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Predictors and Prevalence of Alcohol and Cannabis Co-use Among Filipino Adolescents: Evidence From a School-based Student Health Survey
Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi, Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III, Jerico B. Ogaya, Victor C. Cañezo Jr., Roland A. Niez, Florante E. Delos Santos, Melchor M. Magramo, Ann Rosanie Yap-Tan, Francis Ann R. Sy, Omar Kasimieh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):288-297.   Published online May 9, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.052
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
This study explored the prevalence and predictors of alcohol and cannabis co-use among 9263 Filipino adolescents, using data from the 2019 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS).
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the GSHS, targeting adolescents aged 13-17 years and excluding cases with incomplete data on alcohol and cannabis use. Our analysis employed the bivariate chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression using Stata version 18 to identify significant predictors of co-use, with a p-value threshold set at 0.05.
Results
The weighted prevalence of co-users was 4.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 5.3). Significant predictors included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.50; 95% CI, 3.31 to 6.10; p<0.001) and being in a lower academic year, specifically grade 7 (aOR, 4.08; 95% CI, 2.39 to 6.99; p<0.001) and grade 8 (aOR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.72; p=0.003). Poor sleep quality was also a significant predictor (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.44; p<0.001), as was a history of attempted suicide (aOR, 5.31; 95% CI, 4.00 to 7.06; p<0.001). Physical inactivity was associated with lower odds of co-use (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.62; p<0.001). Additionally, non-attendance of physical education classes (aOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.05; p=0.021), infrequent unapproved parental checks (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.80; p=0.024), and lower parental awareness of free-time activities (aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.87; p=0.005) were associated with higher odds of co-use. Factors not significantly linked to co-use included age group, being in grade 9, always feeling lonely, having no close friends, being bullied outside school, and whether a parent or guardian understood the adolescent’s worries.
Conclusions
The findings highlight the critical need for comprehensive interventions in the Philippines, addressing not only physical inactivity and parental monitoring but also focusing on sex, academic grade, participation in physical education classes, sleep quality, and suicide attempt history, to effectively reduce alcohol and cannabis co-use among adolescents.
Summary
Key Message
This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence and key predictors of alcohol and cannabis co-use among 9263 Filipino adolescents using data from the 2019 Global School-based Student Health Survey. Significant predictors of co-use include male sex, lower academic grade, poor sleep quality, history of attempted suicide, physical inactivity, non-attendance in physical education classes, infrequent parental checks, and low parental awareness of adolescents' activities, with a weighted co-use prevalence of 4.2%. The study underscores the need for comprehensive interventions addressing these factors to reduce substance co-use among Filipino adolescents.
Changes in Adolescent Health Behavior and the Exacerbation of Economic Hardship During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study From the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Chaeeun Kim, Haeun Lee, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):18-27.   Published online November 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.306
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study investigated the association between exacerbated economic hardship during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and changes in the health behaviors of Korean adolescents.
Methods
We analyzed data from the 2021 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 44 908 students (22 823 boys and 22 085 girls) as study subjects. The dependent variables included changes in health behaviors (breakfast habits, physical activity, and alcohol use) that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aggravation of economic hardship by COVID-19 and the subjective economic status of the family were used as exposure variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was utilized to calculate the prevalence odds ratios (PORs).
Results
Severe exacerbation of a family’s economic hardship due to COVID-19 was negatively associated with the health behaviors of adolescents, including increased breakfast skipping (POR, 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 2.21 for boys and POR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.92 for girls) and decreased physical activity (POR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.57 for boys and POR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.60 for girls). These negative changes in health behaviors were further amplified when combined with a low subjective family economic status.
Conclusions
The experience of worsening household hardship can lead to negative changes in health behavior among adolescents. It is crucial to implement measures that address the economic challenges that arise from stressful events such as COVID-19 and to strive to improve the lifestyles of adolescents under such circumstances.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 코로나바이러스감염증-19 (COVID-19) 대유행 기간 악화된 가구의 경제적 상황과 청소년의 건강 행태 변화의 관련성을 청소년건강행태조사를 이용하여 분석하였다. 가구의 경제적 상황이 COVID-19로 인해 심각하게 악화된 경우, 청소년 건강 행태의 부정적인 변화와 연관성이 관찰되었다. 가구의 경제적 상황이 악화되는 경험은 청소년들의 건강 행태에 부정적인 변화를 초래할 수 있다. COVID-19와 같은 사회적 사건으로 인해 발생하는 경제적 어려움에 대응하는 조치를 마련하고, 이러한 상황에서 청소년들의 건강 행태를 개선하기 위한 개입이 필요하다.
Key Message
This study investigated the association between exacerbated economic hardship during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and changes in the health behaviors of Korean adolescents using the 2021 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Severe exacerbation of a family’s economic hardship due to COVID-19 was negatively associated with the health behaviors of adolescents. The experience of worsening household hardship can lead to negative changes in health behavior among adolescents. It is crucial to implement measures that address the economic challenges that arise from stressful events such as COVID-19 and to strive to improve the lifestyles of adolescents under such circumstances.
Association Between Low Muscle Mass and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Diagnosed Using Ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Derived Proton Density Fat Fraction, and Comprehensive NAFLD Score in Korea
Hun Ju Lee, Jae Seung Chang, Jhii Hyun Ahn, Moon Young Kim, Kyu-Sang Park, Yeon-Soon Ahn, Sang Baek Koh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(6):412-421.   Published online October 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.387
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  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disease. Muscle is known to influence NAFLD development. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationships among low muscle mass, NAFLD, and hepatic fibrosis using various definitions of low muscle mass and NAFLD diagnostic methods, including magnetic resonance imaging-based proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF).
Methods
This cross-sectional study included 320 participants (107 males, 213 females) from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population cohort. Muscle mass was assessed using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and adjusted for the height squared, body weight, and body mass index (BMI). NAFLD was diagnosed using ultrasonography (US), MRI-PDFF, and the comprehensive NAFLD score (CNS). Hepatic fibrosis was assessed using magnetic resonance elastography. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to determine the aforementioned associations.
Results
According to US, 183 participants (57.2%) had NAFLD. Muscle mass adjusted for body weight was associated with NAFLD diagnosed using US (odds ratio [OR], 3.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70 to 5.31), MRI-PDFF (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.53), and CNS (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.73 to 6.65) and hepatic fibrosis (males: β=-0.070, p<0.01; females: β=-0.037, p<0.04). Muscle mass adjusted for BMI was associated with NAFLD diagnosed by US (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.86) and CNS (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.65), whereas muscle mass adjusted for height was not associated with NAFLD.
Conclusions
Low muscle mass was associated with NAFLD and liver fibrosis; therefore, maintaining sufficient muscle mass is important to prevent NAFLD. A prospective study and additional consideration of muscle quality are needed to strengthen the findings regarding this association.
Summary
Korean summary
비알콜성 간질환은 대사질환 중 하나로 적은 근육양과의 연관성이 지속적으로 제시되었으나, 기존 연구들에서 일관되지 않은 결과를 보여주었다. KoGES-ARIRANG 코호트의 320명을 대상으로 초음파·MRI-PDFF·CNS 진단기준을 사용하여 단면연구를 수행한 결과, 세 진단기준에서 모두 적은 근육량과 비알콜성 간질환 사이에 연관성이 나타났다.

