhabra, Kajal Jain, Sunil K. Gupta
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    Hae-ryoung Chun, Kyuhyun Yoon, Hana Kim, Eunsil Cheon, Jaeyoung Ha, Sangwoo Tak, Sung-il Cho
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    Eun-A Kim
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    Shine Stephen, Alwin Issac, Jaison Jacob, VR Vijay, Rakesh Vadakkethil Radhakrishnan, Nadiya Krishnan
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    Sushanta K. Sahoo, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani, Apinderpreet Singh, Chandrashekhar Gendle, Madhivanan Karthigeyan, Pravin Salunke, Ashish Aggarwal, Navneet Singla, Raghav Singla, Manjul Tripathi, Rajesh Chhabra, Sandeep Mohindra, Manoj Kumar Tewari, Manju Mo
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Special Article
Legal Issues in Quarantine and Isolation for Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases
Cheonsoo Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(1):1-17.   Published online January 29, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.009
  • 21,275 View
  • 180 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in South Korea in 2015 has drawn public attention regarding the legal regulation of infectious disease control in Korea. This paper discusses the interpretive and legislative concerns regarding the Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Act, its ordinance and enforcement regulations, as well as public statements from the relevant administrative agency. Future improvements are also proposed.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Utilization of the Public Health Ordinance to prevent nosocomial spread in a case of acute measles-associated psychosis
    Chen Stein-Zamir, Nitza Abramson, Hagit Sonnenfeld-Alroey, Jacob Charnes, Dana Eckstein, Aryeh Dienstag, Dana Wolf, Allon E. Moses, Yoram G. Weiss
    Israel Journal of Health Policy Research.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Chulwoo Park
    Journal of Global Health Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Perspective
A New Measure for Assessing the Public Health Response to a Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Outbreak
Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(6):277-279.   Published online November 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.069
  • 10,776 View
  • 84 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Contact monitoring is an essential component of the public health response to a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak, and is required for an effective quarantine to contain the epidemic. The timeliness of a quarantine is associated with its effectiveness. This paper provides a conceptual framework to describe the process of contact monitoring, and proposes a new measure called the “timely quarantined proportion” as a tool to assess the adequacy of a public health response.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The relationship between moral sensitivity and caring behavior among nurses in iran during COVID-19 pandemic
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    BMC Nursing.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health