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The Effect of Cognitive Impairment on the Association Between Social Network Properties and Mortality Among Older Korean Adults
Eunji Kim, Kiho Sung, Chang Oh Kim, Yoosik Youm, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(1):31-40.   Published online November 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.350
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study investigated the effect of cognitive impairment on the association between social network properties and mortality among older Korean adults.
Methods
This study used data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. It obtained 814 older adults’ complete network maps across an entire village in 2011-2012. Participants’ deaths until December 31, 2020 were confirmed by cause-of-death statistics. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risks of poor social network properties (low degree centrality, perceived loneliness, social non-participation, group-level segregation, and lack of support) on mortality according to cognitive impairment.
Results
In total, 675 participants (5510.4 person-years) were analyzed, excluding those with missing data and those whose deaths could not be verified. Along with cognitive impairment, all social network properties except loneliness were independently associated with mortality. When stratified by cognitive function, some variables indicating poor social relations had higher risks among older adults with cognitive impairment, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34 to 3.35) for social nonparticipation, 1.58 (95% CI, 0.94 to 2.65) for group-level segregation, and 3.44 (95% CI, 1.55 to 7.60) for lack of support. On the contrary, these effects were not observed among those with normal cognition, with adjusted HRs of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.31 to 1.71), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.42 to 2.21), and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.23 to 3.96), respectively.
Conclusions
The effect of social network properties was more critical among the elderly with cognitive impairment. Older adults with poor cognitive function are particularly encouraged to participate in social activities to reduce the risk of mortality.
Summary
Korean summary
고령인구에서의 불충분한 사회연결망 특성은 높은 사망 위험과 연관이 있었으며, 이는 인지기능이 저하된 그룹에서 그렇지 않은 군에 비해 더 높게 관찰되었다. 특히, 인지기능이 저하된 노인에서 사회활동들에 참여하지 않는 것, 한정된 소집단에만 속하는 것, 주변으로부터 도움을 받지 못하는 것은 높은 사망 위험과 연관이 있기 때문에, 이들의 사회연결망을 강화하는 것이 사망 위험을 낮추는 데 도움이 될 수 있다.
Association Between Parity and Low Bone Density Among Postmenopausal Korean Women
Eunsun Seo, Yongrong Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(4):284-292.   Published online June 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.162
  • 3,421 View
  • 127 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Low bone density (LBD) in the postmenopausal period has long been a pervasive public health concern; however, the association between parity and LBD has yet to be fully elucidated. Thus, we investigated the association between parity and LBD in postmenopausal Korean women.
Methods
This study used baseline data from 1287 Korean postmenopausal women aged 40 years or older enrolled in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center community-based cohort study conducted in Korea from 2013 to 2017. The main exposure was parity (nullipara, 1, 2, 3+). The main outcome was LBD, including osteopenia and osteoporosis, based on bone mineral density measured using quantitative computed tomography of the lumbar spine (L1-2).
Results
The mean age of participants was 57.1 years, and the median parity was 2. Of the 1287 participants, 594 (46.2%) had osteopenia and 147 (11.4%) had osteoporosis. No significant difference in the prevalence of LBD was found between nullipara and parous women, whereas higher parity was associated with a higher risk of LBD among parous women; the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the presence of LBD was 1.40 (0.97 to 2.02) for a parity of 2 and 1.95 (1.23 to 3.09) for a parity of 3 relative to a parity of 1.
Conclusions
Women who have given birth multiple times may be at greater risk of bone loss after menopause; therefore, they should be a major target population for osteoporosis prevention.
Summary
Korean summary
40-64세 폐경 여성 1287명을 대상으로 과거 출산 횟수와 골밀도의 관련성을 평가하였다. 정량적 전산화 단층촬영(QCT)으로 L1-L2의 평균 골무기질밀도(bone mineral density, BMD)를 측정하였으며, 그 값이 120mg/cm3 미만이면 골밀도 감소가 있는 것으로 정의하였다. 나이, 비만도, 폐경후기간, 직업, 소득, 교육, 결혼, 흡연, 음주, 신체활동, 질병력 등을 보정하여도, 출산횟수가 많을수록 평균 골밀도는 낮고 골밀도감소의 빈도는 높은 경향이 관찰되었다.