Citations

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  • Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Defining Components in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Varies According to the Method of Assessment and Adjustment: Findings from the UK Biobank
    Christine L. Freer, Elena S. George, Sze-Yen Tan, Gavin Abbott, David Scott, Robin M. Daly
    Calcified Tissue International.2024; 114(6): 592.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and outcome of sarcopenia in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Suprabhat Giri, Prajna Anirvan, Sumaswi Angadi, Ankita Singh, Anurag Lavekar
    World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between Regional Body Muscle Mass and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Observational Study Using Data from the REACTION Study
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    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 13(2): 209.     CrossRef
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    JMIR Formative Research.2023; 7: e42087.     CrossRef
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Age-period-cohort Analysis of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Using the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan
Tasuku Okui
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(6):409-418.   Published online August 13, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.159
  • 8,422 View
  • 218 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study conducted an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of trends in healthy lifestyle behaviors in Japan.
Methods
We used National Health and Nutrition Survey data on salt intake and prevalence of smoking, drinking, and physical activity between 1995 and 2018 in Japan. Age groups were defined from 20 years to 69 years old in 10-year increments. Cohorts were defined for each age group of each year with a 1-year shift, and cohorts born in 1926-1935 (first cohort) until 1989-1998 (last cohort) were examined. We conducted a Bayesian APC analysis, calculating estimated values for each behavior by age group, period, and cohort.
Results
Estimated salt intake decreased from cohorts born in the 1930s to the 1960s, but increased thereafter in both genders, and the magnitude of increase was larger for men. Estimated smoking prevalence increased in the cohorts starting from the 1930s for men and the 1940s for women, and then decreased starting in the cohorts born in the 1970s for both genders. Although estimated drinking prevalence decreased starting in the cohorts born in approximately 1960 for men, for women it increased until the cohorts born in approximately 1970. Estimated physical activity prevalence decreased starting in the cohorts born in the 1940s in both genders, but the magnitude of decrease was larger for women.
Conclusions
Trends in cohort effects differed by gender, which might be related to changes in the social environment for women. Improvements in dietary and exercise habits are required in more recently born cohorts of both genders.
Summary

