Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Search

Page Path
HOME > Search
20 "Tobacco"
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Publication year
Authors
Funded articles
Perspective
Epidemiological Model for Conventional Tobacco Control Measures and Tobacco Endgame Policies
Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):481-484.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.239
  • 1,011 View
  • 89 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Epidemiological models, also known as host-agent-vector-environment models, are utilized in public health to gain insights into disease occurrence and to formulate intervention strategies. In this paper, we propose an epidemiological model that incorporates both conventional measures and tobacco endgame policies. Our model suggests that conventional measures focus on relationships among agent-vector-host-environment components, whereas endgame policies inherently aim to change or eliminate those components at a fundamental level. We also found that the vector (tobacco industry) and environment (physical and social surroundings) components were insufficiently researched or controlled by both conventional measures and tobacco endgame policies. The use of an epidemiological model for tobacco control and the tobacco endgame is recommended to identify areas that require greater effort and to develop effective intervention measures.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 기존의 담배규제와 관련된 역학 모형을 확장하여 담배 수요를 줄이기 위한 조치인 MPOWER 정책과 담배 종결전의 주요 정책을 아우르는 개념적 모형을 제시하였다. 각 정책을 개념적 모형 내 배치한 결과, MPOWER 정책은 모형 내 구성요소 간의 연결을 끊는 것을 목표로 하는 반면, 종결전 정책은 모형 내 요소들을 영구적으로 변화시키거나 제거하려는 특성을 가지고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 담배규제정책이 개체, 병원체, 벡터 및 환경 요소에 대한 균형 잡힌 포트폴리오를 갖추고 있는지 평가하기 위해 이 개념적 모형을 활용할 수 있다.
Key Message
We extended the conceptual epidemiological model for tobacco control by incorporating measures to reduce the demand for tobacco (MPOWER measures) and key endgame policies. The model suggests that MPOWER measures focus on disconnecting the relationships between model components, while endgame policies aim to permanently change or eliminate the components themselves. This model can be used to examine whether a country or jurisdiction's tobacco control policy maintains a balanced portfolio across agent, host, vector, and environmental factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Public support for tobacco endgame policies in South Korea: Findings from the 2020 International Tobacco Control Korea Survey
    Heewon Kang, Wonjeong Yoon, Hong Gwan Seo, Sungkyu Lee, Sujin Lim, Gil-yong Kim, Su Young Kim, Steve S Xu, Mi Yan, Anne C K Quah, Janet Chung-Hall, Lorraine V Craig, Coral E Gartner, Geoffrey T Fong, Sung-il Cho
    Tobacco Control.2024; : tc-2023-058454.     CrossRef
  • Decrease in household secondhand smoking among South Korean adolescents associated with smoke-free policies: grade-period-cohort and interrupted time series analyses
    Hana Kim, Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; : e2024009.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Association Between Tobacco Smoking and Dental Caries in the Indonesian Population: Results of a National Study in 2018
Lelly Andayasari, Rofingatul Mubasyiroh, Iin Nurlinawati, Irna Sufiawati
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(4):357-367.   Published online July 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.417
  • 1,760 View
  • 143 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The 2018 Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS), conducted by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia showed a high prevalence of dental caries (88.8%) in Indonesia and suggested that smoking tobacco was associated with an increased risk of dental caries. This study analyzed the association between tobacco smoking and dental caries in the Indonesian population.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional analysis of secondary data collected from RISKESDAS 2018. The study population included 35 391 Indonesians aged ≥10 years from all 34 provinces. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to measure dental caries. Smoking status was assessed qualitatively based on smoking activity, and the level of smoking exposure was assessed based on the Brinkman index. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the relationships of smoking status and smoking exposure levels with the DMFT index.
Results
Of the population aged ≥10 years, 36% had a DMFT≥8 (females: 37.5%, males: 33.9%). Almost one-fourth (23.4%) were current smokers, and 4.1% were ex-smokers. Furthermore, 26.4% had a Brinkman index ≥400, indicating heavy smoking. According to the multivariate analysis, current smoking status was associated with the risk of DMFT≥8 in males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.40; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.55; p<0.001) and overall (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.14; p=0.037). In females, ex-smoking was associated with a 41% higher risk of DMFT≥8 (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.84; p=0.014). Heavy smoking was associated with a higher risk of DMFT≥8 in males (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.52; p<0.001) and females (aOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.50; p=0.022).
Conclusions
Tobacco smoking was associated with dental caries in the Indonesian population.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Potential interaction of sugar intake and tobacco exposure on dental caries in adults-A cross-sectional study from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Xuewei Niu, Xiaoan Rong, Hantang Sun
    Journal of Dental Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Letter to the Editor: Tobacco Use: Strategies for Prevention in Low and Middle-income Countries
    Israel Oluwasegun Ayenigbara
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(5): 485.     CrossRef
Tobacco Control Stakeholder Perspectives on the Future of Tobacco Marketing Regulation in Indonesia: A Modified Delphi Study
Putu Ayu Swandewi Astuti, Mary Assunta, Becky Freeman
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(5):330-339.   Published online August 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.181
  • 4,547 View
  • 116 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Tobacco control in Indonesia is very lenient compared to international standards. This study explored the perspectives of tobacco control stakeholders (TCSs) on the likelihood of advancing tobacco marketing regulation in Indonesia.
Methods
Data were collected from TCSs who were members of the Indonesia Tobacco Control Network group in a modified Delphi study. We collected the data in 2 waves using a questionnaire that comprised a set of closed and open-ended questions. For this paper, we analysed 2 of the 3 sections of the questionnaire: (1) tobacco advertising, promotions, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans, and (2) marketing and retailing regulations. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the scores using Stata/IC.13 and summarised the comments for each item.
Results
The TCSs viewed the measures/strategies across all aspects of TAPS and tobacco marketing regulation as highly desirable, but provided varied responses on their feasibility. They rated political feasibility lower than technical feasibility for most measures. Advancing TAPS measures and prohibition of selling to minors were considered more attainable by sub-national governments, while prohibition of tobacco corporate social responsibility was considered as the least feasible measure in the next 5 years.
Conclusions
Despite little optimism for substantial national-level change, there is a positive expectation that sub-national governments will strengthen their tobacco control regulation. It is paramount that the government reduce tobacco industry leverage by implementing Article 5.3 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Extending advocacy networks beyond tobacco control groups and framing tobacco control more effectively are necessary steps.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Tobacco policy (in)coherence in Mozambique: an examination of national and subnational stakeholder perspectives
    Nicole Nguenha, Charo Rodriguez, Jeffrey Drope, Stella Aguinaga Bialous, Benedito Cunguara, Raphael Lencucha
    Health Policy and Planning.2024; 39(4): 333.     CrossRef
  • Changes in Compliance With Bans on Tobacco Product Display and Advertising at Traditional and Modern Point-of-Sale Retailers in Depok, Indonesia, 2019–2021
    Qinghua Nian, Ryan David Kennedy, Dina Ariani, Kathy Wright, Jennifer L Brown, Tara Singh Bam, Made Kerta Duana, Diah Setyawati Dewanti
    Nicotine and Tobacco Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Achieving a tobacco-free Bangladesh by 2040: a qualitative analysis of the tobacco advertising environment and prohibitions in Bangladesh
    Arsenios Tselengidis, Sally Adams, Becky Freeman, Syed Mahbubul Alam, Putu Ayu Swandewi Astuti, Jo Cranwell
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(5): e069620.     CrossRef
Factors Associated With Quitting Smoking in Indonesia
Rimawati Aulia Insani Sadarang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(2):137-144.   Published online March 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.293
  • 4,730 View
  • 240 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with quitting smoking in Indonesia
Methods
Data on 11 115 individuals from the fifth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey were analyzed. Quitting smoking was the main outcome, defined as smoking status based on the answer to the question “do you still habitually (smoke cigarettes/smoke a pipe/use chewing tobacco) or have you totally quit?” Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with successful attempts to quit smoking.