Citations

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  • The Heterogeneity of Post-Menopausal Disease Risk: Could the Basis for Why Only Subsets of Females Are Affected Be Due to a Reversible Epigenetic Modification System Associated with Puberty, Menstrual Cycles, Pregnancy and Lactation, and, Ultimately, Meno
    David A. Hart
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(7): 3866.     CrossRef
  • Bridging the Gap: Pregnancy—And Lactation—Associated Osteoporosis
    Mara Carsote, Maria Roxana Turturea, Ana Valea, Cristian Buescu, Claudiu Nistor, Ionut Florin Turturea
    Diagnostics.2023; 13(9): 1615.     CrossRef
  • Associations of breastfeeding duration and the total number of children breastfed with self-reported osteoarthritis in Korea women 50 years and older: a cross-sectional study
    Dajeong Ham, Sanghyuk Bae
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023044.     CrossRef
  • Association between parity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women
    Yimei Yang, Shanshan Wang, Hui Cong
    BMC Women's Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Effects of Income Level on the Association Between Hypertension and Depression: 2010-2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
San Kang, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(6):439-446.   Published online October 8, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.337
  • 3,687 View
  • 139 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study analyzed the associations of hypertension (HTN) with symptoms and diagnosis of depression by income level among Korean adults.
Methods
This study was based on the 2010-2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data; a total of 29 425 adults (aged 20 years or older) were analyzed. HTN was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or use of hypertensive medications. Depression symptoms were evaluated based on a questionnaire about depression-related symptoms. A depression diagnosis was defined based on questionnaire responses indicating that a participant had been diagnosed with depression. Household income was divided into higher or lower income ranges based on the median income of the participants. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between HTN and depression symptoms/diagnosis in the higher-income and lower-income groups.
Results
In the higher-income group, the odds ratio (OR) for the association between HTN and depression symptoms was 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.37), and the OR for the association between HTN and depression diagnosis was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.76). In the lower-income group, the OR for the association between HTN and depression symptoms was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.34), whereas the OR for the association between HTN and depression diagnosis was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97).
Conclusions
The associations of HTN with symptoms and diagnosis of depression differed by income level.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impacts of Anxiety and Depression on Clinical Hypertension in Low-Income US Adults
    Rohan M. Shah, Sahil Doshi, Sareena Shah, Shiv Patel, Angela Li, Joseph A. Diamond
    High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention.2023; 30(4): 337.     CrossRef
  • Machine learning-based predictive modeling of depression in hypertensive populations
    Chiyoung Lee, Heewon Kim, Gennady S. Cymbalyuk
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(7): e0272330.     CrossRef
  • The Association between Plasma Concentration of Phytoestrogens and Hypertension within the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort
    Juyeon Lee, Ju-Young Kang, Kwang-Pil Ko, Sue-Kyung Park
    Nutrients.2021; 13(12): 4366.     CrossRef
Comparison of Computed Tomography-based Abdominal Adiposity Indexes as Predictors of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Middle-aged Korean Men and Women
Jongmin Baek, Sun Jae Jung, Jee-Seon Shim, Yong Woo Jeon, Eunsun Seo, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(4):256-265.   Published online June 18, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.140
  • 4,761 View
  • 163 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
We compared the associations of 3 computed tomography (CT)-based abdominal adiposity indexes with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among middle-aged Korean men and women.
Methods
The participants were 1366 men and 2480 women community-dwellers aged 30-64 years. Three abdominal adiposity indexes—visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR)—were calculated from abdominal CT scans. NAFLD was determined by calculating the Liver Fat Score from comorbidities and blood tests. An NAFLD prediction model that included waist circumference (WC) as a measure of abdominal adiposity was designated as the base model, to which VFA, SFA, and VSR were added in turn. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were calculated to quantify the additional predictive value of VFA, SFA, and VSR relative to WC.
Results
VFA and VSR were positively associated with NAFLD in both genders. SFA was not significantly associated with NAFLD in men, but it was negatively associated in women. When VFA, SFA, and VSR were added to the WC-based NAFLD prediction model, the AUC improved by 0.013 (p<0.001), 0.001 (p=0.434), and 0.009 (p=0.007) in men and by 0.044 (p<0.001), 0.017 (p<0.001), and 0.046 (p<0.001) in women, respectively. The IDI and NRI were increased the most by VFA in men and VSR in women.
Conclusions
Using CT-based abdominal adiposity indexes in addition to WC may improve the detection of NAFLD. The best predictive indicators were VFA in men and VSR in women.
Summary

