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Heechoul Ohrr 15 Articles
Low Systolic Blood Pressure and Mortality From All Causes and Vascular Diseases Among Older Middle-aged Men: Korean Veterans Health Study
Sang-Wook Yi, Heechoul Ohrr
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(2):105-110.   Published online March 11, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.003
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Recently, low systolic blood pressure (SBP) was found to be associated with an increased risk of death from vascular diseases in a rural elderly population in Korea. However, evidence on the association between low SBP and vascular diseases is scarce. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the association between low SBP and mortality from all causes and vascular diseases in older middle-aged Korean men.
Methods
From 2004 to 2010, 94 085 Korean Vietnam War veterans were followed-up for deaths. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. A stratified analysis was conducted by age at enrollment. SBP was self-reported by a postal survey in 2004.
Results
Among the participants aged 60 and older, the lowest SBP (<90 mmHg) category had an elevated aHR for mortality from all causes (aHR, 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 3.1) and vascular diseases (International Classification of Disease, 10th revision, I00-I99; aHR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.4) compared to those with an SBP of 100 to 119 mmHg. Those with an SBP below 80 mmHg (aHR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 18.8) and those with an SBP of 80 to 89 mmHg (aHR, 3.1; 95% CI, 0.9 to 10.2) also had an increased risk of vascular mortality, compared to those with an SBP of 90 to 119 mmHg. This association was sustained when excluding the first two years of follow-up or preexisting vascular diseases. In men younger than 60 years, the association of low SBP was weaker than that in those aged 60 years or older.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that low SBP (<90 mmHg) may increase vascular mortality in Korean men aged 60 years or older.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Relationship between systolic blood pressure and all-cause mortality: a prospective study in a cohort of Chinese adults
    Chunsheng Li, Youren Chen, Qiongbing Zheng, Weiqiang Wu, Zhichao Chen, Lu Song, Shasha An, Zhifang Li, Shuohua Chen, S. L. Wu
    BMC Public Health.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Baseline and longitudinal change in blood pressure and mortality in a Chinese cohort
    Jian-Bing Wang, Qiu-Chi Huang, Shu-Chang Hu, Pei-Wen Zheng, Peng Shen, Die Li, Huai-Chu Lu, Xiang Gao, Hong-Bo Lin, Kun Chen
    Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.2018; 72(12): 1083.     CrossRef
  • Low Systolic Blood Pressure and Vascular Mortality Among More Than 1 Million Korean Adults
    Sang-Wook Yi, Yejin Mok, Heechoul Ohrr, Jee-Jeon Yi, Young Duk Yun, Jihwan Park, Sun Ha Jee
    Circulation.2016; 133(24): 2381.     CrossRef
Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Levels and Their Association With Age, Body Mass Index, Smoking, Military Record-based Variables, and Estimated Exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam Veterans
Sang-Wook Yi, Heechoul Ohrr, Jong-Uk Won, Jae-Seok Song, Jae-Seok Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(5):226-236.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.5.226
  • 11,026 View
  • 87 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and evaluate their association with age, body mass index, smoking, military record-based variables, and estimated exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam veterans.

Methods

Serum levels of TCDD were analyzed in 102 Vietnam veterans. Information on age, body mass index, and smoking status were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. The perceived exposure was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based exposures were constructed by division/brigade level and battalion/company level unit information using the Stellman exposure opportunity index model.

Results

The mean and median of serum TCDD levels was 1.2 parts per trillion (ppt) and 0.9 ppt, respectively. Only 2 Vietnam veterans had elevated levels of TCDD (>10 ppt). The levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with the likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either proximity-based exposure or perceived self-reported exposure. The serum TCDD levels were not significantly different according to military unit, year of first deployment, duration of deployment, military rank, age, body mass index, and smoking status.