Results
The prevalence of quitting smoking was 12.3%. The odds of successfully quitting smoking were higher among smokers who were female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08 to 3.33), were divorced (aOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.82 to 3.29), did not chew tobacco (aOR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.79 to 5.08), found it difficult to sacrifice smoking at other times than in the morning (aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.46), and not smoke when sick (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.54). About 59% of variance in successful attempts to quit smoking could be explained using a model consisting of those variables.
Conclusions
Female sex, being divorced, not chewing tobacco, and nicotine dependence increased the odds of quitting smoking and were associated with quitting smoking successfully. Regular and integrated attempts to quit smoking based on individuals’ internal characteristics, tobacco use activity, and smoking behavior are needed to quit smoking.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predictor of smoking cessation among school-going adolescents in Indonesia: a secondary analysis based on the transtheoretical model of behavioral change
    Omid Dadras
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with quitting smoking among males: Findings from Indonesian national health survey
    Diyan Ermawan Effendi, Irfan Ardani, Sri Handayani, Rozana Ika Agustiya, Arief Priyo Nugroho, Oktriyanto Oktriyanto, Astridya Paramita, Deasy Febriyanty, Risqa Novita, Aris Yulianto
    Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health.2024; 28: 101672.     CrossRef
  • Individual-, social- and policy- factors associated with smoking cessation among adult male cigarette smokers in Hanoi, Vietnam: a longitudinal study
    Thi Ngoc Phuong Nguyen, Jesper Love, Monica Hunsberger, Thi Phuong Thao Tran, Thuy Linh Nguyen, Thi Hai Phan, Ngoc Khue Luong, Van Minh Hoang, Nawi Ng
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Quit Smoking Clinic: Factors Associated with Successful Quit Smoking in Besut District, Terengganu State of Malaysia
    Nur Raihan Ismail, Hafizuddin Awang, Nurul Jannah A Rahman, Arfizah Ahmad Daud, Mohd Fariz Zulrushdi, Azmi Zainuddin, Mohd Anuar Abd Rahman, Kasemani Embong
    European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences.2022; 4(6): 6.     CrossRef
Brief Reports
Monitoring Compliance and Examining Challenges of a Smoke-free Policy in Jayapura, Indonesia
Wahyuti Wahyuti, Suci Hasairin, Sherly Mamoribo, Abdillah Ahsan, Dian Kusuma
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(6):427-432.   Published online November 22, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.240
  • 6,109 View
  • 142 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
In Indonesia, 61 million adults smoked in 2018 and 59 million were exposed to secondhand smoke at offices or restaurants in 2011. The Presidential Decree 109/2012 encouraged local governments to implement smoke-free policy (SFP) with Jayapura city enacted a local bill (1/2015) in 2015. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the compliance and explore the challenges in implementing. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study. The quantitative method assessed the compliance to six criteria (as per the bill) including having signage, no smoking activity, no selling, no advertisement, no smoke, and no ashtray at SFP facilities. We surveyed 192 facilities including health facilities, educational facilities, places of worship, government offices, and indoor/outdoor public facilities. The qualitative method explored challenges in implementing through by interviewing 19 informants (government officers, students and community). Results: The compliance rate to all six criteria was 17% overall, ranging from 0% at outdoor public facilities to 50% at health facilities. We found no spatial patterning as shown by similar compliance rates between SFP facilities within and outside of 1-kilometer around the provincial and city health offices. Implementation challenges included (a) limited budget for enforcement, (b) lack of support from local non-government organizations and universities, (c) lack of public awareness at facilities, and (c) lack of examples from local leaders. Conclusion: The overall compliance was low in Jayapura city due to many challenges. This provides lessons learnt for tobacco control policy in the areas that are least developed and farthest from the central government.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • State of the literature discussing smoke-free policies globally: A narrative review
    Jacqueline A. Teed, Meagan O. Robichaud, Michelle Duren, Hebe N. Gouda, Ryan David Kennedy
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2024; 22(January): 1.     CrossRef
  • Barriers and opportunities for improving smoke-free area implementation in Banda Aceh city, Indonesia: a qualitative study
    Sofyan Sufri, Nurhasanah Nurhasanah, Abdillah Ahsan, Irwan Saputra, Misbahul Jannah, Cut Meurah Yeni, Ainal Mardhiah, Saiful Bakri, Said Usman
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(12): e072312.     CrossRef
  • Decrease in household secondhand smoking among South Korean adolescents associated with smoke-free policies: grade-period-cohort and interrupted time series analyses
    Hana Kim, Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; : e2024009.     CrossRef
  • Compliance With Tobacco Control Policy and Visibility of Cigarette Retailers Around Educational Facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Hala AlJishi, Dian Kusuma, Alaa AlQurashi, Ali AlFaiz, Abdulaziz AlSaad, Maha Aljishi
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and implementation of tobacco control policies: Lessons learned from Indonesia and Thailand
    Faizal Rahmanto Moeis, Renny Nurhasana, Fandy Rahardi, Danty Novitasari, Ni Made Shellasih, Inayati, Murwendah, Paibul Suriyawongpaisal, Roengrudee Patanavanich, Suci Puspita Ratih
    World Medical & Health Policy.2022; 14(4): 750.     CrossRef
  • Worshippers smoking in mosques: Violation of fatwas of ulemas and governor regulation
    Watni Marpaung, Muhammad A. Adly, Rustam Rustam, Akmaluddin Syahputra, Putra A. Siregar, Syahrial Arif Hutagalung, Muhammad S.A. Nasution, Fitri Hayati, Rahmad Efendi, Dhiauddin Tanjung
    HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of price and non-price policies on household cigarette consumption and nutrient intake in smoking-tolerant Indonesia
    Triasih Djutaharta, Nachrowi Djalal Nachrowi, Aris Ananta, Drajat Martianto
    BMJ Open.2021; 11(1): e039211.     CrossRef
  • Is Youth Smoking Related to the Density and Proximity of Outdoor Tobacco Advertising Near Schools? Evidence from Indonesia
    Sri Handayani, Enny Rachmani, Kriswiharsi Kun Saptorini, Yusthin Merianti Manglapy, Nurjanah, Abdillah Ahsan, Dian Kusuma
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(5): 2556.     CrossRef
  • Impact of an Inner-City Smoke-Free Zone on Outdoor Smoking Patterns: A Before–After Study
    Leonieke J Breunis, Metehan Bebek, Nazmi Dereci, Marlou L A de Kroon, Márta K Radó, Jasper V Been
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2021; 23(12): 2075.     CrossRef
  • Effect of tobacco outlet density on quit attempts in Korea: a multi-level analysis of the 2015 Korean Community Health Survey
    Jaehyung Kong, Sung-il Cho
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021048.     CrossRef
  • Removal of point-of-sale tobacco displays in Bogor city, Indonesia: A spatial analysis
    Bambang Priyono, Balqis Hafidhah, Wihardini Wihardini, Ramadhani Nuryunawati, Fathi Rahmadi, Dian Kusuma
    Tobacco Prevention & Cessation.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Improvement in Compliance With Smoke-Free Environment Regulations at Hotels and Restaurants in Vietnam After an Administrative Intervention
    Kim Bao Giang, Pham Bich Diep, Hoang Van Minh, Nguyen Thi Diem Huong, Nguyen Tuan Lam, Pham Quynh Nga, Momoe Takeuchi, Kidong Park
    Environmental Health Insights.2020; 14: 117863022093992.     CrossRef
National Trends in Smoking Cessation Medication Prescriptions for Smokers With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the United States, 2007-2012
Min Ji Kwak, Jongoh Kim, Viraj Bhise, Tong Han Chung, Gabriela Sanchez Petitto
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(5):257-262.   Published online August 23, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.119
  • 5,364 View
  • 151 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Smoking cessation decreases morbidity and mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation is highly effective. However, the optimal prescription rate of smoking cessation medications among smokers with COPD has not been systemically studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the national prescription rates of smoking cessation medications among smokers with COPD and to examine any disparities therein.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study using National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from 2007 to 2012. We estimated the national prescription rate for any smoking cessation medication (varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy) each year. Multiple survey logistic regression was performed to characterize the effects of demographic variables and comorbidities on prescriptions.