Citations

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  • Relationship between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Visceral Fat Measured by Imaging-Based Body Composition Analysis: A Systematic Review
    Ker Ming Seaw, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Xinyan Bi
    Livers.2023; 3(3): 463.     CrossRef
  • Stratifying the risk of ovarian cancer incidence by histologic subtypes in the Korean Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Study (Ko‐EVE)
    Soseul Sung, Youjin Hong, Byoung‐Gie Kim, Ji‐Yeob Choi, Jae Weon Kim, Sang‐Yoon Park, Jae‐Hoon Kim, Yong‐man Kim, Jong‐Min Lee, Tae Jin Kim, Sue K. Park
    Cancer Medicine.2023; 12(7): 8742.     CrossRef
  • Correlation between CT Abdominal Anthropometric Measurements and Liver Density in Individuals with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    Dragoș Constantin Cucoranu, Marian Pop, Raluca Niculescu, Vlad Vunvulea, Irina-Bianca Kosovski, Radu-Ovidiu Togănel, Eliza Russu, Adrian Vasile Mureșan, Răzvan-Andrei Licu, Anca Bacârea
    Medicina.2023; 59(3): 500.     CrossRef
Perceived Discrimination, Depression, and the Role of Perceived Social Support as an Effect Modifier in Korean Young Adults
Kwanghyun Kim, Sun Jae Jung, So Mi Jemma Cho, Ji Hye Park, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(6):366-376.   Published online October 24, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.114
  • 6,513 View
  • 175 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The relationships among discrimination, social support, and mental health have mostly been studied in minorities, and relevant studies in the general population are lacking. We aimed to investigate associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms in Korean non-minority young adults, considering the role of social support.
Methods
In total, 372 participants who completed the psychological examinations conducted in the third wave of the Jangseong High School Cohort study were included. We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate perceived discrimination and the Beck Depression Inventory-II to measure depressive symptoms. Social support was measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Multivariate linear regression was conducted to investigate associations between discrimination and depression, along with the effect modification of social support. We stratified the population by gender to investigate gender differences.
Results
Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (β=0.736, p<0.001), and social support was negatively associated with depression (β=-0.245, p<0.001). In men, support from friends was the most influential factor (β=-0.631, p=0.011), but no significant effect modification was found. In women, support from family was the most influential factor (β=-0.440, p=0.010), and women with higher familial support showed a significantly diminished association between discrimination and depression, unlike those with lower family support.
Conclusions
Discrimination perceived by individuals can lead to depressive symptoms in Korean young adults, and this relationship can may differ by gender and social support status.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 한국인에서 차별이 우울 증상에 미치는 영향을 평가하고 사회적 지지가 차별의 건강영향을 조절하는지 확인하고자 하였다. 인지된 차별은 우울 증상과 양의 상관관계를 보였으며, 높은 사회적 지지는 차별의 부정적 건강 영향을 경감시키는 효과를 보였다. 남성에서는 친구로부터의 사회적 지지가 가장 강한 영향력을 나타냈으며, 여성에서는 가족으로부터의 사회적 지지가 가장 강한 효과를 보였다.

