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Volume 55(6); November 2022
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Special Article
Examining the Role of Psychosocial Stressors in Hypertension
Komal Marwaha
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):499-505.   Published online November 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.266
  • 4,193 View
  • 228 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Despite advances in medicine and preventive strategies, fewer than 1 in 5 people with hypertension have the problem under control. This could partly be due to gaps in fully elucidating the etiology of hypertension. Genetics and conventional lifestyle risk factors, such as the lack of exercise, unhealthy diet, excess salt intake, and alcohol consumption, do not fully explain the pathogenesis of hypertension. Thus, it is necessary to revisit other suggested risk factors that have not been paid due attention. One such factor is psychosocial stress. This paper explores the evidence for the association of psychosocial stressors with hypertension and shows that robust evidence supports the role of a chronic stressful environment at work or in marriage, low socioeconomic status, lack of social support, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, childhood psychological trauma, and racial discrimination in the development or progression of hypertension. Furthermore, the potential pathophysiological mechanisms that link psychosocial stress to hypertension are explained to address the ambiguity in this area and set the stage for further research.
Summary

Citations

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  • Health-related factors and dysregulation of epigenetic related genes in metabolic syndrome trigger finger patients and smoker trigger finger patients: preliminary analysis of patient-derived sample
    Abdulaziz M. F. Shayea, Amna A. Alshatti, Danah H. Alfadhli, Almutairi Fatimah Ibrahim, Mariam Kh. Almutairi, Mohammed Sh. Nadar
    Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Adjustment disorders, hypertension and type 2 diabetes: a cardiologist’s view (literature review)
    D.K. Miloslavsky, S.M. Koval
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine).2023; 19(5): 383.     CrossRef
  • Letter to the Editor: Insights on Health, Religion/Spirituality, and Vulnerable Populations
    Fides A. del Castillo
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(1): 97.     CrossRef
  • Moderating effect of mindfulness on the relationship between anxiety and somatization symptoms in middle‐aged and elderly female patients with hypertension
    Haifei Shen, Ri Zhang, XiuJie Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yan Liu, Wei Song, Yunpeng Cheng, Minghui Yang, Yinong Jiang, Yan Lu
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2023; 25(7): 647.     CrossRef
  • Exploring the health of child protection workers: A call to action
    Javier F. Boyas, Debra Moore, Maritza Y. Duran, Jacqueline Fuentes, Jana Woodiwiss, Leah McCoy, Antonella Cirino
    Health Promotion Perspectives.2022; 12(4): 381.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Effects of Marital Status and Income on Hypertension: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)
Mia Son, Yeon Jeong Heo, Hye-Jin Hyun, Ho Jong Kwak
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):506-519.   Published online October 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.264
  • 5,654 View
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to analyze the associations of income, marital status, and health behaviors with hypertension in male and female over 40 years of age in the Korea.
Methods
The data were derived from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES; 4851-302) which included 211 576 participants. To analyze the relationships of income, marital status, and health behaviors with hypertension in male and female over 40 years of age, multiple logistic regression was conducted with adjustments for these variables.
Results
The prevalence of hypertension increased linearly as income decreased. The odds ratio for developing hypertension in people with an income of <0.5 million Korean won (KRW) compared to ≥6.0 million KRW was 1.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.93) in the total population, 1.58 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.98) in male, and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.35 to 3.28) in female. The combined effect of income level and marital status on hypertension was significant. According to income level and marital status, in male, low income and divorce were most associated with hypertension (1.76 times; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.08). However, in female, the low-income, married group was most associated with hypertension (1.83 times; 95% CI, 1.71 to 1.97).
Conclusions
The results of this study show that it is necessary to approach male and female marital status separately according to income in health policies to address inequalities in the prevalence of hypertension.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국의 40세 이상 성인 남녀를 대상으로 소득수준, 결혼, 건강행태요인이 고혈압에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 이 연구는 한국인유전체역학조사사업조사(KoGES; 4851-302, 2001-2011)에서 구축한 211576명을 대상으로 다중 로지스틱회귀모델을 이용하여 분석했다. 소득이 고혈압에 미치는 영향은 역의 선형으로 소득이 적을수록 고혈압이 증가하는 경향이 뚜렷하게 나타났다. 소득수준과 혼인상태, 고혈압과의 연관성은 여성보다 남성이 더 강하게 나타났다. 소득수준과 혼인상태가 상호작용하여 고혈압에 미치는 영향에서, 저소득층에서 별거 상태가 고혈압에 미치는 전반적인 영향이 가장 강하게 나타났으며, 남성의 경우 이혼 상태, 여성의 경우 결혼을 유지하고 있는 상태가 고혈압과 가장 강하게 연관되어, 남녀사이에 차이가 존재함을 보여주었다. 이 연구는 소득, 결혼이 고혈압에 중요하게 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타나, 고혈압예방대책에 저소득과 별거 이혼등의 결혼상태를 고려하는것이 필요하다는 것을 제안한다.