Results
The average prescription rate of any smoking cessation medication over 5 years was 3.64%. The prescription rate declined each year, except for a slight increase in 2012: 9.91% in 2007, 4.47% in 2008, 2.42% in 2009, 1.88% in 2010, 1.46% in 2011, and 3.67% in 2012. Hispanic race and depression were associated with higher prescription rates (odds ratio [OR], 5.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59 to 16.67 and OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.26 to 5.51, respectively). There were no significant differences according to insurance, location of the physician, or other comorbidities. The high OR among Hispanic population and those with depression was driven by the high prescription rate of bupropion.
Conclusions
The prescription rate of smoking cessation medications among smokers with COPD remained low throughout the study period. Further studies are necessary to identify barriers and to develop strategies to overcome them.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cigarette Smoking and Psychiatric Illness Among Individuals with COPD: a Systematic Review
    Jacob Levin, David Estey, Ester Yadgaran, Esther Perez, Isabella Plotnick, Jennifer Gittleman, Joseph Friedman, Silvana Agterberg, Sylvie Messer, Tyler Pia, Jennifer Birchwale, Joun Lee, Lisa N. Cruz, Natacha A. Gordon, Rachel S. Kashan, Jung-Yun Min, Kat
    Current Addiction Reports.2024; 11(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • Challenges and perspectives of tobacco cessation in special groups of patients and populations
    Stamatoula Tsikrika, Siyu Dai, Asli Dilektasli, Paraskevi Katsaounou, Elif Dagli
    Breathe.2023; 19(2): 220224.     CrossRef
  • Influence of ethnicity on adherence to nonsurgical interventions for COPD: a scoping review
    Sarah Alamer, Anna Robinson-Barella, Hamde Nazar, Andy Husband
    ERJ Open Research.2023; 9(6): 00421-2023.     CrossRef
  • How the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey has been used to identify health disparities in the care of patients in the United States
    Amanda S. Weissman, Varun Ranpariya, Alan B. Fleischer, Steven R. Feldman
    Journal of the National Medical Association.2021; 113(5): 504.     CrossRef
  • Polypharmacy among Older Individuals with COPD: Trends between 2000 and 2015 in Quebec, Canada
    Caroline Sirois, Amina Ouali, Marc Simard
    COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.2019; 16(3-4): 234.     CrossRef
  • Tobacco Screening and Treatment of Patients With a Psychiatric Diagnosis, 2012–2015
    Erin S. Rogers, Christina N. Wysota
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine.2019; 57(5): 687.     CrossRef
  • Secular trends in smoking in relation to prevalent and incident smoking-related disease: A prospective population-based study
    Philip Tonnesen, Jacob Marott, Børge Nordestgaard, S. Bojesen, Peter Lange
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
Special Article
Scientific Evidence for the Addictiveness of Tobacco and Smoking Cessation in Tobacco Litigation
Sungwon Roh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(1):1-5.   Published online November 29, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.088
  • 7,330 View
  • 282 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others’. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research. Nicotine that enters the body via smoking is rapidly transmitted to the central nervous system and causes various effects, including an arousal response. The changes in the nicotine receptors in the brain due to continuous smoking lead to addiction symptoms such as tolerance, craving, and withdrawal. Compared with other addictive substances, including alcohol and opioids, tobacco is more likely to cause dependence in smokers, and smokers are less likely to recover from their dependence. Moreover, the thinning of the cerebral cortex and the decrease in cognitive functions that occur with aging accelerate with smoking. Such changes occur in the structure and functions of the brain in proportion to the amount and period of smoking. In particular, abnormalities in the neural circuits that control cognition and decision-making cause loss of the ability to exert self-control and autonomy. This initiates nicotine dependence and the continuation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, smoking is considered to be a behavior that is repeated due to dependence on an addictive substance, nicotine, instead of one’s choice by free will.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Psychological Therapies Used for the Reduction of Habitual Cigarette Smoking Cigarette Consumption: A Systematic Review
    Sandra-Milena Carrillo-Sierra, Lorena Cárdenas-Cáceres, John Anderson Cadrazco-Urquijo, Angie Natalia Salazar-Gómez, Diego Rivera-Porras, Valmore Bermúdez
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2024; 21(6): 753.     CrossRef
  • Psychoactive Comfort Products or Snacks: How Chinese Young Adults Perceive the Potentially Addictive Nature of E-Cigarettes
    Apei Song, Zihan Zhang, Zixi Liu
    Healthcare.2023; 11(10): 1440.     CrossRef
  • Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Nicotine-Dependent Individuals and Its Correlation with Polymorphisms of Dopamine D Receptor Gene
    Hongfeng Liu, Lixin Guan, Ying Nie, Qi Li, Jiting Xue, Yong Yang, Shengzhong Rong, Jun Liang, Yanzhong Guan, Fengguo Zhai, Yanhai Ren, Ziyi An, Zesong Dong, Zhixue Han, Yuvaraja Teekaraman
    Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • The concept of “food addiction” helps inform the understanding of overeating and obesity: NO
    Johannes Hebebrand, Ashley N Gearhardt
    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2021; 113(2): 268.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge and Perception about Health Risks Associated with Tobacco Habit — A Survey
    Casilda Sushanthi L, Archana Santhanam, Herald J. Sherlin, Gifrina Jayaraj, Kanchi Ravi Don
    European Journal of General Dentistry.2020; 9(03): 163.     CrossRef
  • Trajectory of Smoking and Incidence of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease among Korean Young Adult Men
    Yongho Jee, Jooeun Jeon, Joung Hwan Back, Mikyung Ryu, Sung-il Cho
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(12): 2219.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Using Focus Group Interviews to Analyze the Behavior of Users of New Types of Tobacco Products
Jinyoung Kim, Sungkyu Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(5):336-346.   Published online September 18, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.052
  • 16,427 View
  • 182 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To characterize the usage patterns of new types of tobacco products (NTTPs) to develop effective strategies for the regulation of NTTPs in Korea. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews to identify the NTTP usage patterns of research subjects. The NTTPs were limited to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe tobacco, and rolling tobacco. We categorized 30 research subjects into 4 groups. The e-cigarette group was divided into adult and adolescent groups. Each group contained 7-8 subjects. An interview lasting approximately 2 hours was conducted with each group. Results: Ninety percent of NTTP users used an NTTP in combination with conventional cigarettes. Subjects mostly bought NTTPs online, unlike how they bought cigarettes. Additionally, a great deal of information, such as how to use NTTPs and descriptions of NTTP products, was exchanged through online or offline societies. The primary reason why the subjects used NTTPs was that NTTPs offer a greater range of flavors and aromas than cigarettes. Moreover, NTTPs were felt to be less repulsive than cigarettes. NTTPs were not used as a cigarette substitute; rather, they were mostly used in places and situations where traditional cigarette smoking was not allowed. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, the government should conduct studies on the effects of the combined use of NTTPs and cigarettes on the human body, obtain and provide accurate data regarding NTTP use, and develop and implement polices to ban NTTP advertising, which may arouse adolescents’ curiosity, and the addition of flavoring substances to tobacco products.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Determinants of e-cigarette use among a sample of high school students in Jakarta, Indonesia
    Mouhamad Bigwanto, Mochamad Iqbal Nurmansyah, Elizabeth Orlan, Yoli Farradika, Tri Bayu Purnama
    International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Youth use of e‐liquid flavours—a systematic review exploring patterns of use of e‐liquid flavours and associations with continued vaping, tobacco smoking uptake or cessation
    Caitlin Notley, Sarah Gentry, Sharon Cox, Martin Dockrell, Michelle Havill, Angela S. Attwood, Matthew Smith, Marcus R. Munafò
    Addiction.2022; 117(5): 1258.     CrossRef
  • The emerging norms of e-cigarette use among adolescents: A meta-ethnography of qualitative evidence