Conclusions

The average serum TCDD levels in the Korean Vietnam veterans were lower than those reported for other occupationally or environmentally exposed groups and US Vietnam veterans, and their use as an objective marker of Agent Orange exposure may have some limitations. The unit of deployment, duration of deployment, year of first deployment, military rank, perceived self-reported exposure, and proximity-based exposure to Agent Orange were not associated with TCDD levels in Korean Vietnam veterans. Age, body mass index and smoking also were not associated with TCDD levels.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Determinants of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in the Italian population in the last decades
    Anna Maria Ingelido, Vittorio Abate, Annalisa Abballe, Stefania Paola De Filippis, Elena Dellatte, Silvia De Luca, Fabiola Ferri, Anna Rita Fulgenzi, Nicola Iacovella, Anna Laura Iamiceli, Valentina Marra, Roberto Miniero, Silvia Valentini, Elena De Felip
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2023; 30(16): 47012.     CrossRef
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    Phan Van Manh, Pham The Tai, Nguyen Minh Phuong, Muneko Nishijo, Do Minh Trung, Pham Ngoc Thao, Ho Anh Son, Tran Van Tuan, Nguyen Van Chuyen, Nguyen Van Long, Nguyen Van Khoi, Nguyen Tung Linh, Hoang Van Luong, Do Ba Quyet
    Chemosphere.2021; 266: 129024.     CrossRef
  • Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin‐like PCBs in feed and food
    Helle Katrine Knutsen, Jan Alexander, Lars Barregård, Margherita Bignami, Beat Brüschweiler, Sandra Ceccatelli, Bruce Cottrill, Michael Dinovi, Lutz Edler, Bettina Grasl‐Kraupp, Christer Hogstrand, Carlo Stefano Nebbia, Isabelle P Oswald, Annette Petersen
    EFSA Journal.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans, and polychlorobiphenyls in women of reproductive age in Italy: A human biomonitoring study
    Anna Maria Ingelido, Vittorio Abate, Annalisa Abballe, Fulvia Lucia Albano, Tatiana Battista, Valter Carraro, Michele Conversano, Rosa Corvetti, Silvia De Luca, Silva Franchini, Anna Rita Fulgenzi, Laura Giambanco, Nicola Iacovella, Anna Laura Iamiceli, A
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.2017; 220(2): 378.     CrossRef
  • High Prevalence of Agent Orange Exposure Among Thyroid Cancer Patients in the National Va Healthcare System
    Karen T. Le, Mark P. Sawicki, Marilene B. Wang, Jerome M. Hershman, Angela M. Leung
    Endocrine Practice.2016; 22(6): 699.     CrossRef
  • Herbicide Exposure, Vietnam Service, and Hypertension Risk in Army Chemical Corps Veterans
    Yasmin S. Cypel, Amii M. Kress, Stephanie M. Eber, Aaron I. Schneiderman, Victoria J. Davey
    Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine.2016; 58(11): 1127.     CrossRef
  • Authors' response to: ME Ginevan et al. Exposure estimates in epidemiological studies of Korean veterans of the Vietnam War
    S.-W. Yi, S.-Y. Ryu
    International Journal of Epidemiology.2015; 44(1): 359.     CrossRef
  • A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and lymphoid malignancies
    Ellen T. Chang, Paolo Boffetta, Hans-Olov Adami, Jack S. Mandel
    Annals of Epidemiology.2015; 25(4): 275.     CrossRef
  • A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer
    Ellen T. Chang, Paolo Boffetta, Hans-Olov Adami, Philip Cole, Jack S. Mandel
    European Journal of Epidemiology.2014; 29(10): 667.     CrossRef
  • Challenges in investigating the association between Agent Orange and cancer: Site‐specific cancer risk and accuracy of exposure assessment
    Thomas H. Sinks
    Cancer.2014; 120(23): 3595.     CrossRef
  • Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam veterans: A prospective cohort study
    Sang‐Wook Yi, Heechoul Ohrr
    Cancer.2014; 120(23): 3699.     CrossRef
  • Agent Orange exposure and risk of death in Korean Vietnam veterans: Korean Veterans Health Study
    Sang-Wook Yi, So-Yeon Ryu, Heechoul Ohrr, Jae-Seok Hong
    International Journal of Epidemiology.2014; 43(6): 1825.     CrossRef
Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans
Sang-Wook Yi, Heechoul Ohrr, Jae-Seok Hong, Jee-Jeon Yi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(5):213-225.   Published online September 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.5.213
  • 12,062 View
  • 150 Download
  • 32 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans.