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  • Social support and cigarette smoking among homosexual college students in China: a moderated mediation model examining the roles of depression and disclosure
    Xiaoling Liu, Huijun Li, Siyuan Zeng, Xiaofeng Luo
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  • Impact of Perceived Social Support and Depression in Married Turkish Women on the Sexual Quality of Life: An Online Survey
    Ç. Gök, U Yücel, YÇ Okuyan, ZB Akmeşe
    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice.2023; 26(11): 1667.     CrossRef
  • Gender Differences in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following Pregnancy Loss: Social Support and Causal Attributes
    Sigal Levy, Ronit Avitsur
    Psychological Studies.2022; 67(4): 524.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Wise Intervention on Perceived Discrimination Among College Students Returning Home From Wuhan During the COVID-19 Outbreak
    Ting Lu, Zihan Guo, Hao Li, Xinyu Zhang, Zhihong Ren, Weiping Yang, Liuqing Wei, Ling Huang
    Frontiers in Psychology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    T.G. Vargas, V.A. Mittal
    Development and Psychopathology.2021; 33(5): 1634.     CrossRef
  • Physical Fitness and Somatic Characteristics of the Only Child
    Luis P. Rodrigues, Ricardo Franco Lima, Ana Filipa Silva, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Miguel Camões, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
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Are Serum Vitamin D Levels Associated With Dry Eye Disease? Results From the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease
Da-Hye Jeon, Hyungseon Yeom, Jaewon Yang, Jong Suk Song, Hyung Keun Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(6):369-376.   Published online November 2, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.089
  • 5,965 View
  • 179 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Dry eye disease (DED) is an increasingly important public health problem in Korea. Previous studies conducted in Korea have reported inconsistent results regarding the protective effects of vitamin D on DED, and these discrepancies may be related to the relatively simple questionnaire that has been used. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum vitamin D levels with DED using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI).
Methods
The present study evaluated data from participants in the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease (2014-2015). This group included data from 752 participants, and data from 740 participants (253 men and 487 women) were analyzed in the present study. DED severity was evaluated using the OSDI.
Results
Higher serum vitamin D levels were associated with a non-significantly reduced risk of DED in the crude analysis (odds ratio [OR], 0.991; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.971 to 1.011) and in the adjusted analysis (OR, 0.988; 95% CI, 0.966 to 1.010). In the crude analysis of no/mild DED vs. moderate/severe DED, men exhibited a decreased risk with increasing serum vitamin D levels (OR, 0.999; 95% CI, 0.950 to 1.051), while women exhibited an increased risk (OR, 1.003; 95% CI, 0.979 to 1.027). In these analyses, we found no significant associations.
Conclusions
The findings of the present study support previous reports that serum vitamin D levels are not associated with DED.
Summary