    Hannah Smith, Mark Lucherini, Amanda Amos, Sarah Hill
    International Journal of Drug Policy.2021; 94: 103227.     CrossRef
  • Effects of education methods on self-efficacy of smoking cessation counseling among medical students
    Ara Cho, Jeonggyu Lee, YunJin Kim, Byung Mann Cho, Sang Yeoup Lee, Eunhee Kong, Minjeong Kim, Jinseung Kim, Dong Sik Jung, Seongho Han
    PeerJ.2021; 9: e11408.     CrossRef
  • Impact of tobacco and/or nicotine products on health and functioning: a scoping review and findings from the preparatory phase of the development of a new self-report measure
    Esther F. Afolalu, Erica Spies, Agnes Bacso, Emilie Clerc, Linda Abetz-Webb, Sophie Gallot, Christelle Chrea
    Harm Reduction Journal.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evolution of tobacco products
    Sungkyu Lee, Jinyoung Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2020; 63(2): 88.     CrossRef
  • Options for waterpipe product regulation: A systematic review on product characteristics that affect attractiveness, addictiveness and toxicity of waterpipe use
    Anne Kienhuis, Reinskje Talhout
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Longitudinal transitions of cigarettes and electronic nicotine delivery systems among adolescents: Construction of a retrospective cohort using recall data from a cross-sectional sample
    Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2020; 18(November): 1.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology and Adverse Consequences of Hookah/Waterpipe Use: A Systematic Review
    Rebecca Pratiti, Debabrata Mukherjee
    Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry .2019; 17(2): 82.     CrossRef
Assessment of Tobacco Habits, Attitudes, and Education Among Medical Students in the United States and Italy: A Cross-sectional Survey
Grayson W. Armstrong, Giacomo Veronese, Paul F. George, Isacco Montroni, Giampaolo Ugolini
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(3):177-187.   Published online April 14, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.061
  • 7,116 View
  • 235 Download
  • 25 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Medical students represent a primary target for tobacco cessation training. This study assessed the prevalence of medical students’ tobacco use, attitudes, clinical skills, and tobacco-related curricula in two countries, the US and Italy, with known baseline disparities in hopes of identifying potential corrective interventions.
Methods
From September to December 2013, medical students enrolled at the University of Bologna and at Brown University were recruited via email to answer survey questions assessing the prevalence of medical students’ tobacco use, attitudes and clinical skills related to patients’ smoking, and elements of medical school curricula related to tobacco use.
Results
Of the 449 medical students enrolled at Brown and the 1426 enrolled at Bologna, 174 Brown students (38.7%) and 527 Bologna students (36.9%) participated in this study. Italian students were more likely to smoke (29.5% vs. 6.1%; p<0.001) and less likely to receive smoking cessation training (9.4% vs. 80.3%; p<0.001) than their American counterparts, even though the majority of students in both countries desired smoking cessation training (98.6% at Brown, 85.4% at Bologna; p<0.001). Additionally, negative beliefs regarding tobacco usage, the absence of formal training in smoking cessation counseling, and a negative interest in receiving specific training on smoking cessation were associated with a higher risk of not investigating a patient’s smoking status during a routine history and not offering tobacco cessation treatment to patients.
Conclusions
Medical curricula on tobacco-related health hazards and on smoking cessation should be mandatory in order to reduce smoking among medical students, physicians, and patients, thereby improving tobacco-related global health.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Smoking and Depression among Medical School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from Turkey’s Largest Province
    Bahar Ürün Ünal, Kamile Marakoğlu
    Healthcare.2024; 12(11): 1130.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Tobacco Use Among Medical and Dental Students in Bhubaneswar, Odisha
    Nancy Satpathy, Himanshu S Pradhan, Swapna Sarangi, Venkatarao Epari, Pratap K Jena, Samarendra Dash, Debi P Mohanty, Pratisha Mishra
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Role Of Medical Education in Struggle Against Smoking: The Prevalance of Smoking And Related Factors in Medical Students, Çanakkale
    Buse YÜKSEL, Esen GOKCE, Coşkun BAKAR, Demet Güleç ÖYEKÇİN, Yagmur DUVA
    Türkiye Halk Sağlığı Dergisi.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Use and Knowledge about Tobacco Products and Their Harmful Effects among University Students in Southern Croatia
    Dora Istenic, Lidia Gavic, Antonija Tadin
    Healthcare.2023; 11(5): 771.     CrossRef
  • Tobacco Cessation Curriculum in Medical Schools: a Scoping Review
    Sufian Elfandi, Hemant Poudyal
    Journal of Cancer Education.2023; 38(5): 1614.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge and Awareness of Smoking Effects and Its Cessation Methods among Medical Students in Telangana: A Questionnaire Study
    Prashanth Panta, Archana Andhavarapu, Tejaswini R Gurram, Santhi P Ravada
    World Journal of Dentistry.2023; 14(5): 447.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Influence of Associated Factors among Students of the University of Banja Luka: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Ivana Todorović, Feng Cheng, Stela Stojisavljević, Sonja Marinković, Stefan Kremenović, Pane Savić, Ana Golić-Jelić, Nataša Stojaković, Svjetlana Stoisavljević-Šatara, Rajko Igić, Ranko Škrbić
    Medicina.2022; 58(4): 502.     CrossRef
  • Cigarette Smoking among Medical Students from the Western Balkan
    Miloš Ilić, Maja Grujičić, Budimka Novaković, Aleksandra Vrkatić, Zagorka Lozanov-Crvenković
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(5): 3055.     CrossRef
  • Training Tobacco Treatment Specialists through Virtual Asynchronous Learning
    Audrey Darville, Kathy Rademacher, Amanda T. Wiggins, Mary Grace Lenhof, Ellen J. Hahn
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(6): 3201.     CrossRef
  • Perceptions and preparedness toward tobacco cessation counseling amongst clinical medical students in Chongqing, Southwest China: A cross-sectional study
    Chuang Yang, Wenjin He, Ruihang Deng, Mohan Giri, Haiyun Dai
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Tobacco Consumption Among Young Population in Rural Indonesia: Prevalence and Associated Factors
    Diyan Ermawan Effendi, Arief Priyo Nugroho, Sri Handayani, Risqa Novita, Sidiq Purwoko, Zulfa Auliyati Agustina
    Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences.2022; 10(E): 1178.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among Subjects Visiting the Tobacco Cessation Clinic
    Aiswarya Vijayakrishna, Sharad Chand, U. P. Nandakumar, Santosh Prabhu, Manoj S. Dikkatwar, B. C. Vinay, Juno J. Joel
    Global Journal of Medical, Pharmaceutical, and Biomedical Update.2022; 17: 19.     CrossRef
  • Assessing Smoking Habits, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Needs among University Students at the University of Milan, Italy
    Laura Campo, Silvia Lumia, Silvia Fustinoni
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(19): 12527.     CrossRef
  • Tobacco Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use among Domestic and International Medical Students in Hungary
    Erika Balogh, Zoltán Wagner, Nóra Faubl, Henna Riemenschneider, Karen Voigt, András Terebessy, Ferenc Horváth, Zsuzsanna Füzesi, István Kiss
    Substance Use & Misuse.2021; 56(4): 493.     CrossRef
  • Tobacco use and related behaviors among staff and students in a university hospital: A large cross-sectional survey
    Emmanuel Grolleau, Véronique Fonteille, Caroline Lebourgeois, Marie Darrason, Philippe Michel, Delphine Ragonnet, Gilles Freyer, Amélie Deculty, Carine Gippet, Céline Leclerq, Carole Neugnot, Radoudja Malek, Odile Perdriolat, Michele Rigaud, Séverine Torr
    Tobacco Prevention & Cessation.2021; 7(July): 1.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge and attitudes towards smoking cessation counselling: an Italian cross-sectional survey on tertiary care nursing staff
    Laura Maniscalco, Salvatore Barretta, Giuseppe Pizzo, Domenica Matranga
    PeerJ.2021; 9: e12213.     CrossRef
  • Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Smoking Habits, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Needs among University Students: A Pilot Study among Obstetrics Students
    Laura Campo, Francesca Vecera, Silvia Fustinoni
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(22): 11873.     CrossRef
  • First-year French medical students consume antidepressants and anxiolytics while second-years consume non-medical drugs.