Methods

A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model.

Results

The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis.

Conclusions

Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure.

Summary

Citations

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    Suzanne M. de la Monte, Ming Tong
    Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.2024; 97(4): 1703.     CrossRef
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    Seung-Hoon Lee, Changsu Han, Junhyung Kim, Hyun-Ghang Jeong, Moon-Soo Lee, Jin Hee Choi, Hayun Choi
    Psychiatry Investigation.2024; 21(2): 191.     CrossRef
  • Pesticide exposure and risk of cholangiocarcinoma: A hospital‐based matched case–control study
    Ake Pugkhem, Supot Kamsa‐ard, Siriporn Kamsa‐ard, Vor Luvira, Varisara Luvira, Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi
    Tropical Medicine & International Health.2024; 29(5): 390.     CrossRef
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    N. Jestin-Guyon, C. Raherison-Semjen
    Revue des Maladies Respiratoires.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Wanhyung Lee, Soyoung Park, Seong-Kyu Kang, Seunghon Ham, Jin-Ha Yoon, Won-Jun Choi
    Frontiers in Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Agent Orange Causes Metabolic Dysfunction and Molecular Pathology Reminiscent of Alzheimer’s Disease
    Suzanne M. de la Monte, Anuva Goel, Ming Tong, Busra Delikkaya
    Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Reports.2023; 7(1): 751.     CrossRef
  • Pesticide exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease: A systematic review
    Adriana M. Zago, Neice M. X. Faria, Juliana L. Fávero, Rodrigo D. Meucci, Susan Woskie, Anaclaudia G. Fassa
    Global Public Health.2022; 17(12): 3944.     CrossRef
  • Digestive tract toxicity associated with exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats
    V.C.B.S. Mariotti, I.Z.F. Naufal, I.A.R. Amorim, J.L.S. Parizi, G.A. Nai
    Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Kyla A. McKay, Kelsi A. Smith, Lidija Smertinaite, Fang Fang, Caroline Ingre, Fabian Taube
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica.2021; 143(1): 39.     CrossRef
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    Stéphane Mathis, Antoine Soulages, Jean-Michel Vallat, Gwendal Le Masson
    Journal of Neurology.2021; 268(3): 892.     CrossRef
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    Eryn K. Matich, Jonathan A. Laryea, Kathryn A. Seely, Shelbie Stahr, L. Joseph Su, Ping-Ching Hsu
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.2021; 219: 112327.     CrossRef
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    Angeline Andrew, Jie Zhou, Jiang Gui, Antoinette Harrison, Xun Shi, Meifang Li, Bart Guetti, Ramaa Nathan, Maeve Tischbein, Erik P. Pioro, Elijah Stommel, Walter Bradley
    NeuroToxicology.2021; 87: 128.     CrossRef
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    Pornpimol Kongtip, Noppanun Nankongnab, Nichcha Kallayanatham, Ritthirong Pundee, Jutharak Yimsabai, Susan Woskie
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(11): 4178.     CrossRef
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    Trang VoPham
    Current Epidemiology Reports.2019; 6(1): 50.     CrossRef
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    Digestive Diseases and Sciences.2018; 63(5): 1123.     CrossRef
  • Neuromodulatory Burst Therapy for Agent Orange–Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Case Report
    Roxanna Rasekhi, Danielle Babb, Chane Price
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    Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations.2017; 35(11): 633.     CrossRef
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    La Presse Médicale.2016; 45(1): 98.     CrossRef
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    Environment International.2016; 91: 104.     CrossRef
  • Body Mass Index and Cancer Mortality Among Korean Older Middle-Aged Men
    Jae-Seok Hong, Sang-Wook Yi, Jee-Jeon Yi, Seri Hong, Heechoul Ohrr
    Medicine.2016; 95(21): e3684.     CrossRef
  • High Prevalence of Agent Orange Exposure Among Thyroid Cancer Patients in the National Va Healthcare System
    Karen T. Le, Mark P. Sawicki, Marilene B. Wang, Jerome M. Hershman, Angela M. Leung
    Endocrine Practice.2016; 22(6): 699.     CrossRef
  • Impact of alcohol consumption and body mass index on mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases, upper aerodigestive tract cancers, and alcohol use disorders in Korean older middle-aged men
    Sang-Wook Yi, Jae-Seok Hong, Jee-Jeon Yi, Heechoul Ohrr
    Medicine.2016; 95(39): e4876.     CrossRef
  • Herbicide Exposure, Vietnam Service, and Hypertension Risk in Army Chemical Corps Veterans
    Yasmin S. Cypel, Amii M. Kress, Stephanie M. Eber, Aaron I. Schneiderman, Victoria J. Davey
    Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine.2016; 58(11): 1127.     CrossRef
  • The mystery of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): Why is it absent in Asians and what does this tell us about etiology, pathogenesis and biology?
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    Blood Reviews.2015; 29(3): 205.     CrossRef
  • Authors' response to: ME Ginevan et al. Exposure estimates in epidemiological studies of Korean veterans of the Vietnam War
    S.-W. Yi, S.-Y. Ryu
    International Journal of Epidemiology.2015; 44(1): 359.     CrossRef
  • Association of persistent organic pollutants and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes and diabetes-related health outcomes in Asia: A systematic review
    Lindsay M. Jaacks, Lisa R. Staimez
    Environment International.2015; 76: 57.     CrossRef
  • A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and lymphoid malignancies
    Ellen T. Chang, Paolo Boffetta, Hans-Olov Adami, Jack S. Mandel
    Annals of Epidemiology.2015; 25(4): 275.     CrossRef
  • Low Systolic Blood Pressure and Mortality From All Causes and Vascular Diseases Among Older Middle-aged Men: Korean Veterans Health Study
    Sang-Wook Yi, Heechoul Ohrr
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2015; 48(2): 105.     CrossRef
  • Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: The Korean veterans health study
    Sang-Wook Yi, Jae-Seok Hong, Heechoul Ohrr, Jee-Jeon Yi
    Environmental Research.2014; 133: 56.     CrossRef
  • A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer
    Ellen T. Chang, Paolo Boffetta, Hans-Olov Adami, Philip Cole, Jack S. Mandel
    European Journal of Epidemiology.2014; 29(10): 667.     CrossRef
  • Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam veterans: A prospective cohort study
    Sang‐Wook Yi, Heechoul Ohrr
    Cancer.2014; 120(23): 3699.     CrossRef
  • Agent Orange exposure and risk of death in Korean Vietnam veterans: Korean Veterans Health Study
    Sang-Wook Yi, So-Yeon Ryu, Heechoul Ohrr, Jae-Seok Hong
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A Study on the Cost and Proportion of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Total Healthcare Cost among Elderly in the Last 6 Months of Life.
Jee Jeon Yi, Heechoul Ohrr, Sang Wook Yi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(2):141-149.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIONS: To evaluate the cost and proportion of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) in the total healthcare costs among the elderly in the last 6 months of life. METHODS: The care-giving families of 301 persons older than 65 years, who died between July 1st and December 31st of 2001, and were also registered in Self-Employed Health Insurance Programs in Seoul, were interviewed. RESULTS: The cost of CAM was 1.09 million Won, which as a proportion of the total healthcare cost was 38.1%. The elderly aged between 65 and 69 year-old, male, living with their spouse, Buddhist and having cancers had higher CAM costs in an ANOVA and simple regression analysis. After controlling of various factors, age was the only significant factor associated with the cost of CAM. The elderly above 80 years old, female, bereaved and Buddhist had higher proportional CAM costs, and the elderly having cancers or cardiovascular diseases had lower proportional CAM costs in an ANOVA and simple regression analysis. After adjusting for various factors, the elderly above 85 years old, female and Buddhist had higher proportional CAM costs, and the elderly having cancers had lower proportional CAM costs. CONCLUSION: The very old and Buddhist, and/or the ill with no clear diagnosis, may depend more on CAM. Further research will be needed on the meaning and impact of CAM and their costs to public health and the total healthcare system.
Summary
Association of Drinking Patterns and Health Characteristics with Beverage Preference.
Jee Jeon Yi, Heechoul Ohrr, Sang Wook Yi, Woo Jin Chung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(2):133-140.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To investigate the association between the type of preferred alcoholic beverage and drinking pattern and health characteristics. METHODS: A Cross-sectional study was conducted from 22 April to 3 May in 2002. 301 females and 699 males aged 13 to 59 were personally interviewed. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, drinking pattern and health characteristics were collected. 735 drinkers who were 19 year-old or over were included in analysis. Beverage preference was classified 3 categories: Beer drinker, wine drinker (including wine, makguly, chungju and yakju) and soju drinker (including soju and spirits). RESULTS: Beer drinkers were likely to be females. Compared to wine or soju drinkers, beer drinkers were less frequently drank, and consumed less total alcohol per week and less alcohol per 1 drinking among both male and female. Controlling for various confounders, beer drinker had significantly less total alcohol consumption per week, and alcohol consumption per 1 drinking than wine and soju drinker. CONCLUSION: Beer drinking were associated with less smoking in males and healthy drinking pattern in both gender than soju drinking.