Citations

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  • Shapely additive values can effectively visualize pertinent covariates in machine learning when predicting hypertension
    Alexander A. Huang, Samuel Y. Huang
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2023; 25(12): 1135.     CrossRef
The Relationship Between Thiamine Intake and Long Sleep Duration: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Dongkyu Lee, Kwanghyun Kim, Youngrong Lee, Kyungwon Oh, Sun Jae Jung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):520-528.   Published online October 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.313
  • 3,849 View
  • 131 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Thiamine is thought to modify sleeping patterns, while alcohol use diminishes internal thiamine levels. We investigated the association between thiamine intake and sleep duration and explored possible heterogeneity in the effect according to alcohol use.
Methods
In total, 15 384 participants aged 19-64 were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2016. Nutrient intake, including thiamine, was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Sleep duration was measured by a self-reported questionnaire. The highest thiamine intake quartile was set as the reference group. Participants were divided into 3 groups, with 7-8 hours of daily sleep as a reference group and those who slept more or less than that as “oversleeping” and “insufficient sleeping,” respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used, adjusting for socioeconomic, medical, and nutritional factors. Additionally, participants were stratified according to high-risk alcohol use defined by the World Health Organization standards on alcohol use.
Results
Low thiamine intake was associated with oversleeping (Q3: odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.32; Q2: OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.55; Q1: OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.91) and showed a significant trend for higher ORs at lower intake levels (p-trend<0.001). The effect was stronger in the high-risk alcohol use group (Q1: OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.49).
Conclusions
Low thiamine intake was associated with oversleeping, and alcohol use intensified that association. These results were found in a context where overt clinical symptoms due to thiamine deficiency are considered rare. More awareness of the potential relationship of thiamine intake with oversleeping and its related risks should be considered.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사 자료에서 낮은 비타민 B1 섭취가 과도한 수면시간과 연관성이 있으며, 고위험 알코올 섭취군에서 더 큰 상관성을 보였다. 현저한 임상 증상이 나타나지 않는 선에서의 섭취부족도 잠재적으로 과도한 수면시간 및 이와 관련된 건강에 대한 부정적 효과들과 관련이 있을 수 있어 주의가 필요하다.

Citations

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  • The Therapeutic Potential of Vitamins B1, B3 and B6 in Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease with the Compromised Status of Vitamin-Dependent Processes
    Victoria Bunik
    Biology.2023; 12(7): 897.     CrossRef
  • Enhancing Sleep Quality: Assessing the Efficacy of a Fixed Combination of Linden, Hawthorn, Vitamin B1, and Melatonin
    Matteo De Simone, Rosario De Feo, Anis Choucha, Elena Ciaglia, Francis Fezeu
    Medical Sciences.2023; 12(1): 2.     CrossRef
Projection of Cancer Incidence and Mortality From 2020 to 2035 in the Korean Population Aged 20 Years and Older
Youjin Hong, Sangjun Lee, Sungji Moon, Soseul Sung, Woojin Lim, Kyungsik Kim, Seokyung An, Jeoungbin Choi, Kwang-Pil Ko, Inah Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):529-538.   Published online October 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.128
  • 3,208 View
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to identify the current patterns of cancer incidence and estimate the projected cancer incidence and mortality between 2020 and 2035 in Korea.
Methods
Data on cancer incidence cases were extracted from the Korean Statistical Information Service from 2000 to 2017, and data on cancer-related deaths were extracted from the National Cancer Center from 2000 to 2018. Cancer cases and deaths were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. For the current patterns of cancer incidence, age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) and age-standardized mortality rates were investigated using the 2000 mid-year estimated population aged over 20 years and older. A joinpoint regression model was used to determine the 2020 to 2035 trends in cancer.
Results
Overall, cancer cases were predicted to increase from 265 299 in 2020 to 474 085 in 2035 (growth rate: 1.8%). The greatest increase in the ASIR was projected for prostate cancer among male (7.84 vs. 189.53 per 100 000 people) and breast cancer among female (34.17 vs. 238.45 per 100 000 people) from 2000 to 2035. Overall cancer deaths were projected to increase from 81 717 in 2020 to 95 845 in 2035 (average annual growth rate: 1.2%). Although most cancer mortality rates were projected to decrease, those of breast, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer among female were projected to increase until 2035.
Conclusions
These up-to-date projections of cancer incidence and mortality in the Korean population may be a significant resource for implementing cancer-related regulations or developing cancer treatments.
Summary
Korean summary
최근 고령화 시대로 접어들고 암의 위험요인들에 대한 노출률이 변화함에 따라 암의 발생률 및 사망률에 대해서 관찰하는 것은 중요한 일이 되었다. 따라서, 본 연구는 한국인에서 2035년까지의 암에 대한 발생률과 사망률을 Joinpoint regression 모델을 이용하여 예측하였다. 남성에서는 전립선암, 여성에서는 유방암이 연령표준화 발생률이 가장 높았으며 대부분의 연령표준화 사망률은 감소하는 것으로 예상되지만 여성의 유방암, 췌장암, 난소암이 증가될 것으로 예상된다.