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    Maurizio Rolando, Stefano Barabino
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(2): 1458.     CrossRef
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    Youngsam Kim, Seonmi Kang, Kangmoon Seo
    Journal of Veterinary Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Bhavya Gorimanipalli, Rohit Shetty, Swaminathan Sethu, Pooja Khamar
    Indian Journal of Ophthalmology.2023; 71(4): 1127.     CrossRef
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    Diksha Malik, Renu Garg, Sumita Sethi, Rajiv Mahendru, Sanjeet Singh
    International Journal of Applied & Basic Medical Research.2023; 13(2): 83.     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D and Ocular Diseases: A Systematic Review
    Hei-Nga Chan, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Xiang-Tian Ling, Christine Huyen-Trang Bui, Yu-Meng Wang, Patrick Ip, Wai-Kit Chu, Li-Jia Chen, Clement C. Tham, Jason C. Yam, Chi-Pui Pang
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(8): 4226.     CrossRef
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    Ying Lin, Huanjun Su, Jianbin Wu, Muzhi Yuan, Yong Zhang
    International Ophthalmology.2022; 42(10): 3145.     CrossRef
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    Miłosz Caban, Urszula Lewandowska
    Nutrients.2022; 14(11): 2353.     CrossRef
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    Busayanut Puangsricharoen, Kavin Vanikieti, Panitha Jindahra, Tanyatuth Padungkiatsagul
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    Jing Liu, Yi Dong, Yan Wang
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    Isabel Signes-Soler, Jaime Javaloy Estañ
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C-reactive Protein Concentration Is Associated With a Higher Risk of Mortality in a Rural Korean Population
Jung Hyun Lee, Hyungseon Yeom, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh, Mi Kyung Kim, Min-Ho Shin, Dong Hoon Shin, Sang-Baek Koh, Song Vogue Ahn, Tae-Yong Lee, So Yeon Ryu, Jae-Sok Song, Hong-Soon Choe, Young-Hoon Lee, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):275-287.   Published online August 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.025
  • 9,037 View
  • 201 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, has been widely used as a preclinical marker predictive of morbidity and mortality. Although many studies have reported a positive association between CRP and mortality, uncertainty still remains about this association in various populations, especially in rural Korea.
Methods
A total of 23 233 middle-aged participants (8862 men and 14 371 women) who were free from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and acute inflammation (defined by a CRP level ≥10 mg/L) were drawn from 11 rural communities in Korea between 2005 and 2011. Blood CRP concentration was analyzed as a categorical variable (low: 0.0-0.9 mg/L; intermediate: 1.0-3.0 mg/L; high: 3.1-9.9 mg/L) as well as a continuous variable. Each participant’s vital status through December 2013 was confirmed by death statistics from the National Statistical Office. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the independent association between CRP and mortality after adjusting for other risk factors.
Results
The total quantity of observed person-years was 57 975 for men and 95 146 for women, and the number of deaths was 649 among men and 367 among women. Compared to the low-CRP group, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of the intermediate group was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.40) for men and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.61) for women, and the corresponding values for the high-CRP group were 1.98 (95% CI, 1.61 to 2.42) for men and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.95) for women. Similar trends were found for CRP evaluated as a continuous variable and for cardiovascular mortality.
Conclusions
Higher CRP concentrations were associated with higher mortality in a rural Korean population, and this association was more prominent in men than in women.
Summary

Citations

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  • Binary cutpoint and the combined effect of systolic and diastolic blood pressure on cardiovascular disease mortality: A community-based cohort study
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The Association Between Smoking Tobacco After a Diagnosis of Diabetes and the Prevalence of Diabetic Nephropathy in the Korean Male Population
Hyungseon Yeom, Jung Hyun Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(2):108-117.   Published online March 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.062
  • 9,024 View
  • 141 Download
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Smoking is known to be associated with nephropathy in patients with diabetes. The distinct effects of smoking before and after diabetes has been diagnosed, however, are not well characterized. We evaluated the association of cigarette smoking before and after a diagnosis of diabetes with the presence of diabetic nephropathy.
Methods
We analyzed data from the 2011-2013 editions of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 629 male patients diagnosed with diabetes were classified as non-smokers (90 patients), former smokers (225 patients), or continuing smokers (314 patients). A “former smoker” was a patient who smoked only before receiving his diagnosis of diabetes. A “continuing smoker” was a patient who smoked at any time after his diabetes had been diagnosed. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as the presence of albuminuria (spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g) or low estimated glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association after adjusting for age, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, medication for hypertension, and medication for dyslipidemia. Female patients were excluded from the study due to the small proportion of females in the survey who smoked.
Results
Compared to non-smokers, continuing smokers had significantly higher odds ratio ([OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.83) of suffering from diabetic nephropathy. The corresponding OR (95% CI) for former smokers was 1.26 (0.70 to 2.29).
Conclusions
Smoking after diagnosis of diabetes is significantly associated with the presence of diabetic nephropathy in the Korean male population.
Summary

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Gender Differences in Hypertension Control Among Older Korean Adults: Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project
Sang Hui Chu, Ji Won Baek, Eun Sook Kim, Katherine M. Stefani, Won Joon Lee, Yeong-Ran Park, Yoosik Youm, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(1):38-47.   Published online January 14, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.043
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients’ attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults.
Methods
This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension.
Results
Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one’s blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003) and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011) might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013).
Conclusions
This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.
Summary

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Social Network Characteristics and Body Mass Index in an Elderly Korean Population
Won Joon Lee, Yoosik Youm, Yumie Rhee, Yeong-Ran Park, Sang Hui Chu, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(6):336-345.   Published online November 28, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.6.336
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Research has shown that obesity appears to spread through social ties. However, the association between other characteristics of social networks and obesity is unclear. This study aimed to identify the association between social network characteristics and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in an elderly Korean population.