Summary
Association between Alcohol Drinking and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and All-cause Mortality: Kangwha Cohort Study.
Sang Wook Yi, Sang Hyun Yoo, Jae Woong Sull, Heechoul Ohrr
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(2):120-126.
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  • 113 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIONS: This study sought to examine relationships between alcohol drinking and cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality. METHODS: From March 1985 through December 1999, 2, 696 males and 3, 595 females aged 55 or over as of 1985 were followed up for their mortality until 31 December 1999. We calculated the mortality risk ratios by level of alcohol consumption. Among the drinker, the level of alcohol consumption was calculated by the frequency of alcohol comsumption and the type of alcohol. Cox proportional hazard model was used to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS: Among males, compared to abstainer, heavy drinker had significantly higher mortality in all cause (Risk ratio=1.35), cardiovascular disease (Risk ratio=1.52) and cerebrovascular disease (Risk ratio =1.66). Although not significant, moderate drinker had lower ischemic heart disease mortality (Risk ratio =0.38). Among females, there was no statistically significant association between alcohol comsumption and mortality. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that alcohol drinking has harmful effect on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality and cerebrovascular disease mortality among males, especially in heavy drinker among males. Minimal evidence on protective effect for cardiovascular disease mortality in low or moderate drinker is observed.
Summary
A Study on the Association Between Ginseng Intake and Incidences of Cancer: Kangwha Cohort Study.
Joo Sun Byun, Heechoul Ohrr, Sang Wook Yi, Jae Suk Hong, Tae Yong Sohn
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(4):367-372.
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  • 35 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
There are many concerns about ginseng as a cancer chemopreventive substance, but there have been few epidemiological studies on ginseng. This study sought to examine the relationships between ginseng intake and cancer incidence in the Kangwha cohort. METHODS: Between March 1985 and December 1999, 2697 males, aged 55 or over, as of 1985, were followed up for their cancer incidence. The cancer incidence rate, standardized incidence ratio and risk ratios were calculated according to ginseng intake. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to adjust for age at entry, smoking, alcohol intake, hypertension, and body mass index. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The ginseng intake group had the same cancer (C00-C97) incidences (Standardized Incidence Ratio: SIR=1.11, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.97-1.27) and the same risk ratio (RR=1.09, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.85-1.41) as the no-intake group. Analyzing the subjects that had followed up from 1990, however, the ginseng intake group had lower cancer incidences at all sites (RR = 0.79, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.58-1.09). This was a cohort study to try and evaluate the association between ginseng intake and the incidences of cancer. The results of this study provide no clear conclusions on the cancer preventive effects of ginseng. Therefore, further study is needed in the future.
Summary
A Study on the Association between Healthcare Utilization and the Burden of Families Caring for the Elderly in the Last 6 Months of Life.
Jee Jeon Yi, Hee Na Lee, Heechoul Ohrr, Hye Young Jung, Sang Wook Yi
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(4):332-338.