Citations

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  • Changes in metabolic syndrome and the risk of breast and endometrial cancer according to menopause in Korean women
    Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Soyeoun Kim, Boyoung Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023049.     CrossRef
SWOT Analysis and Expert Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Introduction of Healthcare Information Systems in Polyclinics in Aktobe, Kazakhstan
Lyudmila Yermukhanova, Zhanar Buribayeva, Indira Abdikadirova, Anar Tursynbekova, Meruyert Kurganbekova
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):539-548.   Published online October 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.360
  • 3,467 View
  • 136 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to assess the organizational effectiveness of the introduction of a healthcare information system (electronic medical records and databases) in healthcare in Kazakhstan.
Methods
The authors used a combination of 2 methods: expert assessment and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis. SWOT analysis is a necessary element of research, constituting a mandatory preliminary stage both when drawing up strategic plans and for taking corrective measures in the future. The expert survey was conducted using 2 questionnaires.
Results
The study involved 40 experts drawn from specialists in primary healthcare in Aktobe: 15 representatives of administrative and managerial personnel (chief doctors and their deputies, heads of medical statistics offices, organizational and methodological offices, and internal audit services) and 25 general practitioners.
Conclusions
The following functional indicators of the medical and organizational effectiveness of the introduction of information systems in polyclinics were highlighted: first, improvement of administrative control, followed in descending order by registration and movement of medical documentation, statistical reporting and process results, and the cost of employees’ working time. There has been no reduction in financial costs, namely in terms of the costs of copying, delivery of information in paper form, technical equipment, and paper.
Summary
Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary Feeding Practices Among Children Aged 6-23 Months in Indonesia
Siti Nurokhmah, Lucinda Middleton, Aryono Hendarto
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):549-558.   Published online October 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.199
  • 2,990 View
  • 220 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Poor complementary feeding practices have consistently contributed to the burden of child undernutrition in Indonesia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and predictors of the time of the introduction of solid, semi-solid, and soft foods (ISSSF), minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), and minimum acceptable diet (MAD).
Methods
We analyzed 4804 last-born infants aged 6-23 months from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey, which employed multistage cluster random sampling. The outcomes were calculated based on the 2021 World Health Organization/United Nations Children’s Fund guidelines. The predictors of the 4 complementary feeding indicators were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance adjusting for potential confounders and study design.
Results
The prevalence of ISSSF, MDD, MMF, and MAD was 86.1%, 54.3%, 71.8%, and 37.6%, respectively, with younger children less likely to meet 3 out of the 4 outcomes. Parental education, the presence of a birth attendant, and maternal media consumption were among the predictors of MDD and MAD. Children from families with higher income were more likely to meet MDD than those from low-income households (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 1.28). Living in an urban area was positively associated with MMF (aPR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.15) and MAD (aPR, 1.12; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.24). In eastern regions, the prevalence of children achieving MDD and MAD was lower than in those living in Java and Bali.
Conclusions
It is crucial that more attention and efforts are made to improve the recommended practices throughout Indonesia, since the prevalence of adequate complementary feeding practices remains low.
Summary
Antenatal Care Services and Incidence of Low Birth Weight: A Comparison of Demographic and Health Surveys in 4 ASEAN Countries
Miftahul Arsyi, Besral Besral, Milla Herdayati, Revati Phalkey
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):559-567.   Published online November 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.316
  • 3,361 View
  • 163 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to assess the effect of complete coverage and content of available antenatal care (ANC) on the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) in 4 countries belonging to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Methods
Measures of complete coverage and content of ANC services included the frequency of ANC visits and the seven service components (blood pressure measurement, iron supplementation, tetanus toxoid immunization, explanations of pregnancy complications, urine sample test, blood sample test, and weight measurement). The complete coverage and content of ANC services were assessed as high if more than 4 ANC visits and all seven components were delivered. Multivariable logistic regression with complex survey designs was conducted using Demographic Health Survey data from the 4 ASEAN countries in question from 2014 to 2017.
Results
The proportion of LBW infants was higher in the Philippines (13.8%) than in Indonesia (6.7%), Cambodia (6.7%), or Myanmar (7.5%). Poor ANC services were associated with a 1.30 times higher incidence of LBW than a high level of complete coverage and content of ANC services (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 1.52). In addition, the risk of LBW was higher in the Philippines than in other countries (aOR, 2.25; 95% CI, 2.01 to 2.51) after adjusting for mothers’ demographic/socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and other factors.
Conclusions
In sum, complete coverage and content of ANC services were significantly associated with the incidence of LBW in Indonesia, Cambodia, and Myanmar. The Philippines did not show statistically significant results for this relationship, but had a higher risk of LBW with poor ANC.
Summary