    G. Fond, A. Bourbon, M. Boucekine, M. Messiaen, V. Barrow, P. Auquier, C. Lançon, L. Boyer
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2020; 265: 71.     CrossRef
  • Mental Health Disturbances and Related Problems in Italian University Medical Students from 2000 to 2020: An Integrative Review of Qualitative and Quantitative Studies
    Gaia Sampogna, Giovanni Marcos Lovisi, Francesca Zinno, Valeria Del Vecchio, Mario Luciano, Érika Gonçalves Loureiro Sol, Roberto José Gervásio Unger, Antonio Ventriglio, Andrea Fiorillo
    Medicina.2020; 57(1): 11.     CrossRef
  • Apprentissage de l’aide au sevrage tabagique dans les formations médicales au Liban
    Hala El Kahi, Fady Haddad, Sani Hlais
    Santé Publique.2020; Vol. 32(1): 57.     CrossRef
  • Preferences in Sleep Position Correlate With Nighttime Paresthesias in Healthy People Without Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    Carrie L. Roth Bettlach, Jessica M. Hasak, Emily M. Krauss, Jenny L. Yu, Gary B. Skolnick, Greta N. Bodway, Lorna C. Kahn, Susan E. Mackinnon
    HAND.2019; 14(2): 163.     CrossRef
  • Perception of health professions students of their role model status in Toombak cessation: A cross-sectional study from Sudan
    Hatim Mohammed Almahdi, Raouf Wahab Ali, Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm, Elwalid Fadul Nasir, Pranil Man Singh Pradhan
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(2): e0210837.     CrossRef
  • Anxiolytic consumption is associated with tobacco smoking and severe nicotine dependence. Results from the national French medical students (BOURBON) study
    A. Bourbon, L. Boyer, P. Auquier, M. Boucekine, V. Barrow, C. Lançon, G. Fond
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry.2019; 94: 109645.     CrossRef
  • Psychiatry: A discipline at specific risk of mental health issues and addictive behavior? Results from the national BOURBON study
    G. Fond, A. Bourbon, J-A. Micoulaud-Franchi, P. Auquier, L. Boyer, C. Lançon
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2018; 238: 534.     CrossRef
  • Estudio de corte transversal sobre el estado de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de médicos colombianos ante el tabaquismo
    Claudia Ximena Robayo-González, Juan Carlos Uribe-Caputi
    MedUNAB.2018; 20(3): 327.     CrossRef
Tobacco Use Among Students Aged 13-15 Years in South Korea: The 2013 Global Youth Tobacco Survey
Sunhye Choi, Yoonjung Kim, Jihye Lee, Mina Kashiwabara, Kyungwon Oh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(1):60-65.   Published online January 11, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.079
  • 9,330 View
  • 246 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
We examined the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke among middle-school students in Korea using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2013.
Methods
The GYTS in Korea was conducted between July and August 2013 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data were collected using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13-15 years in sampled classrooms.
Results
The GYTS in Korea was completed by 4235 students aged 13-15 years in 43 middle schools. Approximately one in five of the students (17.8%) reported that they had tried cigarettes in the past, while 5.2% reported currently being cigarette smokers. Current cigarette smoking was higher in boys (7.5%) than in girls (2.6%). Of the students, 29.7% had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home, 47.4% inside enclosed public places, and 53.9% in outdoor public places. Of the current cigarette smokers, 25.7% bought their cigarettes from a store despite a law prohibiting this. Additionally, 58.0% of students noticed point-of-sale tobacco advertisements or promotions, 66.8% of current cigarette smokers wanted to stop smoking, and 70.9% of students had been taught about the dangers of tobacco use in school.