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  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the relationship between medical expenses and the burden of families caring for the elderly in the last 6 months of life, and to evaluate the factors relating to the burden of family caregivers. METHODS: The families of 301 persons older than 65 years, who died between 1 July and 31 December 2001, and were registered in Resident-based- Health Insurance Programs in Seoul, were interviewed. The medical expenses and length of stay among the elderly were collected from Korean Health Insurance Corporations. RESULTS: 31 percents of the elderly had no medical expenses in the last 6 months of life. On average, the objective burden (4.92) was higher than the subjective burden (3.35). Families caring for male elderly had a higher burden. With increasing age at death, the objective burden was significantly increased. The burden on a family seemed to be influenced more by the family income than the property of the elderly. With increasing total health care costs, the objective burden on the family caregivers was significantly increased, but with increasing medical expenses, the subjective burden was significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: An association between healthcare utilization and burden on families was observed. The reason for the decreasing subjective burden when medical expenses were decreased was unclear. Further research will be needed.
Summary
Pilot Study on Recruiting Medical Checkup Participants by Mail Survey among Korean Vietnam Veterans.
Sang Wook Yi, Jae Seok Hong, Heechoul Ohrr
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):171-178.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
The aim of this study was to identify the validity of recruiting medical checkup participants of Vietnam veterans using a mail survey, and to identify the 'Vietnam service related characteristics' and `general characteristics' of Vietnam veterans groups. METHOD: In this study, a total 900 veterans were randomly selected from the list of Vietnam veterans from 1964 to 1973. The veterans were classified into 5 groups, taking into consideration their registered status in the Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs; the VRD (veterans who have agent orange-related diseases), VSD (veterans who have agent orange-suspected disease), VM (veterans who performed meritorious deeds during the war), VR (veterans who were registered with the Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affair) and OV (other veterans) groups. By means of postal surveys, the veterans' intention to participate in the medical checkup for our research, and their socioeconomic and general characteristics were investigated. 52 surveys were returned due to the subjects not residing at the listed address, and were excluded from the analysis. RESULT: 699 of the 848 veterans (82.4%) responded to the survey, of which 619 (88.6%) intended to participate in the medical checkup for our research. The 5 veterans groups all had similar ages, Vietnam service period, Agent Orange exposure, troop characteristic and wartime class, with the exception of VM, who were older, and with a greater number of officers than the other 4 groups. There was a big difference in the health statius among the Vietnam veterans group. The VM and OV were much healthier than VRD, VSD and VR groups. The socioeconomic stati of the VRD, VSD and VR groups were lower than those of the VM and OV groups. CONCLUSION: Although there were some limitations, the recruitment, by mail, of medical checkup participants from Vietnam veterans is a valid and feasible method. The VM and OV groups were much healthier, and with higher socioeconomic stati, than the VRD, VSD, and VR groups.
Summary
Cohort Study on Age at Menopause and Mortality- Kangwha Cohort Study -.
Jae Seok Hong, Sang Wook Yi, Sun Ha Jee, Tae Yong Sohn, Heechoul Ohrr
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):323-330.
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  • 28 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To examine the association between age at menopause and mortality in a population-based sample of women in Kangwha, Korea. METHODS: From the Kangwha Cohort, followed-up from 1985 to 1999, the data of the over 55 year old female group(n=3,596) was used in this study to examine the association between age at menopause and mortality. We calculated the all causes mortality risk ratio and the cancer mortality risk ratio by age at menopause grouping using the Cox Proportional Hazards Model with adjustments for age, BMI, smoking, education, chronic disease, self-rated health status, alcohol consumption and age at first birth. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: Compared to women who had menopause at 45-49 years, the all causes mortality risk ratio was 1.24 for women with menopause at less than 40 years(95% CI=1.01-1.53) and 1.05 for women with menopause at over 50 years(95% CI=0.92-1.20). Also, compared to women who had menopause at 45-49 years, the cancer mortality risk ratio was 1.53 for women with menopause at less than 40 years(95% CI=0.78-2.98) and 1.17 for women with menopause at over 50 years(95% CI=0.77-1.80).
Summary
A Proposal of Study Designs and Methods for Evaluating the Adverse Health Effects of Agent Orange among Korean Vietnam Veterans.