Citations

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  • Synergistic associations of antenatal care visits and iron-folic acid supplementation with low birth weight: a pooled analysis of national surveys from six south Asian countries
    Vishnu Khanal, Sangita Bista, Shiva Raj Mishra
    BMC Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of the enhancing nutrition and antenatal infection treatment (ENAT) intervention on birth weight in Ethiopia: a cluster randomized controlled trial
    Y Mekonnen, E Wolde, A Bekele, Z Mehari, S Abebe, T Hagos, Y Tadesse, T Taye, G Asire, T Nigatu, S Kumar, S Girma, M Salasibew
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Compliance with the World Health Organization’s 2016 prenatal care contact recommendation reduces the incidence rate of adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women in northern Ghana
    Leticia Achangebe Akum, Eunice Amina Offei, Mary Rachael Kpordoxah, Daudi Yeboah, Abdul-Nasir Issah, Michael Boah, Sanjoy Kumer Dey
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(6): e0285621.     CrossRef
Associations Between Conventional Healthy Behaviors and Social Distancing During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence From the 2020 Community Health Survey in Korea
Rang Hee Kwon, Minsoo Jung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):568-577.   Published online October 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.351
  • 2,770 View
  • 116 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Many studies have shown that social distancing, as a non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI) that is one of the various measures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an effective preventive measure to suppress the spread of infectious diseases. This study explored the relationships between traditional health-related behaviors in Korea and social distancing practices during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods
Data were obtained from the 2020 Community Health Survey conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (n=98 149). The dependent variable was the degree of social distancing practice to cope with the COVID-19 epidemic. Independent variables included health-risk behaviors and health-promoting behaviors. The moderators were vaccination and unmet medical needs. Predictors affecting the practice of social distancing were identified through hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis.
Results
Smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.924) and frequent drinkers (aOR, 0.933) were more likely not to practice social distancing. A greater degree of physical activity was associated with a higher likelihood of practicing social distancing (aOR, 1.029). People who were vaccinated against influenza were more likely to practice social distancing than those who were not (aOR, 1.150). However, people with unmet medical needs were less likely to practice social distancing than those who did not experience unmet medical needs (aOR, 0.757).
Conclusions
Social distancing practices were related to traditional health behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and physical activity. Their patterns showed a clustering effect of health inequality. Therefore, when establishing a strategy to strengthen social distancing, a strategy to protect the vulnerable should be considered concomitantly.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 코로나-19 판데믹 기간 동안 한국사회에서 전통적인 건강 행태와 의료이용 행태가 사회적 거리두기 실천과 어떻게 연관되는지 탐구하였다. 연구 결과에 따르면 흡연과 음주 같은 건강위험 행태는 사회적 거리두기의 실천 가능성을 낮추었고 운동과 같은 건강증진 행태는 사회적 거리두기의 실천 가능성을 높였다. 아울러 인플루엔자 백신 접종을 받은 집단은 미접종 집단에 비하여 사회적 거리두기의 실천 가능성이 높았다. 따라서 사회적 거리두기와 같은 방역정책을 수립할 때 인구집단의 건강행태 특성을 고려할 필요가 있다.