Conclusions
These findings provide an opportunity to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive tobacco control policy. The results suggest that youth have relatively easy access to cigarettes and are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke in public places, as well as to point-of-sale tobacco advertisements and promotions. Strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco sales to youth, expanding smoke-free areas, and advertising bans are needed to reduce tobacco use among youth.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predictors Of Tobacco Smoking Initiation Among Indonesian Teenagers: The 2019 Global Youth Tobacco Survey
    Hani Salsabila Deva, Ferry Efendi, Candra Panji Asmoro, Ronal Surya Aditya, Lisa McKenna, Abdullah Saleh Alruwaili
    F1000Research.2024; 13: 410.     CrossRef
  • Research on Korean Translation in the Context of Epidemic Prevention and Control
    Zhiguo Wang, Chunxiao Ma
    ACM Transactions on Asian and Low-Resource Language Information Processing.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Neighborhood Characteristics and Friends' Smoking Status on the Habitual Smoking Onset in Adolescents
    You-Jung Choi, Gwang Suk Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2021; 51(1): 54.     CrossRef
  • Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of chewing tobacco use in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
    Parkes J Kendrick, Marissa B Reitsma, Mohsen Abbasi-Kangevari, Amir Abdoli, Mohammad Abdollahi, Aidin Abedi, E S Abhilash, Victor Aboyans, Oladimeji M Adebayo, Shailesh M Advani, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Sohail Ahmad, Keivan Ahmadi, Haroon Ahmed, Budi Aji,
    The Lancet Public Health.2021; 6(7): e482.     CrossRef
  • Cohort effects of tobacco control policy: evidence to support a tobacco-free norm through smoke-free policy
    Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
    Tobacco Control.2020; 29(1): 96.     CrossRef
  • Multidisciplinary Approach to Smoking Cessation in Late Adolescence: A Pilot Study
    Jae Suk Park, Sang Hyung Lee, Ga Hye Lee, Mi Ra Yang, Inhyuk Park, Bumjo Oh
    Global Pediatric Health.2020; 7: 2333794X2094465.     CrossRef
  • A Multi-Disciplinary Study Into the Drivers of Smoking Cessation in South Korea
    James E. Prieger, Anna Choi
    SSRN Electronic Journal.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors affecting cigarette smoking among adolescents in South Korea, Vietnam, and Thailand
    Kyoung H. Joung, Sung S. Chung
    Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviours in adolescent non-daily smokers compared to daily smokers and never-smokers in Korea: National cross-sectional study
    Jinhee Lee, Tae Hui Kim, Seongho Min, Min-Hyuk Kim, Ki Chang Park, Jin Sil Moon, Joung-Sook Ahn, Vincenzo DeLuca
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(11): e0207182.     CrossRef
  • Trends in the ease of cigarette purchase among Korean adolescents: evidence from the Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey 2005–2016
    Seo Young Kang, Jung Ah. Lee, Hong-Jun Cho
    BMC Public Health.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among young people in The Gambia
    Isatou K Jallow, John Britton, Tessa Langley
    BMJ Global Health.2017; 2(4): e000482.     CrossRef
Special Articles
Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits
Sun Goo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):80-96.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.002
  • 8,556 View
  • 144 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Attribution of Cancer Origins to Endogenous, Exogenous, and Preventable Mutational Processes
    Vincent L. Cannataro, Jeffrey D. Mandell, Jeffrey P. Townsend, Melissa Wilson
    Molecular Biology and Evolution.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Tobacco Industry’s Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation
Sungkyu Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(1):23-34.   Published online January 27, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.063
  • 10,682 View
  • 129 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
South Korea’s state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report’s argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word “deadly” from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • We must win the tobacco litigation for public health
    Sungkyu Lee
    Public Health Affairs.2017; 1(1): 207.     CrossRef
Review
Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature
Malcolm A. Moore
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(4):183-200.   Published online July 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.4.183
  • 15,187 View
  • 177 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Providing a framework for evaluation disease registry and health outcomes Software: Updating the CIPROS checklist
    Fatemeh Shafiee, Masoume Sarbaz, Parviz Marouzi, Alireza Banaye Yazdipour, Khalil Kimiafar
    Journal of Biomedical Informatics.2024; 149: 104574.     CrossRef
  • Cancer functional states-based molecular subtypes of gastric cancer
    Qi Zhou, Yiwu Yuan, Hao Lu, Xueqin Li, Ziyang Liu, Jinheng Gan, Zhenqi Yue, Jiping Wu, Jie Sheng, Lin Xin
    Journal of Translational Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of interventions on the quality of life of cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal research
    Long Bao Nguyen, Linh Gia Vu, Thanh Thien Le, Xuan Thanh Nguyen, Nam Gia Dao, Duy Cao Nguyen, Trang Huyen Thi Dang, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Laurent Boyer, Guillaume Fond, Pascal Auquier, Carl A. Latkin, Melvyn W.B. Zhang, Roger C.M. Ho, Cyrus S.H. Ho
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Barriers to early detection and management of oral cancer in the Asia Pacific region
    Sin Wi Ng, Sharifah Nur Syamim Syed Mohd Sobri, Rosnah binti Zain, Thomas George Kallarakkal, Rahmi Amtha, Felix A Wiranata Wong, Jyotsna Rimal, Callum Durward, Chanbora Chea, Ruwan Duminda Jayasinghe, Patravoot Vatanasapt, Nor Saleha binti Ibrahim Tamin,
    Journal of Health Services Research & Policy.2022; 27(2): 133.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic work-up and systemic treatment for advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer in four Southeast Asian countries
    R. Soo, L. Mery, A. Bardot, R. Kanesvaran, T.C. Keong, D. Pongnikorn, N. Prasongsook, S.H. Hutajulu, C. Irawan, A. Ab Manan, M. Thiagarajan, P. Sripan, S. Peters, H. Storm, F. Bray, R. Stahel
    ESMO Open.2022; 7(5): 100560.     CrossRef
  • Non-communicable disease policy implementation in Libya: A mixed methods assessment
    Luke N. Allen, Cervantée E. K. Wild, Giulia Loffreda, Mohini Kak, Mohamed Aghilla, Taher Emahbes, Atousa Bonyani, Arian Hatefi, Christopher Herbst, Haider M. El Saeh, Madhukar Pai
    PLOS Global Public Health.2022; 2(11): e0000615.     CrossRef
  • An analysis of policy and funding priorities of global actors regarding noncommunicable disease in low- and middle-income countries
    Kanykey Jailobaeva, Jennifer Falconer, Giulia Loffreda, Stella Arakelyan, Sophie Witter, Alastair Ager
    Globalization and Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Identification of gastric cancer subtypes based on pathway clustering
    Lin Li, Xiaosheng Wang
    npj Precision Oncology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Absorbed Dose According to Nanoparticle Density During the Breast Cancer Brachytherapy
    Deuk-Hee Lee, Ji-Hee Nam, Jung-Hoon Kim
    Journal of Radiological Science and Technology.2019; 42(2): 131.     CrossRef
  • Cancers in Vietnam—Burden and Control Efforts: A Narrative Scoping Review
    Tung Pham, Linh Bui, Giang Kim, Dong Hoang, Thuan Tran, Minh Hoang
    Cancer Control.2019; 26(1): 107327481986380.     CrossRef
  • Undaria pinnatifida a Rich Marine Reservoir of Nutritional and Pharmacological Potential: Insights into Growth Signaling and Apoptosis Mechanisms in Cancer
    Abdul Rehman Phull, Song Ja Kim
    Nutrition and Cancer.2018; 70(6): 956.     CrossRef
  • Low prevalence of human mammary tumor virus (HMTV) in breast cancer patients from Myanmar
    Thar Htet San, Masayoshi Fujisawa, Soichiro Fushimi, Teizo Yoshimura, Toshiaki Ohara, Lamin Soe, Ngu Wah Min, Ohnmar Kyaw, Xu Yang, Akihiro Matsukawa
    Infectious Agents and Cancer.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Molecular Phylogenetic Screening of Withania somnifera Relative From Indonesia Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer Region
    Topik Hidayat, Didik Priyandoko, Putri Yunitha Wardiny, Dina Karina Islami
    HAYATI Journal of Biosciences.2016; 23(2): 92.     CrossRef
  • Gastric Cancer in Asian American Populations: a Neglected Health Disparity
    Victoria M. Taylor, Linda K. Ko, Joo Ha Hwang, Mo-Kyung Sin, John M. Inadomi
    Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention.2015; 15(24): 10565.     CrossRef
  • Toward the Cure of All Children With Cancer Through Collaborative Efforts: Pediatric Oncology As a Global Challenge
    Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Paola Friedrich, Patricia Alcasabas, Federico Antillon, Shripad Banavali, Luis Castillo, Trijn Israels, Sima Jeha, Mhammed Harif, Michael J. Sullivan, Thuan Chong Quah, Catherine Patte, Ching-Hon Pui, Ronald Barr, Thomas Gross
    Journal of Clinical Oncology.2015; 33(27): 3065.     CrossRef
Original Article
Airborne Nicotine Concentrations in the Workplaces of Tobacco Farmers
Seok-Ju Yoo, Sung-Jun Park, Byoung-Seok Kim, Kwan Lee, Hyun-Sul Lim, Jik-Su Kim, In-Shik Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):144-149.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.144
  • 9,488 View
  • 122 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Nicotine is a natural alkaloid and insecticide in tobacco leaves. Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is known as a disease of acute nicotine intoxication among tobacco farmers. Until now, GTS has been recognized globally as a disease that results from nicotine absorption through the skin. However, we assumed that GTS might also result from nicotine inhalation as well as absorption. We aimed to measure the airborne nicotine concentrations in various work environments of Korean tobacco farmers.