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  • Old story, new twist: reducing salt and increasing potassium intake as a social issue according to the INTERMAP Japan
    Junichi Yatabe, Kazuya Ishida, Midori Sasaki Yatabe
    Hypertension Research.2023; 46(2): 526.     CrossRef
  • Subtype prevalence and baseline visual acuity by age in Japanese patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration
    Tomoko Sawada, Tsutomu Yasukawa, Hiroko Imaizumi, Hisashi Matsubara, Kazuhiro Kimura, Hiroto Terasaki, Hiroto Ishikawa, Tomoya Murakami, Masaru Takeuchi, Yoshinori Mitamura, Yutaro Mizusawa, Yoshihiro Takamura, Toshinori Murata, Jiro Kogo, Masahito Ohji
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  • Age, Period, and Cohort Analysis of Smoking Intensity Among Current Smokers in Malaysia, 1996–2015
    Chien Huey Teh, Sanjay Rampal, Kuang Hock Lim, Omar Azahadi, Aris Tahir
    Nicotine and Tobacco Research.2023; 25(7): 1340.     CrossRef
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    Ruiqing Li, Jinyi Sun, Tong Wang, Lihong Huang, Shuwen Wang, Panglin Sun, Chuanhua Yu
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(16): 10302.     CrossRef
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    Takehiro Sugiyama, Nayu Ikeda, Kazuko Minowa, Nobuo Nishi
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    Tasuku Okui
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Tasuku Okui
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2021; 33(1): 46.     CrossRef
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    Tasuku Okui
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Relationship Between Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Decreased Bone Mineral Density: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Korea
Jisun Sung, Seungho Ryu, Yun-Mi Song, Hae-Kwan Cheong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(5):342-352.   Published online July 17, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.089
  • 3,754 View
  • 141 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was associated with incident bone mineral density (BMD) decrease.
Methods
This study included 4536 subjects with normal BMD at baseline. NAFLD was defined as the presence of fatty liver on abdominal ultrasonography without significant alcohol consumption or other causes. Decreased BMD was defined as a diagnosis of osteopenia, osteoporosis, or BMD below the expected range for the patient’s age based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio of incident BMD decrease in subjects with or without NAFLD. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to the relevant factors.
Results
Across 13 354 person-years of total follow-up, decreased BMD was observed in 606 subjects, corresponding to an incidence of 45.4 cases per 1000 person-years (median follow-up duration, 2.1 years). In the model adjusted for age and sex, the hazard ratio was 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.82), and statistical significance disappeared after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and cardiometabolic factors. In the subgroup analyses, NAFLD was associated with a lower risk of incident BMD decrease in females even after adjustment for confounders. The direction of the effect of NAFLD on the risk of BMD decrease changed depending on BMI category and body fat percentage, although the impact was statistically insignificant.
Conclusions
NAFLD had a significant protective effect on BMD in females. However, the effects may vary depending on BMI category or body fat percentage.
Summary