Sang Wook Yi, Jong Uk Won, Jae Seok Hong, Heechoul Ohrr
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):228-236.
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OBJECTIVES
To propose a feasible, valid and appropriate study designs and epidemiologic methods for evaluating the adverse health effects of Agent Orange-chemical defoliants used in Vietnam- in Korea. METHODS: A literature study was performed on Agent Orange, herbicides, pesticides and dioxins. The study subjects, study design, exposure assessment and health outcomes assessment were examined in each study. The potential data sources for the study subjects, study design, exposure assessment and health outcomes assessment in Korea were investigated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In earlier Korean studies, research subjects for studying the effects of Agent Orange were identified from the patients or persons who claimed to have Agent Orange-related diseases due to the difficulties in identifying the entire population of Vietnam veterans in Korea. In this study, an attempt was made to identify the total number of Vietnam veterans in Korea. As a result, the addresses of 20,000 Vietnam veterans were obtained. It is proposed that a retrospective cohort design on a sample of the total number of Vietnam veterans is a feasible and appropriate study design. Self report questionnaires and military records were proposed to assess the exposure level. It is believed that measuring the plasma or tissue TCDD should be used only for a validation study assessing the level of exposure. For the health outcomes assessment, it is possible to obtain the mortality, cancer frequency, physical examination, screening and medical insurance record data.
Summary
Association between BMI and Mortality: Kangwha cohort study.
Soo Jin Yoon, Sang Wook Yi, Soh Yoon Kim, Heechoul Ohrr, Yun Hee Park, Soon Young Lee, Tae Yong Sohn
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(4):459-468.
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OBJECTIVES
To investigate the association between BMI and Mortality. METHODS: This study was based on the analysis and assembly of the 'Kangwha Cohort Study', previously conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University. A total of 2,696 males and 3,595 females were followed for almost ten years and ten months from March 1985 to January 1996, a total of whom 2,420 died during this period. The Cox's proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze this data. RESULTS: We found a U-shaped relationship between BMI and mortality among the aged men in the Kangwha cohort. The hazard ratio of dying was adjusted for age, marital status, occupation, self cognitive health level, chronic disease, smoking, and alcohol frequency, then sorted by body mass index into the following groups; less than 18.5, 18.5 to less than 21.0, 21.0 to less than 23.5, 23.5 to less than 26.0 and greater than or equal to 26. The corresponding ratios for men were 1.81(1.50-2.19, 95%CI), 1.31(1.14-1.51, 95%CI), 1.0(referent), 1.05(0.87-1.26, 95%CI) and 1.39(1.09-1.76, 95%CI), respectively. And for women, 1.46(1.19-1.78), 1.12(0.95-1.31, 95%CI), 1.0(referent), 1.00(0.84-1.20, 95%CI) and 1.09(0.89-1.34, 95%CI), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of death among aged men in Kangwha increased in the under and overweight groups. The relationship between BMI and mortality has been well studied in Western populations, but little is known about the association between BMI and mortality in our country. So, on the basis of this study, it is apparent that more studies of the relationship between BMI and mortality will be needed for future work.
Summary
Factors Affecting the Participation Rate in the Health Screening Program of Medical Insurance.
Sung Tae Youn, Han Joong Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh, Heechoul Ohrr
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):150-156.
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OBJECTIVE
To analyze the factors affecting the participation rate in the health screening program of medical insurance. METHOD: We investigated the factors associated with the participation rate in the health screening program in Korea. Data were collected at the aggregate level from 145 employee health insurance societies and 227 self-employed health insurance societies from 1995 to 1997. Data were also collected at the individual level from four health insurance societies. This study hypothesized that the participation rate of the health screening program was related to 1) the characteristics of its members and the size of the health insurance society; 2) the specifications of the health screening program; 3) the venue of the health screening institution and the interests of individuals in the health