Methods

We measured the nicotine concentrations in the tobacco fields, private curing barns, and joint curing barns of farmers from July to October 2010. All sampling and analyses of airborne nicotine were conducted according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health manual of analytic methods.

Results

The airborne nicotine concentrations (geometric mean [geometric standard deviation]) in the tobacco field were 83.4 mg/m3 (1.2) in the upper region and 93.3 mg/m3 (1.2) in the lower region. In addition, the nicotine concentration by personal sampling was 150.1 mg/m3. Similarly, the nicotine concentrations in the private curing barn, workers in curing barns, the front yard of the curing barn, and in the joint curing barn were 323.7 mg/m3 (2.0), 121.0 mg/m3 (1.5), 73.7 mg/m3 (1.7), and 610.3 mg/m3 (1.0), respectively.

Conclusions

The nicotine concentration in the workplaces of tobacco farmers was very high. Future studies should measure the environmental concentration of nicotine that is inhaled by tobacco farmers.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Perspectives of push-pull-mooring effects on a desire for switching to alternative crops among tobacco farmers in Thailand: A qualitative study
    Chakkraphan Phetphum, Artittaya Wangwonsin, Atchara Prajongjeep, Saksin Simsin
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2024; 22(January): 1.     CrossRef
  • Nicotine exposure from packaged cigarettes in tobacco retail settings
    Myung-Bae Park, Jimi Huh, Byung Lyul Woo
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2024; 258: 111271.     CrossRef
  • Obstructive Lung Disease Linked to Occupational Exposures in Malawian Tobacco Farmers
    Yotam M Moyo, Mohamed F Jeebhay, Roslynn Baatjies, Sufia Dadabhai, Shahieda Adams
    Journal of Agromedicine.2023; 28(4): 867.     CrossRef
  • Deteriorating Quality of Life and a Desire to Stop Growing Tobacco Among Virginia and Burley Tobacco Farmers in Thailand
    Chakkraphan Phetphum, Atchara Prajongjeep, Orawan Keeratisiroj, Saksin Simsin, Kanyarat Thawatchaijareonying
    JCO Global Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dor na coluna torácica e fatores associados em fumicultores
    Maitê Peres de Carvalho, Nadia Spada Fiori, Rodrigo Dalke Meucci, Neice Muller Xavier Faria, Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa
    Revista Brasileira de Saúde Ocupacional.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dolor cervical entre agricultores que producen tabaco en el sur de Brasil
    Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa, Nadia Spada Fiori, Rodrigo Dalke Meucci, Neice Müller Xavier Faria, Maitê Peres de Carvalho
    Salud Colectiva.2020; 16: e2307.     CrossRef
  • Green tobacco sickness: mecamylamine, varenicline, and nicotine vaccine as clinical research tools and potential therapeutics
    Lance R. McMahon
    Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology.2019; 12(3): 189.     CrossRef
  • Molecular mechanisms for nicotine intoxication
    Tursun Alkam, Toshitaka Nabeshima
    Neurochemistry International.2019; 125: 117.     CrossRef
  • Intelligent Control of Bulk Tobacco Curing Schedule Using LS-SVM- and ANFIS-Based Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Approaches
    Juan Wu, Simon X. Yang
    Sensors.2019; 19(8): 1778.     CrossRef
  • Socio-environmental risks associated with the green tobacco sickness in farmers: a case-control study
    Marcia Casaril dos Santos Cargnin, Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz, Caroline Ottobelli Getelina, Clarice Alves Bonow
    Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem.2019; 72(6): 1670.     CrossRef
  • Uso de biomarcador cotinina em trabalhadores para detecção da doença da folha verde do tabaco
    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz, Marcia Casaril dos Santos Cargnin
    Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • How to prevent and manage green tobacco sickness?
    Dilaram Acharya, Kwan Lee
    Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2018; 22(2): 115.     CrossRef
  • CULTURA DO TABACO VERSUS SAÚDE DOS FUMICULTORES
    Marcia Casaril dos Santos Cargnin, Carolina de Castilhos Teixeira, Vanessa Monteiro Mantovani, Amália de Fátima Lucena, Isabel Cristina Echer
    Texto & Contexto - Enfermagem.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
Special Article
The Status and Future Challenges of Tobacco Control Policy in Korea
Hong-Jun Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):129-135.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.129
  • 14,644 View
  • 160 Download
  • 34 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Tobacco use is the most important preventable risk factor for premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first international public health treaty, came into force in 2005. This paper reviews the present status of tobacco control policies in Korea according to the WHO FCTC recommendations. In Korea, cigarette use is high among adult males (48.2% in 2010), and cigarette prices are the lowest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with no tax increases since 2004. Smoke-free policies have shown incremental progress since 1995, but smoking is still permitted in many indoor public places. More than 30% of non-smoking adults and adolescents are exposed to second-hand smoke. Public education on the harmful effects of tobacco is currently insufficient and the current policies have not been adequately evaluated. There is no comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship in Korea. Cigarette packages have text health warnings on only 30% of the main packaging area, and misleading terms such as "mild" and "light" are permitted. There are nationwide smoking cessation clinics and a Quitline service, but cessation services are not covered by public insurance schemes and there are no national treatment guidelines. The sale of tobacco to minors is prohibited by law, but is poorly enforced. The socioeconomic inequality of smoking prevalence has widened, although the government considers inequality reduction to be a national goal. The tobacco control policies in Korea have faltered recently and priority should be given to the development of comprehensive tobacco control policies.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Changes in smoking patterns and characteristics of Koreans using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2021 data
    S.J. Kim, B.Y. Park
    Public Health.2024; 227: 259.     CrossRef
  • Associations of dual use of tobacco cigarettes and e‐cigarettes, sleep duration, physical activity and depressive symptoms among middle‐aged and older Korean adults
    Mi‐Ae You, JiYeon Choi, Youn‐Jung Son
    Nursing Open.2023; 10(6): 4071.     CrossRef
  • Methods of the 2020 (Wave 1) International Tobacco Control (ITC) Korea Survey
    Anne Quah, Sungkyu Lee, Hong Gwan Seo, Sung-il Cho, Sujin Lim, Yeol Kim, Steve Xu, Matthew Grey, Mi Yan, Christian Boudreau, Mary Thompson, Pete Driezen, Geoffrey Fong
    Tobacco Prevention & Cessation.2022; 8(March): 1.     CrossRef
  • Gender and tobacco epidemic in South Korea: implications from age-period-cohort analysis and the DPSEEA framework
    Sera Kim, Garam Byun, Garam Jo, Dahyun Park, Sung-Il Cho, Hannah Oh, Rockli Kim, S V Subramanian, Sungha Yun, Kyungwon Oh, Jong-Tae Lee, Min-Jeong Shin
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(4): e058903.     CrossRef
  • Optimum Urine Cotinine and NNAL Levels to Distinguish Smokers from Non-Smokers by the Changes in Tobacco Control Policy in Korea from 2008 to 2018