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  • Association between body fat and bone mineral density in Korean adults: a cohort study
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  • Liver fibrosis is associated with impaired bone mineralization and microstructure in obese individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Ilaria Barchetta, Carla Lubrano, Flavia Agata Cimini, Sara Dule, Giulia Passarella, Arianna Dellanno, Alberto Di Biasio, Frida Leonetti, Gianfranco Silecchia, Andrea Lenzi, Maria Gisella Cavallo
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    Oxana M. Drapkina, Anastasia Yu. Elkina, Anna F. Sheptulina, Anton R. Kiselev
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    Ying‐Hao Su, Kuo‐Liong Chien, Shu‐Hua Yang, Wei‐Tso Chia, Jen‐Hau Chen, Yen‐Ching Chen
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.2023; 38(8): 1092.     CrossRef
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    Marina V. Maevskaya, Yulia V. Kotovskaya, Vladimir T. Ivashkin, Olga N. Tkacheva, Ekaterina A. Troshina, Marina V. Shestakova, Valeriy V. Breder, Natalia I. Geyvandova, Vladimir L. Doshchitsin, Ekaterina N. Dudinskaya, Ekaterina V. Ershova, Khava B. Kodzo
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    Ilias D. Vachliotis, Athanasios D. Anastasilakis, Antonis Goulas, Dimitrios G. Goulis, Stergios A. Polyzos
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(9): 1702.     CrossRef
  • Hepatic fibrosis is associated with an increased rate of decline in bone mineral density in men with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Ji Won Yoon, Min Joo Kim, Goh-Eun Chung, Jong In Yang, Jeong Yoon Yim, Jin Ju Kim, Sun Mie Kim, Min-Sun Kwak
    Hepatology International.2021; 15(6): 1347.     CrossRef
  • NAFLD Associated Comorbidity
    L. B. Lazebnik, S. V. Turkina
    Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology.2021; (10): 5.     CrossRef
Comparison of Computed Tomography-based Abdominal Adiposity Indexes as Predictors of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Middle-aged Korean Men and Women
Jongmin Baek, Sun Jae Jung, Jee-Seon Shim, Yong Woo Jeon, Eunsun Seo, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(4):256-265.   Published online June 18, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.140
  • 4,961 View
  • 164 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
We compared the associations of 3 computed tomography (CT)-based abdominal adiposity indexes with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among middle-aged Korean men and women.
Methods
The participants were 1366 men and 2480 women community-dwellers aged 30-64 years. Three abdominal adiposity indexes—visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR)—were calculated from abdominal CT scans. NAFLD was determined by calculating the Liver Fat Score from comorbidities and blood tests. An NAFLD prediction model that included waist circumference (WC) as a measure of abdominal adiposity was designated as the base model, to which VFA, SFA, and VSR were added in turn. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were calculated to quantify the additional predictive value of VFA, SFA, and VSR relative to WC.
Results
VFA and VSR were positively associated with NAFLD in both genders. SFA was not significantly associated with NAFLD in men, but it was negatively associated in women. When VFA, SFA, and VSR were added to the WC-based NAFLD prediction model, the AUC improved by 0.013 (p<0.001), 0.001 (p=0.434), and 0.009 (p=0.007) in men and by 0.044 (p<0.001), 0.017 (p<0.001), and 0.046 (p<0.001) in women, respectively. The IDI and NRI were increased the most by VFA in men and VSR in women.
Conclusions
Using CT-based abdominal adiposity indexes in addition to WC may improve the detection of NAFLD. The best predictive indicators were VFA in men and VSR in women.
Summary

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    Ker Ming Seaw, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Xinyan Bi
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Interactions of Behavioral Changes in Smoking, High-risk Drinking, and Weight Gain in a Population of 7.2 Million in Korea
Yeon-Yong Kim, Hee-Jin Kang, Seongjun Ha, Jong Heon Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(4):234-241.   Published online July 3, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.290
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  • 164 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
To identify simultaneous behavioral changes in alcohol consumption, smoking, and weight using a fixed-effect model and to characterize their associations with disease status.
Methods
This study included 7 000 529 individuals who participated in the national biennial health-screening program every 2 years from 2009 to 2016 and were aged 40 or more. We reconstructed the data into an individual-level panel dataset with 4 waves. We used a fixed-effect model for smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, and overweight. The independent variables were sex, age, lifestyle factors, insurance contribution, employment status, and disease status.
Results
Becoming a high-risk drinker and losing weight were associated with initiation or resumption of smoking. Initiation or resumption of smoking and weight gain were associated with non-high-risk drinkers becoming high-risk drinkers. Smoking cessation and becoming a high-risk drinker were associated with normal-weight participants becoming overweight. Participants with newly acquired diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer tended to stop smoking, discontinue high-risk drinking, and return to a normal weight.
Conclusions
These results obtained using a large-scale population-based database documented interactions among lifestyle factors over time.
Summary
Korean summary
이 분석은 흡연, 음주, 체중의 동시적 변화에 대해 패널분석방법론인 고정효과 모형을 이용하여 분석하였으며, 2009년부터 2016년까지 2년 주기로 4차례 모두 건강검진을 수검받은 720만 명을 대상으로 하였다. 흡연, 음주, 체중의 동시적 변화에 대한 방향성을 탐색하여 생활습관 관련 행태가 독자적이 아닌 유기적으로 변화하는 양상을 확인하였다, 또한 당뇨병, 뇌졸중, 암이 신규로 진단되었을 때 행태 변화가 나타나는 것을 확인하였다.