screening program; and 4) the activities of the health insurance society. We used bivariate and multiple regression models to examine the factors on the participation rate of the health screening program. RESULTS: First, in the case of dependents of on employee health insurance society, the ratio of dependents 40 years old and over, the average monthly contribution per household, the interest and satisfaction level of individuals in health screening, and the level of refunds for over-payment were all associated with the participation rate in the health screening program, accounting for 54.4% of the participation rate. Second, in case of those insured by the self-employed health insurance society, the interest and satisfaction level of individuals in health screening, the level of refunds for over-payment, and the performance level of on-the-spot health screening were statistically significant, accounting for 40.1% of the participation rate. CONCLUSION: The factors concerning the participation rate in the health screening program of medical insurance, in both a health insurance society and for individuals, were closely related to the age and gender of individuals and household contributions.
Summary
Cancer Incidence in Kangwha County(1986 - 1992).
Soh Yoon Kim, Heechoul Ohrr, Hyung Gon Kang, Suk Il Kim, Sang Wook Yi
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):482-490.
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OBJECTIVES
This paper presents the information on the incidence of cancer from the population-based cancer resistry in Kangwha County. Material and METHODS: This investigation is based on Kangwha cancer registry. The data included cases of cancer diagnosed from 1986 through 1992. The diagnosis of cancer was confirmed by a team of physicians and nurses with the medical records kept in the clinics and hospitals based on the diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO. Home visitings were also made to cancer patients confirmed in every 6 months for the follow up and for the collection of relevant information directly from the patients. RESULTS: A total of 992 cancer cases were registered during 1986 - 1992. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rate of all site is 201.7 in men and 110.7 in women. The most common cancer is the stomach cancer in both sexes. The age-adjusted incidence rate of the stomach cancer is 65.9 in men and 25.0 in women per 100,000 population. The lung cancer(33.8) and liver cancer(27.7) are next common cancers in men. The cervical cancer(21.8) and lung cancer(8.4) are next in women. CONCLUSION: The most common cancer is the stomach cancer in both sexes. The annual age-adjusted incidence rate of the stomach cancer is 65.9 in men and 25.0 in women per 100,000 population.
Summary
The Prevalence of Cancer in Kangwha County.
Sang Wook Yi, Heechoul Ohrr, Kang Hee Lee, Suk Il Kim, Hyung Gon Kang, Sun Ha Jee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):333-342.
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OBJECTIVES
Most descriptive studies of cancer have focused either on cancer incidence or mortality. Cancer prevalence has rarely been estimated. Cancer prevalence data can be used as a measure of the economic and social burden of cancer and are also useful for health care planning. This study attempts to estimate cancer prevalence in Kangwha county. METHODS: This investigation is based on data of Kangwha cancer registry. The data include all cases of cancer diagnosed from 1983 through 1992. We define "prevalent cases" as cancer patients who is alive as of January 1, 1993. For each five-year age group, the number of "known prevalent cases" is added to the number of "estimated prevalent cases". Prevalence is calculated by dividing these sums by the populations of Kangwha County on December 31, 1992(derived from Kangwha Statistics Annual). RESULTS: Crude prevalence of cancer among males and females are 536.7 and 601.1 per 100,000 respectively. Gastric cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm(213.2 per 100,000, crude prevalence) among males. It is followed by lung cancer(45.1 per 100,000), liver cancer(32.8 per 100,000), rectal cancer(25.4 per 100,000) and colon cancer(25.4 per 100,000). Cervical cancer is the most common cancer(201.9 per 100,000, crude prevalence) and is followed by gastric cancer(91.5 per 100,000), thyroid cancer(64.8 per 100,000), breast cancer(57.2 per 100,000) and rectal cancer(32.7 per 100,000) among females. CONCLUSIONS: We tried to estimate cancer prevalence based on the Kangwha cancer registry for the first time in Korea. The estimation of cancer prevalence based on a population-based cancer registry will be more correct and useful as the data accumulate. We will make another estimation in the near future.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health