    Eun Young Park, Min Kyung Lim, Eunjung Park, Yoonjung Kim, Dohoon Lee, Kyungwon Oh
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2022; 24(11): 1821.     CrossRef
  • Effect of usual source of care on receiving smoking cessation advice: Korean National Health Panel data analysis
    Sollip Kim, Hye Kyeong Park, Jae Ho Lee, Hong-Jun Cho, Nak Jin Sung
    Family Practice.2021; 38(3): 218.     CrossRef
  • Effects of an 80% cigarette price increase on quit attempts, successful quitting and smoking intensity among Korean adult smokers: results from nationally representative longitudinal panel data
    Boram Lee, Dong-Chul Seo
    Tobacco Control.2021; 30(3): 336.     CrossRef
  • Trends in the Socioeconomic Inequalities Related to Second-Hand Smoke Exposure as Verified by Urine Cotinine Levels Among Nonsmoking Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2018
    Seo Young Kang, Min Kyung Lim, Hong-Jun Cho
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2021; 23(9): 1518.     CrossRef
  • Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Inconsistency between Self-Response and Urine Cotinine Biomarker Based on Korean National Data during 2009–2018
    Boram Sim, Myung-Bae Park
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(17): 9284.     CrossRef
  • Gender differences in the perceived effectiveness of female-focused graphic health warnings against smoking in South Korea
    Ji-eun Hwang, Youjin Choi, Yu-seon Yang, Yumi Oh
    Health Education Journal.2020; 79(1): 58.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with maintenance of smoking cessation in adolescents after implementation of tobacco pricing policy in South Korea: Evidence from the 11th Youth Health Behavior Survey
    Eun Gyeong Kim, Sook Kyoung Park, Young‐Me Lee, Mi Yeol Hyun, Laren (Riesche) Narapareddy
    Research in Nursing & Health.2020; 43(1): 40.     CrossRef
  • The effect of outdoor smoking ban: Evidence from Korea
    Hansoo Ko
    Health Economics.2020; 29(3): 278.     CrossRef
  • Setting the policy agenda for graphic health warning labels: An analysis of online news media coverage in South Korea, 2016
    Ji-eun Hwang, Sung-il Cho, Sun Goo Lee
    Tobacco Induced Diseases.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Contribution of Avoidable Mortality to the Life Expectancy Gains in Korea between 1998 and 2017
    Jinwook Bahk, Kyunghee Jung-Choi
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(18): 6499.     CrossRef
  • Convenience store visitors recall cigarette advertisements even if they do not purchase cigarettes
    Ji-eun Hwang, Sung-il Cho, Yu-seon Yang, Joung-eun Lee, Seon-young Lee, Yu-mi Oh
    Journal of Public Health.2019; 41(4): 732.     CrossRef
  • The price of tobacco and its effects on smoking behaviors in Korea: The 2015 Korea Community Health Survey
    Mi Ah Han
    Preventive Medicine.2019; 120: 71.     CrossRef
  • Vapor Compounds Released from Nicotine-Free Inhalators as a Smoking-Cessation Aid
    Ho-Seok Kwak, Jung-Yeol Han, Gideon Koren, Sang-Hee Jo, Ki-Hyun Kim
    Applied Sciences.2019; 9(11): 2232.     CrossRef
  • Situation, Impacts, and Future Challenges of Tobacco Control Policies for Youth: An Explorative Systematic Policy Review
    Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, Chun-Bae Kim, Myung Bae Park, Mihajlo (Michael) Jakovljevic
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gender differential secular trend in lifetime smoking prevalence among adolescents: an age-period-cohort analysis
    Jun Hyun Hwang, Soon-Woo Park
    BMC Public Health.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Differences in Adolescent E-cigarette and Cigarette Prevalence in Two Policy Environments: South Korea and the United States
    Hong-Jun Cho, Lauren M Dutra, Stanton A Glantz
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2018; 20(8): 949.     CrossRef
  • Tobacco Control Policies in the Republic of Korea and the Methods of the ITC Korea Surveys
    Hong Gwan Seo, Yeol Kim, Steve Shaowei Xu, Anne C. K. Quah, Christian Boudreau, Mi Yan, Mary E. Thompson, Geoffrey T Fong
    Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.2018; 9(S1): S1.     CrossRef
  • Smoking cessation services provided by the National Health Insurance Service
    Yu-Jin Paek, Jae-Kyung Choi, Eon-Sook Lee, Min-Woo Jo
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2018; 61(3): 157.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic disparities in household secondhand smoke exposure among non-smoking adolescents in the Republic of Korea
    Sunhee Park, Sungwon Lim, Junghee Kim, Haein Lee, Kyung Ja June
    Global Public Health.2017; 12(9): 1104.     CrossRef
  • Assessing impacts of the WHO FCTC on national legislations: A case study of the Republic of Korea
    Sun Goo Lee
    Health Policy.2017; 121(6): 604.     CrossRef
  • Non‐smoker assertive behaviour against smoke exposure: Chinese and Korean American non‐smokers
    Anne Saw, Hao Tang, Janice Y. Tsoh, Moon S. Chen, Elisa K. Tong
    Drug and Alcohol Review.2017; 36(6): 779.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with stage of change in smoker in relation to smoking cessation based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II-V
    Ah Young Leem, Chang Hoon Han, Chul Min Ahn, Sang Haak Lee, Jae Yeol Kim, Eun Mi Chun, Kwang Ha Yoo, Ji Ye Jung, Yvonne Böttcher
    PLOS ONE.2017; 12(5): e0176294.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Viewing Smoking Scenes in Motion Pictures on Subsequent Smoking Desire in Audiences in South Korea
    Minsung Sohn, Minsoo Jung
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2017; 3(3): e46.     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of government anti-smoking policy on non-smoking youth in Korea: a 4-year trend analysis of national survey data
    Jueun Kwak, Hyunsuk Jeong, Sungha Chun, Ji Hoon Bahk, Misun Park, Youngseol Byun, Jina Lee, Hyeon Woo Yim
    BMJ Open.2017; 7(7): e013984.     CrossRef
  • Is a Price Increase Policy Enough for Adolescent Smokers?: Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Increasing Cigarette Prices Among Korean Adolescent Smokers
    Yong Suk Lee, Hong-Suk Kim, Hyung-Do Kim, Ki-Bong Yoo, Sung-In Jang, Eun-Cheol Park
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2016; 18(10): 2013.     CrossRef
  • The relationship between smoking and depressive symptoms among Korean adults
    Han Na Sung, Jong Sung Kim
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2016; 33(2): 57.     CrossRef
  • Health Performance and Challenges in Korea: a Review of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
    Yo Han Lee, Seok-Jun Yoon, Arim Kim, Hyeyoung Seo, Seulki Ko
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2016; 31(Suppl 2): S114.     CrossRef
  • Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men
    Yon Jee, Aesun Shin, Jong-Keun Lee, Chang-Mo Oh
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(12): 1208.     CrossRef
  • The importance of the belief that “light” cigarettes are smoother in misperceptions of the harmfulness of “light” cigarettes in the Republic of Korea: a nationally representative cohort study
    Annika C. Green, Geoffrey T. Fong, Ron Borland, Anne C. K. Quah, Hong Gwan Seo, Yeol Kim, Tara Elton-Marshall
    BMC Public Health.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012)
    Se Young Jung, Suyeon Kim, Kiheon Lee, Ju Young Kim, Woo Kyung Bae, Keehyuck Lee, Jong-Soo Han, Sarah Kim
    BMJ Open.2015; 5(7): e008218.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health