Methods

This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 657 Koreans (273 men, 384 women) aged 60 years or older who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Network size is a count of the number of friends. Density of communication network is the number of connections in the social network reported as a fraction of the total links possible in the personal (ego-centric) network. Average frequency of communication (or meeting) measures how often network members communicate (or meet) each other. The association of each social network measure with BMI was investigated by multiple linear regression analysis.

Results

After adjusting for potential confounders, the men with lower density (<0.71) and higher network size (4-6) had the higher BMI (β=1.089, p=0.037) compared to the men with higher density (>0.83) and lower size (1-2), but not in the women (p=0.393). The lowest tertile of communication frequency was associated with higher BMI in the women (β=0.885, p=0.049), but not in the men (p=0.140).

Conclusions

Our study suggests that social network structure (network size and density) and activation (communication frequency and meeting frequency) are associated with obesity among the elderly. There may also be gender differences in this association.

Summary

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Special Article
Noncommunicable Diseases: Current Status of Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Korea
Hyeon Chang Kim, Sun Min Oh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):165-172.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.165
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AbstractAbstract PDF

A noncommunicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is by definition non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. Currently, NCDs are the leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. The four main types of NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes, result in more than 30 million deaths annually. To reduce the burden of NCDs on global health, current public health actions stress the importance of preventing, detecting, and correcting modifiable risk factors; controlling major modifiable risk factors has been shown to effectively reduce NCD mortality. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs. Accordingly, the present report set out to review the prevalence and trends of these modifiable risk factors in the Korean population. Over the past few decades, we observed significant risk factor modifications of improved blood pressure control and decreased smoking rate. However, hypertension and cigarette smoking remained the most contributable factors of NCDs in the Korean population. Moreover, other major modifiable risk factors show no improvement or even worsened. The current status and trends in major modifiable risk factors reinforce the importance of prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors in reducing the burden of NCDs on individuals and society.

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Original Articles
Association Between Serum Uric Acid Level and Metabolic Syndrome
Ju-Mi Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hye Min Cho, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(3):181-187.   Published online May 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.3.181
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Serum uric acid levels have been reported to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular conditions. However, the direct association between uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome remains controversial. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome in a community-based cohort study in Korea.

Methods

We performed cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of 889 males and 1491 females (aged 38 to 87) who participated in baseline examinations of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study: Kanghwa study. Blood samples were collected after at least an 8 hour fast. Uric acid quartiles were defined as follows: <4.8, 4.8-<5.6, 5.6-<6.5, ≥6.5 mg/dL in males; and <3.8, 3.8-<4.3, 4.3-<5.1, ≥5.1 mg/dL in females. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Criteria with adjusted waist circumference cutoffs (90 cm for males; 80 cm for females). The association between serum uric acid quartiles and metabolic syndrome was assessed using multivariate logistic regression.

Results

The odds ratio for having metabolic syndrome in the highest versus lowest quartiles of serum uric acid levels was 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 4.46) in males and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.50 to 3.05) in females after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, total cholesterol, HbA1c, albumin, γ-glutamyltransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and log C-reactive protein. The number of metabolic abnormalities also increased gradually with increasing serum uric acid levels (adjusted p for trend < 0.001 in both sexes).

Conclusions

Higher serum uric acid levels are positively associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean males and females.