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  • Association between Body Mass Index and Risk of Gastric Cancer by Anatomic and Histologic Subtypes in Over 500,000 East and Southeast Asian Cohort Participants
    Jieun Jang, Sangjun Lee, Kwang-Pil Ko, Sarah K. Abe, Md. Shafiur Rahman, Eiko Saito, Md. Rashedul Islam, Norie Sawada, Xiao-Ou Shu, Woon-Puay Koh, Atsuko Sadakane, Ichiro Tsuji, Jeongseon Kim, Isao Oze, Chisato Nagata, Shoichiro Tsugane, Hui Cai, Jian-Min
    Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.2022; 31(9): 1727.     CrossRef
Perceptions About Alcohol Harm and Alcohol-control Strategies Among People With High Risk of Alcohol Consumption in Alberta, Canada and Queensland, Australia
Diana C. Sanchez-Ramirez, Richard C. Franklin, Donald Voaklander
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(1):41-50.   Published online December 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.112
  • 7,358 View
  • 204 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To explore alcohol perceptions and their association hazardous alcohol use in the populations of Alberta, Canada and Queensland, Australia.
Methods
Data from 2500 participants of the 2013 Alberta Survey and the 2013 Queensland Social Survey was analyzed. Regression analyses were used to explore the association between alcohol perceptions and its association with hazardous alcohol use.
Results
Greater hazardous alcohol use was found in Queenslanders than Albertans (p<0.001). Overall, people with hazardous alcohol were less likely to believe that alcohol use contributes to health problems (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 0.78; p<0.01) and to a higher risk of injuries (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.90; p<0.05). Albertans with hazardous alcohol use were less likely to believe that alcohol contributes to health problems (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.92; p<0.05) and were also less likely to choose a highly effective strategy as the best way for the government to reduce alcohol problems (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.91; p=0.01). Queenslanders with hazardous alcohol use were less likely to believe that alcohol was a major contributor to injury (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.77; p<0.01).
Conclusions
Our results suggest that people with hazardous alcohol use tend to underestimate the negative effect of alcohol consumption on health and its contribution to injuries. In addition, Albertans with hazardous alcohol use were less in favor of strategies considered highly effective to reduce alcohol harm, probably because they perceive them as a potential threat to their own alcohol consumption. These findings represent valuable sources of information for local health authorities and policymakers when designing suitable strategies to target alcohol-related problems.
Summary

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    Amy E. Peden, Richard C. Franklin, Peter A. Leggat
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Hazardous Alcohol Use in 2 Countries: A Comparison Between Alberta, Canada and Queensland, Australia
Diana C. Sanchez-Ramirez, Richard Franklin, Donald Voaklander
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(5):311-319.   Published online July 14, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.040
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This article aimed to compare alcohol consumption between the populations of Queensland in Australia and Alberta in Canada. Furthermore, the associations between greater alcohol consumption and socio-demographic characteristics were explored in each population. Methods: Data from 2500 participants of the 2013 Alberta Survey and the 2013 Queensland Social Survey were analyzed. Regression analyses were used to explore the associations between alcohol risk and socio-demographic characteristics. Results: A higher rate of hazardous alcohol use was found in Queenslanders than in Albertans. In both Albertans and Queenslanders, hazardous alcohol use was associated with being between 18 and 24 years of age. Higher income, having no religion, living alone, and being born in Canada were also associated with alcohol risk in Albertans; while in Queenslanders, hazardous alcohol use was also associated with common-law marital status. In addition, hazardous alcohol use was lower among respondents with a non-Catholic or Protestant religious affiliation. Conclusions: Younger age was associated with greater hazardous alcohol use in both populations. In addition, different socio-demographic factors were associated with hazardous alcohol use in each of the populations studied. Our results allowed us to identify the socio-demographic profiles associated with hazardous alcohol use in Alberta and Queensland. These profiles constitute valuable sources of information for local health authorities and policymakers when designing suitable preventive strategies targeting hazardous alcohol use. Overall, the present study highlights the importance of analyzing the socio-demographic factors associated with alcohol consumption in population-specific contexts.
Summary