Citations

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  • Behavioral Predictors Associated With COVID-19 Vaccination and Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Korea
    Minsoo Jung
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2024; 57(1): 28.     CrossRef
  • Physical Distancing for Gay Men from People Living with HIV During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Minsoo Jung
    Journal of Homosexuality.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Non-rigorous versus rigorous home confinement differently impacts mental health, quality of life and behaviors. Which one was better? A cross-sectional study with older Brazilian adults during covid-19 first wave
    Lucimere Bohn, Pedro Pugliesi Abdalla, Euripedes Barsanulfo Gonçalves Gomide, Leonardo Santos Lopes da Silva, André Pereira dos Santos
    Archives of Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Teleworking Survey in Saudi Arabia: Reliability and Validity of Arabic Version of the Questionnaire
Heba Yaagoub AlNujaidi, Mehwish Hussain, Sama’a H. AlMubarak, Asma Saud AlFayez, Demah Mansour AlSalman, Atheer Khalid AlSaif, Mona M. Al-Juwair
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):578-585.   Published online November 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.242
  • 2,373 View
  • 86 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to adapt the survey questionnaire designed by Moens et al. (2021) and determine the validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the survey in a sample of the Saudi population experiencing teleworking.
Methods
The questionnaire includes 2 sections. The first consists of 13 items measuring the impact of extended telework during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. The second section includes 6 items measuring the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on self-view of telework and digital meetings. The survey instrument was translated based on the guidelines for the cultural adaptation of self-administrated measures.
Results
The reliability of the questionnaire responses was measured by Cronbach’s alpha. The construct validity was checked through exploratory factor analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to further assess the factor structure. CFA revealed that the model had excellent fit (root mean square error of approximation, 0.00; comparative fit index, 1.0; Tucker-Lewis index, 1; standardized root mean squared residual, 0.0).
Conclusions
The Arabic version of the teleworking questionnaire had high reliability and good validity in assessing experiences and perceptions toward teleworking. While the validated survey examined perceptions and experiences during COVID-19, its use can be extended to capture experiences and perceptions during different crises.
Summary
Effectiveness of a Social Marketing Mix Intervention on Changing the Smoking Behavior of Santri in Traditional Islamic Boarding Schools in Indonesia
Ismail Ismail, Teuku Tahlil, Nursalam Nursalam, Zurnila Marli Kesuma, Syarifah Rauzhatul Jannah, Hajjul Kamil, Fithria Fithria, Kintoko Rochadi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):586-594.   Published online November 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.231
  • 3,324 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study investigated the effectiveness of the social marketing mix approach in increasing students’ knowledge about smoking, promoting positive attitudes toward smoking cessation, and decreasing smoking behavior.
Methods
This quantitative research study incorporated a quasi-experimental method with a pretest-posttest non-equivalent group design. Using the purposive sampling technique, 152 smoking students were selected as participants. They were divided into 2 equal groups, with 76 students in the control group and 76 in the intervention group. The data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed with the chi-square test, independent t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Mann-Whitney U-test.
Results
The social marketing mix intervention was effective in increasing the students’ knowledge about smoking (p<0.001), improving their attitude toward smoking cessation (p<0.001), and reducing their smoking behavior (p=0.014).
Conclusions
This approach should be implemented by local governments to reduce smoking behavior in the community, especially among teenagers, in addition to instituting a smoking ban and applying fines.
Summary
Intervention to Improve Menstrual Health Among Adolescent Girls Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Iran: A Cluster-randomized Controlled Trial
Fatemeh Darabi, Mehdi Yaseri
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):595-603.   Published online November 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.365
  • 2,599 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Poor menstrual health may lead to school absenteeism and adverse health outcomes for adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pubertal and menstrual health education on health and preventive behaviors among Iranian secondary school girls.
Methods
A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a health intervention program. A total of 578 students (including intervention and control participants) in 12 schools in Tehran Province, Iran were included by multistage random sampling. The program comprised seven 2-hour educational sessions. After confirming the reliability and validity of a researcher-made questionnaire, that questionnaire was used to collect the required data, and the groups were followed up with after 6 months.
Results
After the educational intervention, the mean scores of menstrual health-related knowledge and constructs of the theory of planned behavior were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (p<0.001 for all dimensions).
Conclusions
The results of this study emphasize the effectiveness of menstrual health interventions in schools. These findings should also encourage health policy-makers to take committed action to improve performance in schools.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health