Summary

Citations

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The Association Between Serum Albumin Levels and Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Population of Korea
Hye Min Cho, Hyeon Chang Kim, Ju-Mi Lee, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(2):98-104.   Published online March 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.2.98
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

A positive association between serum albumin levels and metabolic syndrome has been reported in observation studies, but it has not been established in the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between serum albumin levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome among a sample of apparently healthy Korean adults.

Methods

This cross-sectional study analyzed data of 3189 community-dwelling people (1189 men and 2000 women) who were aged 40 to 87 years and were living in a rural area in Korea. Serum albumin levels were classified into quartile groups for each sex. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines with an adjusted waist circumference cut-off value (≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women). An independent association between serum albumin levels and metabolic syndrome was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results

Higher serum albumin levels were associated with increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome for the highest versus the lowest serum albumin quartiles was 2.81 (1.91 to 4.14) in men and 1.96 (1.52 to 2.52) in women, after adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. When each metabolic abnormality was analyzed separately, higher serum albumin levels were significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia in both sexes, and with abdominal obesity in men.

Conclusions

These results suggest that higher serum albumin levels are positively associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

Summary

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Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Association Between Meat Consumption and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Korean Adults with Metabolic Syndrome.
Sun Min Oh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Hye Jin Chi, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(6):486-495.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.6.486
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The effect of meat consumption on cardiometabolic risk has been continuously studied, but their associations are not conclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of meat or red meat and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy Korean adults. METHODS: This study evaluated 2374 community-dwelling adults (933 men and 1441 women) who were free of cardiovascular disease or cancer, living in a rural area in Korea. Total meat and red meat intakes were assessed with a validated 103 item-food frequency questionnaire. Carotid IMT was evaluated ultrasonographically, IMTmax was defined as the highest value among IMT of bilateral common carotid arteries. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the mean IMTmax tended to increase in higher meat consumption groups in both men and women with metabolic syndrome (p for trend= 0.027 and 0.049, respectively), but not in participants without metabolic syndrome. Frequent meat consumption (> or =5 servings/week) was significantly associated with higher IMTmax in men with metabolic syndrome (by 0.08 mm, p=0.015). Whereas, the association was not significant in women (by 0.05 mm, p=0.115). Similar but attenuated findings were shown with red meat intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a higher meat consumption may be associated with a higher carotid IMT in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. The frequent meat consumption (> or =5 servings/week), compared with the others, was associated with a higher carotid IMTmax only in men with metabolic syndrome. Further research is required to explore optimal meat consumption in people with specific medical conditions.
Summary

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Evaluation Studies
C-reactive Protein and Carotid Intima-media Thickness in a Population of Middle-aged Koreans.
Mina Suh, Joo Young Lee, Song Vogue Ahn, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(1):29-34.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.1.29
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and carotid intima-media thickness (carotid IMT) in a population of middle-aged Koreans. METHODS: A total of 1,054 men and 1,595 women (aged 40-70 years) from Kanghwa County, Korea, were chosen for the present study between 2006 and 2007. We measured high-sensitivity CRP and other major cardiovascular risk factors including anthropometrics, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and carotid ultrasonography. Health related questionnaires were also completed by each study participant. Carotid IMT value was determined by the maximal IMT at each common carotid artery. The relationship between CRP level and carotid IMT was assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression models after adjustment for age, body mass index, menopause (women), systolic blood pressure, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglyceride level, fasting glucose, smoking, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Mean carotid IMT values from the lowest to highest quartile of CRP were 0.828, 0.873, 0.898, and 0.926 mm for women (p for trend<0.001), and 0.929, 0.938, 0.949, and 0.979 mm for men (p for trend=0.032), respectively. After adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship between CRP and carotid IMT was significant in women (p for trend=0.017), but not in men (p for trend=0.798). Similarly, adjusted odds ratio of increased IMT, defined as the sex-specific top quartile, for the highest versus lowest CRP quartiles was 1.55 (95% CI=1.06-2.26) in women, but only 1.05 (95% CI=0.69-1.62) in men. CONCLUSIONS: CRP and carotid IMT levels appear to be directly related in women, but not in men.
Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health