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    Mansoor Kodori, Sajjad Khosravi, Nadia Oroomiei, Maryam Abdoli, Morteza Ali Moradi, Tahereh Fani, Leili Abedi Gheshlaghi
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    Ching-Yen Chen, Chen-Chun Lin, Jung-Ta Kao, Wen-Ling Yeh, Chiao-Yun Lin, Yun-Fang Tsai
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    Behrad Pourmohammadi, Moahammad Ali Jalilvand
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Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Suicidal Behavior: Findings From the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2007–2011)
Hong-Chul Bae, Seri Hong, Sung-In Jang, Kwang-Sig Lee, Eun-Cheol Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(3):142-150.   Published online May 21, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.027
  • 10,505 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between suicidal behavior and patterns of alcohol consumption in Korean adults.
Methods
This study was based on data provided by the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey from 2007 to 2011. A total of 42 347 subjects were included in the study, of whom 19 292 were male and 23 055 were female. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between patterns of alcohol consumption and suicidal behavior.
Results
Among the study subjects, 1426 males (11.3%) and 3599 females (21.2%) had experienced suicidal ideation, and 106 males (0.8%) and 190 females (1.1%) had attempted suicide during the previous 12 months. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were found to be associated with suicidal ideation in males and associated with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in females. Alcoholic blackouts were associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in males, and were also associated with suicidal ideation in females.
Conclusions
In this study, we found that certain patterns of alcohol consumption were associated with suicidal behaviors. In particular, only alcoholic blackouts and categorized AUDIT scores were found to be associated with suicidal behavior in males. We therefore suggest that further research is needed to examine this relationship prospectively and in other settings.
Summary

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Review
Alcohol as a Risk Factor for Cancer: Existing Evidence in a Global Perspective
Nina Roswall, Elisabete Weiderpass
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(1):1-9.   Published online January 27, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.052
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of the present review is to give an overview of the association between alcohol intake and the risk of developing cancer. Two large-scale expert reports; the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) report from 2007, including its continuous update project, and the International Agency for Research of Cancer (IARC) monograph from 2012 have extensively reviewed this association in the last decade. We summarize and compare their findings, as well as relate these to the public health impact, with a particular focus on region-specific drinking patterns and disease tendencies. Our findings show that alcohol intake is strongly linked to the risk of developing cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, colorectum (in men), and female breast. The two expert reports diverge on the evidence for an association with liver cancer and colorectal cancer in women, which the IARC grades as convincing, but the WCRF/AICR as probable. Despite these discrepancies, there does, however, not seem to be any doubt, that the Population Attributable Fraction of alcohol in relation to cancer is large. As alcohol intake varies largely worldwide, so does, however, also the Population Attributable Fractions, ranging from 10% in Europe to almost 0% in countries where alcohol use is banned. Given the World Health Organization’s prediction, that alcohol intake is increasing, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and steadily high in high-income countries, the need for preventive efforts to curb the number of alcohol-related cancers seems growing, as well as the need for taking a region- and gender-specific approach in both future campaigns as well as future research. The review acknowledges the potential beneficial effects of small doses of alcohol in relation to ischaemic heart disease, but a discussion of this lies without the scope of the present study.
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Original Articles
Associations Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Healthy Lifestyles in Korean Adults: The Result of the 2010 Community Health Survey
So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Seong Woo Choi, Mi Ah Han
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(2):113-123.   Published online March 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.2.113
  • 11,913 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Several previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors.

Methods

We analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifestyle as a combination of four modifiable healthy behaviors: non-smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular walking, and a healthy weight. We calculated the prevalence rates and odds ratios of each healthy behavior and healthy lifestyle according to socio-demographic and regional characteristics.

Results

The prevalence rates were as follows: non-smoking, 75.0% (53.7% in men, 96.6% in women); moderate alcohol consumption, 88.2% (79.7% in men, 96.9% in women); regular walking, 45.0% (46.2% in men, 43.8% in women); healthy weight, 77.4% (71.3% in men, 73.6% in women); and a healthy lifestyle, 25.5% (16.4% in men, 34.6% in women). The characteristics associated with a low prevalence of healthy lifestyle were male gender, younger age (19 to 44 years of age), low educational attainment, married, living in a rural area, living in the Chungcheong, Youngnam, or Gwangwon-Jeju region, and poorer self-rated health.

Conclusions

Further research should be implemented to explore the explainable factors of disparities for socio-demographic and regional characteristics to engage in the healthy lifestyle among adults.

Summary

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Drinking Patterns Among Korean Adults: Results of the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey
So Yeon Ryu, Catherine M. Crespi, Annette E. Maxwell
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):183-191.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.183
  • 10,140 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

In Korea, the proportion of deaths due to alcohol is estimated at 8.9%, far exceeding the global estimate of 3.8%. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the factors associated with low-risk, moderate-risk, and high-risk drinking patterns in Korean adults and to identify target populations for prevention and control of alcohol-related diseases and deaths.

Methods

We analyzed data from 230 715 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between socio-demographic and health-related factors and patterns of alcohol use.

Results

A substantially larger proportion of men than women engaged in high risk (21.2% vs. 3.4%) and moderate-risk alcohol use (15.5% vs. 8.2%). In both sexes, moderate- and high-risk uses were associated with younger age, higher income, being currently employed, smoking, being overweight/obese, and good self-rated health.

Conclusions

Given the large proportion of the population that is engaging in moderate- and high-risk drinking and given the social norms that support this behavior, public health policies and campaigns to reduce alcohol consumption targeting the entire population are indicated.

Summary

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Special Article
Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases and National Strategies to Control Them in Korea
Young-Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(4):155-164.   Published online July 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.4.155
Correction in: J Prev Med Public Health 2013;46(5):292
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AbstractAbstract PDF

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the most important causes of premature mortality and disability-adjusted life years in Korea. NCDs are also the main contributor to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and life expectancy. Reduction of NCDs and NCD inequalities would result in significant improvement in healthy life expectancy and health equity in Korea. Major NCD risk factors such as dietary risks (including salt intake), alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and high blood pressure were found to be the leading modifiable risk factors of disability-adjusted life years in Korea, based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Several Korean studies have shown that these risk factors play an important role in creating socioeconomic inequalities in NCD mortality and total mortality. Current international discussions on NCD policies in the United Nations and the World Health Organization would provide better opportunities for developing aggressive population-wide policy measures in Korea. Considering the paucity of population-wide policies to control major NCD risk factors in Korea, rigorous population approaches such as taxation and regulation of unhealthy commodities as well as public education and mass campaigns should be further developed in Korea.

Summary

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Original Article
Alcohol Consumption and Mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort Study
En-Joo Jung, Aesun Shin, Sue K. Park, Seung-Hyun Ma, In-Seong Cho, Boyoung Park, Eun-Ha Lee, Soung-Hoon Chang, Hai-Rim Shin, Daehee Kang, Keun-Young Yoo
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.5.301
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

To examine the association between alcohol consumption habit, types of beverages, alcohol consumption quantity, and overall and cancer-specific mortality among Korean adults.

Methods

The alcohol consumption information of a total of 16 320 participants who were 20 years or older from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort were analyzed to examine the association between alcohol consumption habit and mortality (median follow-up of 9.3 years). The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of alcohol consumption to mortality adjusting for age, sex, geographic areas, education, smoking status, and body mass index.

Results

Alcohol drinkers showed an increased risk for total mortality compared with never drinkers (HR, 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.14 for past drinkers; HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.39 for current drinkers), while past drinkers only were associated with higher risk for cancer deaths (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.53). The quantity of alcohol consumed per week showed a J-shaped association with risk of mortality. Relative to light drinkers (0.01 to 90 g/wk), never drinkers and heavy drinkers (>504 g/wk) had an increased risk for all-cause and cancer deaths: (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.45) and (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.83) for all-cause mortality; and (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.11) and (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.39 to 3.09) for all cancer mortality, respectively. Heavy drinkers (>504 g/wk) showed an elevated risk for death from stomach and liver cancers.

Conclusions

The present study supports the existence of a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption quantity and the risk of all-cause and cancer deaths. Heavy drinkers had an increased risk of death from cancer overall and liver and stomach cancer.

Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health